Portland, Maine


Portland, Maine
City of Portland
—  City  —
Aerial view of Downtown Portland

Flag

Seal
Nickname(s): The Forest City
Motto: Resurgam  (Latin)
"I Will Rise Again"
Coordinates: 43°39′54″N 70°16′9″W / 43.665°N 70.26917°W / 43.665; -70.26917Coordinates: 43°39′54″N 70°16′9″W / 43.665°N 70.26917°W / 43.665; -70.26917
Country United States
State Maine
County Cumberland
Settled 1633
Incorporated July 4, 1786
Government
 – Type City Council and City Manager
 – City Manager Mark Rees
Area
 – City 52.6 sq mi (136.2 km2)
 – Land 21.2 sq mi (54.9 km2)
 – Water 31.4 sq mi (81.2 km2)
Elevation 62 ft (19 m)
Population (2010)
 – City 66,194
 – Density 3,029.2/sq mi (1,169.6/km2)
 – Urban 188,080
 – Metro 516,826
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 – Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 04101, 04102, 04103, 04104, 04108, 04109, 04112, 04116, 04122, 04123, 04124
Area code(s) 207
FIPS code 23-60545
GNIS feature ID 0573692
Airport Portland International Jetport – PWM (State/Regional)
Website http://www.portlandmaine.gov/

Portland is the largest city in Maine and is the county seat of Cumberland County.[1] The 2010 city population was 66,194,[2] growing 3 percent since the census of 2000. With a metro population of over 500,000, the Greater Portland area is home to more than one-third of Maine's total population.

Tourists visit Portland's historic Old Port district along Portland Harbor, at the mouth of the Fore River and part of Casco Bay, and the Arts District, which runs along Congress Street in the center of the city. Portland Head Light is located in nearby Cape Elizabeth and marks the entrance to Portland Harbor.

The city seal depicts a phoenix rising from ashes, which aligns with the city's motto, Resurgam, Latin for "I will rise again." The motto refers to Portland's recoveries from four devastating fires.[3] The city of Portland, Oregon was named for Portland, Maine.[4]

Portland Public Schools is the largest school system in Maine, serving approximately 7,000 students.

Contents

History

Gun recovered from USS Maine on Munjoy Hill

Native Americans originally named Portland Machigonne. The first European settler was Capt. Christopher Levett, an English naval captain granted 6,000 acres (24 km2) by King Charles I of England in 1623 to found a settlement in Casco Bay. A member of the Council for New England and agent for Ferdinando Gorges, Levett built a stone house where he left a company of ten men, then returned to England and wrote a book about his voyage to drum up support for the settlement.[5] The settlement failed, and the fate of Levett's colonists is unknown. The explorer sailed from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony to meet John Winthrop in 1630, but never returned to Maine. Fort Levett in the harbor is named for him.[6][7]

The peninsula was first permanently settled in 1633 as a fishing and trading village named Casco. When the Massachusetts Bay Colony took over Casco Bay in 1658, the town's name changed again to Falmouth. In 1676, the village was destroyed by the Wampanoag during King Philip's War. It was rebuilt. During King William's War, a raiding party of French and Native allies attacked and largely destroyed it again in 1690. On October 18, 1775, Falmouth was burned in the Revolution by the Royal Navy under command of Captain Henry Mowat.[8]

Longfellow Square in c. 1906

Following the war, a section of Falmouth called The Neck developed as a commercial port and began to grow rapidly as a shipping center. In 1786, the citizens of Falmouth formed a separate town in Falmouth Neck and named it Portland, after the isle off the coast of Dorset, England.[9] Portland's economy was greatly stressed by the Embargo Act of 1807 (prohibition of trade with the British), which ended in 1809, and the War of 1812, which ended in 1815.

In 1820, Maine became a state and Portland was its capital. In 1832, the capital was moved to Augusta. In 1851, Maine led the nation by passing the first state law prohibiting the sale of alcohol except for "medicinal, mechanical or manufacturing purposes." The law subsequently became known as the Maine law, as 18 states quickly followed. On June 2, 1855, the Portland Rum Riot occurred.

On June 26th, 1863, a Confederate raiding party led by Captain Charles Read, entered the harbor at Portland and the Battle of Portland Harbor ensued, one of the northernmost battles of the Civil War. The 1866 Great Fire of Portland, Maine of July 4, 1866, ignited during the Independence Day celebration, destroyed most of the commercial buildings in the city, half the churches and hundreds of homes. More than 10,000 people were left homeless.

In 1853, upon completion of the Grand Trunk Railway to Montreal, Portland became the primary ice-free winter seaport for Canadian exports. The Portland Company manufactured more than 600 19th-century steam locomotives. Portland became a 20th-century rail hub as five additional rail lines merged into Portland Terminal Company in 1911. Following nationalization of the Grand Trunk system in 1923, Canadian export traffic was diverted from Portland to Halifax, Nova Scotia, causing marked local economic decline. In the 20th century, icebreakers later enabled ships to reach Montreal in winter, drastically reducing Portland's role as a winter port for Canada.


The erection of the Maine Mall, an indoor shopping center established in the suburb of South Portland during the 1970s, economically depressed downtown Portland. The trend reversed when tourists and new businesses started revitalizing the old seaport, locally known as the Old Port. Since the 1990s the historically industrial Bayside neighborhood saw rapid development. The emerging harborside Ocean Gateway neighborhood at the base of Munjoy Hill.[10][11][12] The Maine College of Art has been a revitalizing force downtown, attracting students from around the country. The historic Porteous building on Congress Street was restored by the College, in collaboration with Portland architect Richard Renner.

View of Portland harbor, 1853
A panoramic view of the City of Portland from across Back Cove.

Geography and climate

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 52.6 square miles (136 km2), of which 21.2 square miles (55 km2) is land, and 31.4 square miles (81 km2)(59.65%) is water. Portland is on a peninsula in Casco Bay on the Gulf of Maine and the Atlantic Ocean.

Portland borders South Portland, Westbrook and Falmouth. The city is located at 43.66713 N, 70.20717 W.

Portland has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb), with somewhat long, cold snowy winters, and warm summers. Monthly averages range from 21.7 °F (−5.7 °C) in January to 68.7 °F (20.4 °C) in July. The high exceeds 90 °F (32 °C) several days per year; lows of 0 °F (−18 °C) or below are reached approximately 10 times per year.[13] The area can be affected by severe nor'easters during winter, with high winds and snowfall totals. Precipitation averages 45.8 inches (1,160 mm) and is plentiful year-round, but with a slightly drier summer. Direct strikes by hurricanes or tropical storms are rare, due to the curvature of the southern Maine coast and the typical path of tropical systems north of 40 degrees latitude. Extremes range from −26 °F (−32 °C) to 103 °F (39 °C).[13]

Climate data for Portland, Maine
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 64
(18)
64
(18)
88
(31)
89
(32)
96
(36)
98
(37)
100
(38)
103
(39)
96
(36)
88
(31)
74
(23)
71
(22)
103
(39)
Average high °F (°C) 30.9
(−0.6)
34.1
(1.2)
42.2
(5.7)
52.8
(11.6)
63.3
(17.4)
72.8
(22.7)
78.8
(26.0)
77.3
(25.2)
68.9
(20.5)
57.9
(14.4)
47.1
(8.4)
36.4
(2.4)
55.2
Average low °F (°C) 12.5
(−10.8)
15.6
(−9.1)
25.2
(−3.8)
34.7
(1.5)
44.2
(6.8)
52.9
(11.6)
58.6
(14.8)
57.2
(14.0)
48.5
(9.2)
37.4
(3.0)
29.5
(−1.4)
18.7
(−7.4)
36.3
Record low °F (°C) −26
(−32)
−25
(−32)
−21
(−29)
8
(−13)
23
(−5)
33
(1)
40
(4)
33
(1)
23
(−5)
15
(−9)
3
(−16)
−21
(−29)
−26
(−32)
Precipitation inches (mm) 4.09
(103.9)
3.14
(79.8)
4.14
(105.2)
4.26
(108.2)
3.82
(97)
3.28
(83.3)
3.32
(84.3)
3.05
(77.5)
3.37
(85.6)
4.40
(111.8)
4.72
(119.9)
4.24
(107.7)
45.83
(1,164.1)
Snowfall inches (cm) 20.9
(53.1)
12.8
(32.5)
13.4
(34)
3.3
(8.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.1
(0.3)
3.2
(8.1)
13.6
(34.5)
67.3
(170.9)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 11.7 9.6 12.1 11.7 12.4 11.5 10.6 9.3 9.8 10.0 11.3 12.0 132
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 8.0 5.9 5.4 1.3 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 2.0 6.8 29.5
Source: NOAA [13]

Neighborhoods

Portland is organized into neighborhoods generally recognized by residents, but they have no legal or political authority. In many cases, city signage identifies various neighborhoods or intersections (which are often called corners). Most city neighborhoods have a local neighborhood association,[14] which usually maintains on-going relations of varying degrees with the City government on issues affecting the neighborhood.

On March 8, 1899, Portland annexed the neighboring city of Deering.[15] Deering neighborhoods now comprise the northern and eastern sections of the city prior to the merger. Portland's Deering High School was formerly the public high school for Deering.

Portland's neighborhoods include the Arts District, Bayside, Bradley's Corner, Cushing's Island, Deering Center, Deering Highlands, Downtown, East Deering, East Bayside, East End, Eastern Cemetery, Great Diamond Island, Highlands, Kennedy Park, Libbytown,[16] Little Diamond Island, Lunt's Corner, Morrill's Corner, Munjoy Hill, Nason's Corner, North Deering, Oakdale, the Old Port, Parkside, Peaks Island, Riverton Park, Rosemont, Stroudwater, the West End, and Woodford's Corner.

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1790 2,240
1800 3,704 65.4%
1810 7,169 93.5%
1820 8,581 19.7%
1830 12,598 46.8%
1840 15,218 20.8%
1850 20,815 36.8%
1860 26,341 26.5%
1870 31,413 19.3%
1880 33,810 7.6%
1890 36,425 7.7%
1900 50,145 37.7%
1910 58,571 16.8%
1920 69,272 18.3%
1930 70,810 2.2%
1940 73,643 4.0%
1950 77,634 5.4%
1960 72,566 −6.5%
1970 65,116 −10.3%
1980 61,572 −5.4%
1990 64,358 4.5%
2000 64,249 −0.2%
2010 66,194 3.0%
sources:[17]

According to the 2010 American Census Bureau Estimates, the city's population was 85.0% White (83.6% non-Hispanic White alone), 7.1% Black or African American, 0.9% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.5% Asian, 1.6% from some other race and 1.4% from two or more races. 3.0% of the total population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.[18] 40.7% of the population had a Bachelor's degree or higher.[19]

As of the census of 2000, there were 64,250 people, 29,714 households, and 13,549 families residing in the city.[20] The population density was 3,029.2 people per square mile (1,169.6/km²). There were 31,862 housing units at an average density of 1,502.2 per square mile (580.0/km²).

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Portland's immediate metropolitan area ranked 147th in the nation in 2000 with a population of 243,537, while the Portland/South Portland/Biddeford metropolitan area included 487,568 total inhabitants. This has increased to an estimated 513,102 inhabitants as of 2007.[21] Much of this increase in population has been due to growth in the city's southern and western suburbs.

The largest ancestries include: Irish (21.2%), English (19.2%), Italian (10.8%), French (10.5%), and German (6.9%).[22]

There were 29,714 households out of which 21.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.1% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 54.4% were non-families. 40.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.08 and the average family size was 2.89.

In the city the population was spread out with 18.8% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 36.1% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $35,650, and the median income for a family was $48,763. Males had a median income of $31,828 versus $27,173 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,698. About 9.7% of families and 14.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.5% of those under age 18 and 11.9% of those age 65 or over.

Economy

Portland has become Maine's economic capital because the city has Maine's largest port, largest population, and is close to Boston (115 miles to the south). Over the years, the local economy has shifted from fishing, manufacturing and agriculture towards a more service-based economy. Most national financial services organizations such as Bank of America, Key Bank, Fidelity Investments, Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, and Aetna base their Maine operations in Portland. Unum, TD Bank, Magellan Petroleum, Maine Bank & Trust, ImmuCell Corp, and Pioneer Telephone have headquarters here, and Portland's neighboring cities of South Portland, Westbrook and Scarborough, provide homes for other corporations. Since 1867, Burnham & Morrill Co., maker of B&M Baked Beans, has had its main plant in Portland. The plant is considered a local and state landmark.

Portland has a low unemployment level when compared to national and state averages, 6.8% in January 2011. Portland and surrounding communities also have higher median incomes than most other Maine communities.

Fishing vessels in c. 1908

The Portland-Montreal Pipe Line, a crude oil pipeline that stretches from South Portland to Montreal, was a major contributing factor in these rankings.

Portland is home to increased urban farming,[23] particularly in the East Bayside neighborhood.[24][25]

Government

City Hall in c. 1910

The city has adopted a council-manager style government that is detailed in the city charter. The citizens of Portland are represented by a nine member city council which makes policy, passes ordinances, approves appropriations, appoints the city manager and oversees the municipal government. The city council of nine members is elected by the citizens of Portland. The city has five voting districts, with each district electing a city councilor to represent their neighborhood interests for a three year term. There are also four members of the city council who are elected at-large.[26] From the nine council members a chairman is elected by a simple majority to serve a one year term presiding over all council meetings. The chairman is popularly known as the Mayor, which is primarily a ceremonial position. The current mayor is Nick Mavodones. On November 2, 2010, Portland voters narrowly approved a measure that allowed them to elect the mayor on November 8, 2011. Former state senator Michael F. Brennan was elected (see Portland, Maine mayoral election, 2011) and will be sworn into office December 5, 2011. The office of mayor will become a four-year paid position.[27]

A city manager is appointed by the city council. The city manager oversees the daily operations of the city government, appoints the heads of city departments, and prepares annual budgets. The city manager directs all city agencies and departments, and is responsible for the executing laws and policies passed by the city council.[26]

Aside from the main city council there is also an elected school board for the Portland Public School system. The school board is made up in the same manner of the city council with five district members, four at-large members and one chairman.[28] There are also three students from the local high schools elected to serve on the board. There are many other boards and committees such as the Planning Committee, Board of Appeals, and Harbor Commission, etc. These committees and boards have limited power in their respective areas of expertise. Members of boards and committees are appointed by city council members.

Voter registration

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of August 2011[29]
Party Total Voters Percentage
  Democratic 23,438 48.38%
  Unenrolled 15,320 31.62%
  Republican 7,220 14.90%
  Green Independent 2,459 5.07%
Total 48,437 100%

Education

Portland High School.
College of Pharmacy, University of New England.

See also

High schools

Colleges and universities

Culture

Maine Narrow Gauge Railroad

Sites of interest

The Arts District, centered on Congress Street, is home to the Portland Museum of Art, Portland Stage Company, Maine Historical Society & Museum, Maine College of Art, Children's Museum of Maine, SPACE Gallery, Merrill Auditorium, the Kotzschmar Memorial Organ, and Portland Symphony Orchestra, as well as many smaller art galleries and studios.

Baxter Boulevard around Back Cove, Deering Oaks Park, the Eastern Promenade, Western Promenade, Lincoln Park and Riverton Park are all historical parks within the city. Other parks and natural spaces include Payson Park, Post Office Park, Baxter Woods, Evergreen Cemetery, Western Cemetery and the Fore River Sanctuary. The non-profit organization Portland Trails maintains an extensive network of walking and hiking trails throughout the city and neighboring communities.

Other sites of interest include:

Media

WCSH is the city's NBC affiliate, located at One Congress Square.

Portland is home to a concentration of publishing and broadcast companies, advertising agencies, web designers, commercial photography studios and film makers.

The city is home to two daily newspapers, The Portland Press Herald/Maine Sunday Telegram founded in 1862 and The Portland Daily Sun. The Press Herald is published Monday through Saturday, and The Maine Sunday Telegram, is published on Sundays. Both are published by MaineToday Media, Inc., which also operates an entertainment website, MaineToday.com and owns papers in Augusta, Waterville and Bath. The Daily Sun began operation in 2009; it is owned and published by the The Conway Daily Sun in North Conway, New Hampshire.

Portland is also covered by an alternative weekly newspaper, The Portland Phoenix, published by the Phoenix Media/Communications Group, which also produces a New England-wide news, arts, and entertainment website, thephoenix.com, and a twice-annual GLBT issues magazine, "Out In Maine".

There is a weekly community newspaper, The Portland Forecaster, and The Bollard, a monthly alternative magazine, as well as The West End News, The Munjoy Hill Observer, The Baysider, The Waterfront, Portland Magazine, and The Companion, an LGBT publication. Portland is also the home office of The Exception Magazine, an online newspaper that covers Maine.

The Portland broadcast media market is the largest one in Maine in both radio and television. A whole host of radio options are available in Portland, including WFNK (Classic Hits), WJJB (Sports), WTHT (Country), WBQW (Classical), WHXR (Rock), WHOM (Adult Contemporary), WJBQ (Top 40), WCLZ (Adult Album Alternative), WBLM (Classic Rock), WYNZ ('60s-'70s Hits), and WCYY (Modern rock). WMPG is a local non-commercial radio station, run by community members and the University of Southern Maine. The Maine Public Broadcasting Network's radio news operations are based in Portland.

The area is served by local television stations representing most of the television networks. These stations include WCSH 6 (NBC), WMTW 8 (ABC), WGME 13 (CBS), WPFO 23 (Fox), WPME 35 (MyNetworkTV), and WPXT 51 (The CW). There is no PBS affiliate licensed to the city of Portland but the market is served by WCBB Channel 10 in Augusta and WMEA-TV Channel 26 Biddeford.

Channel Call Sign Network
6 WCSH NBC
8 WMTW ABC
10 WCBB PBS
13 WGME CBS
23 WPFO Fox
26 WMEA-TV PBS
35 WPME MyNetworkTV
51 WPXT The CW

Movies filmed in Portland

Sports

Club League Venue Established Championships
Portland Sea Dogs EL, Baseball Hadlock Field 1994 1
Portland Pirates AHL, Ice hockey Cumberland County Civic Center 1993 1
Portland Phoenix FC USL PDL, Soccer Memorial Stadium 2009 0
Maine Red Claws NBA D-League, Basketball Portland Exposition Building 2009 0
Portland Sea Dogs in May 2007, with the Portland Exposition Building in the background

The city is home to three minor-league teams. The AA Portland Sea Dogs, a farm team of the Boston Red Sox, play at Hadlock Field. Additionally, there are the American Hockey League Portland Pirates. Skating at the Cumberland County Civic Center, they are an affiliate of the Phoenix Coyotes. In 2009, the Maine Red Claws began playing at the Portland Exposition Building. The Red Claws are part of the NBA Development League, and are affiliated with the Boston Celtics and the Charlotte Bobcats of the NBA.

The Portland Sports Complex, located off of Park and Brighton Avenues near I-295 and Deering Oaks park, houses several of the city's stadiums and arenas, including:

  • Hadlock Field - baseball (Capacity 7,368)
  • Fitzpatrick Stadium - football, soccer, lacrosse, field hockey, and outdoor track (Capacity 6,000+ seated)
  • Portland Exposition Building - basketball, indoor track, concerts and trade shows (Capacity 2,000)
  • Portland Ice Arena - hockey and figure skating (Capacity 400)

The Portland area has eleven professional golf courses, 124 tennis courts, and 95 playgrounds. There are also over 100 miles (160 km) of nature trails.

Portland hosts the Maine Marathon each October.

Memorial Stadium is the home of the Deering High School sports teams and is located behind the school.

Food and beverage

Portland hosts many internationally renowned bars, taverns and restaurants. The downtown area, including the Arts District and the Old Port have a high concentration of eating and drinking establishments, with many more to be found throughout the rest of the peninsula, outlying neighborhoods, and neighboring communities.

Local lore holds that Portland ranks among the top U.S. cities in restaurants and bars per capita. According to the Maine Restaurant Association, Portland is currently home to about 230 restaurants. Many of these institutions cater to niche markets in the culinary world, perhaps most notably the harvest of local sea cucumbers that are primarily exported to Asian markets.[30]

Portland has developed a national reputation for the quality of its restaurants and eateries. In 2009, Portland was named the "Foodiest Small Town in America" by Bon Appétit magazine, and was featured in the New York Times as a food destination.[31][1]

In the spring of 2007, Portland was nominated as one of three finalists for "Delicious Destination of the Year" at the 2007 Food Network Awards.[32]

Many local chefs have gained national attention over the past few years.[33][34][35]

The city and outlying region played host to Rachael Ray in an episode of her Food Network Series $40 a Day, and was also featured in the Travel Channel series Man v. Food and Anthony Bourdain: No Reservations in 2010.

Portland is home to a number of microbreweries and brewpubs, including the D. L. Geary Brewing Company, Gritty McDuff's Brewing Company, Shipyard Brewing Company, Casco Bay Brewing Co., Sebago Brewing Company, and Allagash Brewing Company. The breweries are popular tourism locations due to the presence of on-site bars for tasting the final product.

Portland is the birthplace of the "Italian sandwich". Southern Maine's signature sandwich, it is called simply "an Italian" by locals. Italian sandwiches are available at many stores, but most famously at Amato's Italian delicatessens, which claims to have originated the sandwich (hence the name). [2]

Some of the most loved and famous food haunts of locals include the famous Becky's Diner on historical Commercial Street (Portland, Maine), both Hot Suppa! and King of the Roll on Congress Street, Aurora Provisions on Pine Street, and the Great Lost Bear on Forest Avenue.

The Portland Farmers' Market, which has been in continuous operation since 1768, takes place every Monday and Wednesday in Monument Square and every Saturday in Deering Oaks Park during the warm months and every Saturday indoors during the winter. Fresh fish and seafood can be purchased at a number of markets on the wharves along Commercial Street, and numerous artisan bread makers bake fresh loaves every day.

Appreciation for sustainable food and farming gained a significant boost throughout the state in the 1970s when back-to-the-landers moved to Maine in droves. With them came the resurgence of farmers' markets (including the expansion of the Portland market), a significant organic farming movement and an increased interested in plant-based cuisine.[36] The echoes of this movement continue in Portland, where restaurants emphasize local and organic food and where the state's greatest concentration of vegetarian and vegetarian-friendly restaurants can be found.

Portland hosts a number of food and beverage festivals, including:

  • Festival of Nations
  • Greek Festival
  • Harvest on the Harbor
  • Italian Heritage Festival
  • Maine Brewers Festival
  • Maine Vegetarian & Vegan Food Festival
  • Taste of the Nation

Infrastructure

Hospitals

Maine Medical Center and a jetBlue airliner, viewed from the South Portland side of the Portland International Jetport, 2009.

Maine Medical Center a Level One Trauma Center is the largest hospital in Maine and is continuing to expand its campus and services. Mercy Hospital, a faith-based hospital, is the fourth-largest hospital in the state and began construction on its new campus along the Fore River in late 2006. The project is expected to be constructed in several phases, with completion of the first phase scheduled for 2008. [3]

The formerly independent Brighton Medical Center (once known as the Osteopathic Hospital) is now owned by Maine Medical Center and is operated as a minor care center under the name Brighton First Care and New England Rehab. In 2010, Maine Medical Center's Hannaford Center for Safety, Innovation and Simulation opened at the Brighton campus. [4] The former Portland General Hospital is now home to the Barron Center nursing facility.

Transportation

Portland from above, looking north along I-295
A Pan Am Railways freight train passing through Portland.

Portland is accessible from I-95.svg I-95 (the Maine Turnpike), I-295.svg I-295, and US 1.svg U.S. 1. Also, US 302.svg U.S. Route 302, a major travel route and scenic highway between Maine and Vermont, has its eastern terminus in Portland.

Concord Coach Lines bus service connects Portland to 14 other communities in Maine as well as to Boston's South Station and Logan Airport. Amtrak's Downeaster train service connects the city with Boston's North Station. Both Concord Coach Lines and the Downeaster can be found at the Portland Transportation Center on Thompsons Point Road, in Portland's Libbytown neighborhood.[16] Greyhound Lines on Saint John Street connects to 17 Maine communities and to more than 3,600 U.S. destinations.

A carsharing service provided by U Car Share is available.

The city operates several transportation hubs. In addition to the transportation center, commercial air service is available at the Portland International Jetport, located in Stroudwater west of the city's downtown district. Several car rental agencies are located at the jetport.

The Port of Portland is the second-largest cruise and passenger destination in the state (next to Bar Harbor), and is served by the Ocean Gateway International Marine Passenger Terminal. Ferry service is available year-round to many destinations in Casco Bay. From 2006 to 2009, Bay Ferries operated a high speed ferry called The Cat featuring a five hour trip to Yarmouth, Nova Scotia for summer passengers and cars. Before that, the Scotia Prince Cruises trip took 11 hours. As of 2010, no replacement for the two defunct Nova Scotia ferry services has been announced.

There are two public bus systems in Portland. The Portland Explorer is a service that connects various transportation centers within the city and the METRO provides public bus transit throughout Portland and the surrounding area. South Portland's municipal bus service connects with Portland's METRO service.

Numerous private taxi cab companies operate in and around Portland.

Notable buildings

Custom House, completed 1872

The spire of the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception has been a notable feature of the Portland skyline since its completion in 1854. In 1859, Ammi B. Young designed the Marine Hospital, the first of three local works by Supervising Architects of the U.S. Treasury Department. Although the city lost to redevelopment its 1867 Greek Revival post office, which was designed by Alfred B. Mullett of white Vermont marble and featured a Corinthian portico, Portland retains his equally monumental 1872 granite Second Empire–Renaissance Revival custom house.

A more recent building of note is Franklin Towers, a 17-story residential tower completed in 1969. At 204 feet (62.2 meters), it is Portland's (as well as Maine's) tallest building. It is next to the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception on the city skyline. During the building boom of the 1980s, several new buildings rose on the peninsula, including the 1983 Charles Shipman Payson Building by Henry N. Cobb of Pei, Cobb, Freed & Partners at the Portland Museum of Art complex (a component of which is the 1801 McLellan-Sweat Mansion), and the Back Bay Tower, a 15-story residential building completed in 1990.[37]

477 Congress Street (known locally as the Time and Temperature Building) is situated near Monument Square in the Arts District and is a major landmark: the 14-story building features a large electronic sign on its roof that flashes time and temperature data, as well as parking ban information in the winter. The sign can be seen from nearly all of downtown Portland. The building is home to the studio of ABC affiliate WMTW-TV 8, as well as several radio stations.

The Eastland Park Hotel, completed in 1927, is a prominent hotel located on High St. in downtown Portland. Photographer Todd Webb lived in Portland during his later years and took many pictures of the city.[38] Some of Webb's pictures of Portland can be found at the Evans Gallery in South Portland.[39]

Honors

Downtown Portland
  • Ranked as Bon Appétit magazine's "America's Foodiest Small Town" (2009).[40]
  • Ranked #1 on Forbes.com "America's Most Livable Cities" (2009).[41]
  • Ranked #12 on Frommer's 2007 "Top Travel Destinations".[42]
  • Ranked #20 in Inc. Magazine 2006 "Boom Town List of Hottest Cities for Entrepreneurs".
  • Named #15 in medium-sized "Top U.S. Cities for Doing Business" by Inc. Magazine, May 2005
  • Named #14 in "Best Performing Cities" index by the Milken Institute, November 2004.
  • Ranked #13 on Men's Health Magazine's list of America's 100 most "car crazed" cities.[43]
  • Ranked #20 on the list of Top 20 Best Small Cities for College Students by the American Institute for Economic Research.[44]
  • Named one of the "Coolest Small Cities in America" by GQ Magazine.[45]
  • Ranked as the third gayest city in the nation by UCLA's Williams Institute.[46]
  • Named Best Adventure Town in the East by Outside Magazine.[47]
  • Ranked fourth on Sperlings Best Places list for America's Foodie Cities! [48]

Sister cities

Portland has four sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International (SCI):

See also

References

General
Specific
  1. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  2. ^ Census 2010 News | U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Maine's 2010 Census Population Totals, Including First Look at Race and Hispanic Origin Data for Legislative Redistricting
  3. ^ http://www.mainehistory.org/pdf/Falmouth_Fire.pdf
  4. ^ "Portland: The Town that was Almost Boston". Portland Oregon Visitors Association. http://www.travelportland.com/media/history.html. Retrieved 2006-11-18. 
  5. ^ Christopher Levett, of York: The Pioneer Colonist in Casco Bay, James Baxter Phinney,1893
  6. ^ The Maine Reader: The Down East Experience from 1614 to the Present, Charles E. Shain, 1997
  7. ^ Christopher Levett: The First Owner of the Soil of Portland, Collections of the Maine Historical Society, 1893
  8. ^ "Jedediah Preble letter on Mowat kidnapping, 1775". http://www.mainememory.net/bin/Detail?ln=7479. Retrieved 2007-04-01. 
  9. ^ Coolidge, A.J. and J.B. Mansfeld. 1859. A History and Description of New England, General and Local. Boston: Austin J. Coolidge, p. 301.
  10. ^ "Bayside is a journey of many 'next steps'". Portland Press Herald (Blethen Maine Newspapers, Inc.). 2006-10-16. http://business.mainetoday.com/news/061016bayside.html. Retrieved 2006-11-13. 
  11. ^ Bouchard, Kelley (2006-10-06). "Riverwalk: Parking garage due to rise; luxury condos to follow". Portland Press Herald (Blethen Maine Newspapers, Inc.). http://pressherald.mainetoday.com/news/local/061006riverwalk.html. Retrieved 2006-11-13. 
  12. ^ Turkel, Tux (2007-02-06). "An urban vision rises in Bayside". Portland Press Herald (Blethen Maine Newspapers, Inc.). http://business.mainetoday.com/news/070206bayside.html. Retrieved 2007-02-27. 
  13. ^ a b c "NCDC: US Climate Normals". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://cdo.ncdc.noaa.gov/climatenormals/clim20/me/176905.pdf. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  14. ^ Portland Neighborhood Associations
  15. ^ "Shall We Tax the Hunters?". Lewiston Evening Journal (Google News Archive): p. 2. February 2, 1899. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=ZMIgAAAAIBAJ&sjid=fmoFAAAAIBAJ&pg=926,2137056&dq=portland+deering&hl=en. 
  16. ^ a b Deans, Emma (8 July 2010). "Welcome to Nowhere | Reconnecting an amputated neighborhood". The Bollard. http://www.thebollard.com/bollard/?p=7612. Retrieved 12 July 2010. 
  17. ^ "Minor Civil Division Population Search Results". University of Maine. http://www.library.umaine.edu/census/townsearch.asp. Retrieved 2010-04-03.  accessed April 2010
  18. ^ "Portland city, Maine". U. S. Census Bureau. 2007. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-context=adp&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&-ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_&-tree_id=3307&-redoLog=true&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=16000US2360545&-format=&-_lang=en. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 
  19. ^ "Portland city, Maine". U. S. Census Bureau. 2007. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=16000US2360545&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_DP3YR2&-context=adp&-ds_name=&-tree_id=3307&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-format=. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 
  20. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  21. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007 (CBSA-EST2007-01)" (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2008-03-27. Archived from the original on 2008-04-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20080403004148/http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/metro_general/2007/CBSA-EST2007-01.csv. Retrieved 2008-04-04. 
  22. ^ "Portland, Maine". City Data. 2010. http://www.city-data.com/city/Portland-Maine.html. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 
  23. ^ 36 Hours in Portland, Me. New York Times, August 19, 2010
  24. ^ Sustainability Initiatives in East Bayside Neighborhood, Portland, Maine New England Environmental Finance Center, Muskie School, University of Southern Maine, May 15, 2010
  25. ^ Portland warehouse gets new life as urban farm, fermentory Portland Forecaster, September 7, 2010
  26. ^ a b © Copyrighted
  27. ^ Portland Elected Mayor Measure Passes
  28. ^ Copyrighted
  29. ^ "Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of August, 2011". Maine Bureau of Corporations. http://www.maine.gov/sos/cec/elec/2011/20110817r-e-active.pdf. 
  30. ^ Huang, Josie (2007-04-23). "Portland diners keep fast-food urges under control". Portland Press Herald (Blethen Maine Newspapers, Inc.). http://pressherald.mainetoday.com/news/local/070423fastfood.html. Retrieved 2007-04-23. 
  31. ^ Goad, Meredith (2009-09-18). "A second course of food glory". Portland Press Herald. http://pressherald.mainetoday.com/story.php?id=284061&ac=PHnws. Retrieved 2009-09-25. 
  32. ^ Goad, Meredith (2007-04-16). "Portland has taste of food fame, but the other Portland is served". Portland Press Herald (Blethen Maine Newspapers, Inc.). http://pressherald.mainetoday.com/news/local/070416delicious.html. Retrieved 2007-04-16. 
  33. ^ Goad, Meredith (2007-04-05). "Food could put Portland on the map". Portland Press Herald (Blethen Maine Newspapers, Inc.). http://pressherald.mainetoday.com/news/local/070405food.html. Retrieved 2007-04-05. 
  34. ^ Goad, Meredith (2007-04-11). "Where chefs come to shine". Portland Press Herald (Blethen Maine Newspapers, Inc.). http://pressherald.mainetoday.com/foodhealth/soup2nuts/070411soupnuts.html. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 
  35. ^ First, Devra (2008-02-13). "James Beard Awards: and the nominees might be". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/lifestyle/food/dishing/2008/02/james_beard_awa.html. 
  36. ^ Kamila, Avery Yale (2009-08-19). "Veteran plant-eater happily endorses veggie chic". Portland Press Herald (MaineToday Media, Inc.). http://www.pressherald.com/archive/veteran-plant-eater-happily-endorses-veggie-chic_2009-08-18.html. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  37. ^ CB Richard Ellis/The Boulos Company. "Greater Portland Area 2006 Office Market Survey" (PDF). http://www.cbre.com/NR/rdonlyres/3CB731EA-C269-11D5-A91D-00508B5B0FEB/328757/PortlandMarketSurvey2006.pdf. Retrieved August 10, 2006. 
  38. ^ Bob Keyes (April 4, 2010). "THAT '70S SHOW: A new photography exhibition offers a look back at a very different Portland". Maine Sunday Telegram. http://www.pressherald.com/life/audience/that-70s-show_2010-04-04.html. Retrieved 2010-10-10. "“Seeing Portland” focuses on the work of photographers from the 1970s and early ’80s, including “Splendid Restaurant, Congress Street, Portland, 8/20/76” by Todd Webb. The show opens Saturday at Zero Station in Portland. ... The exhibition brings together the work of several accomplished photographers. In addition to Graham, photographers with work in the show include Tom Brennan, C.C. Church, Rose Marasco, Joe Muir, Mark Rockwood, Jeff Stevensen, Jay York and Todd Webb." 
  39. ^ Bob Keyes (May 30, 2010). "Photographer's estate updates, improves website". Maine Sunday Telegram. http://www.pressherald.com/life/audience/arts-dispatches_2010-05-30.html. Retrieved 2010-10-10. "The estate of Todd Webb announced a recent refurbishment of its website, toddwebbphotographs.com." 
  40. ^ "America's Foodiest Small Town". http://www.bonappetit.com/magazine/2009/10/americas_foodiest_small_town_2009. 
  41. ^ "America's Most Livable Cities". Forbes. 2009-04-01. http://www.forbes.com/2009/04/01/cities-city-ten-lifestyle-real-estate-livable-cities.html. Retrieved 2009-04-07. 
  42. ^ "Frommer's Top Travel Destinations for 2007". Frommer's (Wiley Publishing, Inc.). 2006-11-21. http://www.frommers.com/destinations/article.cfm?destid=362&articleid=4056&t=Frommer%27s%20Top%20Travel%20Destinations%20for%202007. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  43. ^ America's Most Car-Crazed Cities
  44. ^ Quimby, Beth (10 September 2010). "Portland joins list of top college cities". Portland Press Herald. http://www.pressherald.com/news/portland-joins-list-of-top-college-cities_2010-09-10.html. Retrieved 10 September 2010. 
  45. ^ "The Coolest Small Cities in America". GQ. http://www.gq.com/food-travel/travel-features/201011/coolest-small-cities-in-america#slide=7. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  46. ^ "Yep, We’re Gay! Study Finds Portland (Maine!) Third Gayest City". LiveWorkPortland. 25 July 2010. http://www.liveworkportland.org/2010/07/25/yep-were-gay-study-finds-portland-maine-third-gayest-city/. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  47. ^ Portland, Maine: Best. City. Ever. | MNN - Mother Nature Network
  48. ^ America’s Top Foodie Cities – Portland is #4! | There's nowhere quite like downtown Portland
  49. ^ Japan index of Sister Cities International retrieved on December 9, 2008

Further reading

  • Michael C. Connolly. Seated by the Sea: The Maritime History of Portland, Maine, and Its Irish Longshoremen (University Press of Florida; 2010) 280 pages; Focuses on the years 1880 to 1923 in a study of how an influx of Irish immigrant workers transformed the city's waterfront.

External links



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