Flight of the Earls
::"Not to be confused with the
Flight of the Wild Geese."The Flight of the Earls ( _ga. Teitheadh na nIarlaí) refers to the departure from Ireland on 14 September 1607of Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyroneand Rory O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell.
Background to the Exile
After their defeat at the
Battle of Kinsalein 1601, and the suppression of the Nine Years' War in Ulsterin 1603, Tyrone and the Prince of Tyrconnell, Lord Tyrconnell's elder brother and predecessor, had been forced into exile in January 1602 by the victorious English government of Ireland under the leadership of the Lord Mountjoy. They retained their lands and titles, although with much diminished extent and authority. However, the countryside was laid bare in a campaign of destruction in 1602, and induced famine in 1603, in the same way that O'Neill had devastated Munster in 1600. O'Neill surrendered on favourable terms at Mellifontjust as Queen Elizabeth was dying, and submitted to the crown.
When King James I took the throne in 1603 he quickly proceeded to issue pardons for the Irish lords and their rebel forces. As king of
Scotlandhe had a better understanding of the advantages of working with local chiefs in the Scottish Highlands. However, as in other Irish lordships, the 1603 peace involved O'Neill losing substantial areas of land to his cousins and neighbours, who would be granted freeholds under the English system, instead of the looser arrangements under the former Brehon lawsystem. This was not a new policy but was a well-understood and longstanding practice in the Tudor Reconquest of Ireland.
On 10 September 1602 the Prince of Tyrconnell had already died, allegedly assassinated, in Spain, and his brother succeeded him as 25th Chieftain of the O'Donnell clan. He was later granted the Earldom of Tyrconnell by King James I on 4 September 1603, and restored to a somewhat diminished scale of territories in
Tyrconnellon 10 February 1604.
In 1605 the new
Lord Deputy of Ireland, Sir Arthur Chichester, began to encroach on the former freedoms of the two Earls and The Maguire, enforcing the new freeholds, especially that granted in North Ulster to the O Catháin chief. The O Catháins had formerly been subject to the O'Neills and required protection; in turn, Chichester wanted to reduce O'Neill's authority. An option was to charge O'Neill with treason if he did not comply with the new arrangements. The discovery of the Gunpowder Plotin the same year made it harder for Catholics to appear loyal to both the crown and the papacy. As the Dublin administration sided with O Cathain, O'Neill was invited by King James to make his case in 1607 to the Privy Council in London, which he never did.
By 1607 O'Neill's allies The Maguire and the Earl of Tyrconnell were finding it hard to maintain their prestige on lower incomes. They planned to seek Spanish support before news of the Battle of Gibraltar arrived. When their ship dropped anchor, O'Neill seems to have joined them on impulse. He had three choices:
* Flee with his friends and hope for a reinvasion by Spain
* Go to London and stay at court until his grievances were redressed
* Do nothing and live on a reduced income as a large landowner in Ulster.
Fearing arrest, they chose to flee to the Continent, where they hoped to recruit an army for the invasion of Ireland with Spanish help. However, earlier in 1607 the Spanish fleet had been destroyed by the Dutch in the
Battle of Gibraltar. Also as the Anglo–Spanish War (1585)had ended in 1604, King Philip III of Spain wanted to preserve the recent peace with England under its new Stuart dynasty. As a part of the peace proposals, a Spanish princess was to marry James' son Henry, though this never transpired. Tyrone ignored all these realities, remained in Italy, and persisted with his invasion plan until his death in exile in 1616.
End of the Old Gaelic Order
The Flight of the Earls was the departure of Aodh Uî Neill (Hugh O’Neill) and Rudhraighe Ó Domhnaill (Rory O’Donnell), who left Ireland to secure more military help from Spain. They left from the town Rathmullan in Lough Swilly on a French ship with some of the leading Gaelic families in Ulster. This town was said to have witnessed the end of the old Gaelic order, in the sense that the earls were descended from Gaelic clan dynasties that had ruled their parts of Ulster for centuries. The first O'Neill king of Uladh (Ulster) had been proclaimed in 1364, but by then the dynasty had ruled much of Ulster from 300AD or earlier.
The Earls set sail from
Rathmullan, a village on the shore of Lough Swillyin County Donegal, accompanied by ninety followers, many of them Ulsternoblemen, and some members of their families. Several left their wives behind, hoping either to return or retrieve them later. The late Tomas Cardinal O’Fiaich, Archbishop of Armagh, gave a lecture at Rathmullan in September 1988, recounted with his permission and that of the Donegal Historical Society in O’Domhnaill Abu, issue no. 11, of Summer 1989, in which he recounted that the Earl of Tyrone allegedly: “"had a gold cross which contained a relic of the True Cross, and this he trailed in the water behind the ship, and according to O’Ciainain, it gave some relief from the storm"”, during the crossing to Quilleboeuf; they finally reached the Continent on 4 October 1607. The significance of this act is also underlined by the fact that the date of the exile from Rathmullan was the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross. This supposed relic of the True Cross was probably a minor relic from that kept at Holy Cross Abbeywhich they had previously visited en route to Kinsalein 1601.
Their destination was
Spain, but they disembarked in Franceand proceeded overland to Spanish Flanders, some remaining in Leuven, whilst the main party continued to Italy. They planned to return to Irelandand campaign for the recovery of their lands, with the support of Spain, but both died in exile.
The Flight of the Earls was a watershed in Irish history, as the ancient Gaelic
aristocracyof Ulster went in to permanent exile. Despite their attachment to and importance in the Gaelic system, the Earls' ancestors had also accepted their Earldoms from the English-run Kingdom of Irelandin the 1540s, under the policy of surrender and regrant. Some historians argue that their flight was forced upon them by the fallout from the Tudor re-conquest of Ireland, others that it was a strategic mistake that cleared the way for the Plantation of Ulster.
Meanwhile their titles were attainted in 1614, although they continued to be recognised on the Continent. It can be noted that the attainder of these titles in 1614 – six years after Earl of Tyrconnell’s death in Rome in 1608 – can hardly have been considered legitimate, at least in continental Catholic countries of the day. Even within the context of English and its colonial Irish rule, the attainder came about six years after Rory, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, had already died. As accused, for him to have been properly tried, he should have been tried by his peers in the
Peerage of Ireland, under the presiding authority of the Lord High Steward of Ireland. However, he was already dead, unable to stand in his own defence, and his title already inherited by his son Hugh “Albert” O'Donnell, therefore in order to attaint the title, the trial would have to have been of Hugh “Albert”, who had in fact committed no crime. Under English legal theory the title had potentially lapsed as soon as he embarked on the ship without permission to leave Ireland.
The attainder was therefore considered by his supporters as a travesty of justice and was considered null and void by many on the Continent. The Earl of Tyrconnell's son, Hugh “Albert” O'Donnell's succession as 2nd Earl of Tyrconnell (1st creation) was therefore recognized as valid abroad, not least in the Spanish realm.
These attainders had a much greater impact on the people of Ulster. The 1603 peace arrangement with the three lords was ended, as they had broken its conditions by leaving the kingdom without permission, and their remaining freehold lands were confiscated. Chichester proposed a new plantation of settlers from England, Wales and Scotland, sponsored in part by the City of London merchants, which became known as the
Plantation of Ulster. This had an enormous negative impact on the lower class Gaelic-culture inhabitants of Ulster, an outcome that is still overlooked.
Change in Spanish policy
Papal Bullof 1555, the Pope had conferred the title King of Irelandon King Philip II of Spainwhen he was married to Queen Mary. Philip II made no claim to the kingship of Ireland after Mary's death in 1558. He engaged in a lengthy war from 1585 with her sister Queen Elizabeth I, and had supported the Irish Catholic rebels up to the siege of Kinsale in 1601 at great expense but without success. He had been offered the kingship in 1595 by O'Neill and his allies, but turned it down. Given this lengthy support it was reasonable for Tyrconnell and Tyrone to try to solicit help from his heir Philip III, but Spanish policy was to maintain its recent (1604) peace with England, and its European fleet had anyway been destroyed by the Dutch earlier in 1607. There are two possibilities at the time of the Flight;
* either the earls did not know that Spain was unable and unwilling to help, or
* they did know, and deceived their followers into thinking that a Spanish invasion would arrive within months.
Commemoration on the 400th Anniversary
The 400th anniversary of the Flight of the Earls was marked on 14 September 2007, throughout Donegal, including with a regatta of tall ships, fireworks, lectures, and conferences. There is a permanent exhibition dedicated to the Flight of the Earls and the subsequent Plantation in
Draperstownin Northern Irelandand at the "Flight of the Earls Centre" in the Martello Towerat Rathmullan.
In 2008 there were also celebrations to mark the 400th anniversary of the arrival of the Earls in
Rome. [ [http://www.zenit.org/rssenglish-22643 Irish Get Special Place for Corpus Christi Events] , Zenit, 21 May 2008]
*"The Flight of the Earls, An Illustrated History, 2007, by Dr.John McCavitt FRHistS.
*"The Life of Hugh Roe O'Donnell, Prince of Tyrconnell (Beatha Aodh Rua O Domhnaill)" by
Lughaidh O'Cleirigh. Edited by Paul Walsh and Colm Ó Lochlainn. Irish Texts Society, vol. 42. Dublin: Educational Company of Ireland, 1948 (original Gaelic manuscript in the Royal Irish Academy in Dublin).
*"Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland (Annála Ríoghachta Éireann) by the Four Masters", from the earliest period to the year 1616, compiled during the period 1632-1636 by Brother Michael O’Clery, translated and edited by John O'Donovan in 1856, and re-published in 1998 by De Burca, Dublin.
*"Blood Royal - From the time of Alexander the Great to Queen Elizabeth II", by
Charles Mosley (genealogist), published for Ruvigny Ltd., London, 2002 [ISBN 0-9524229-9-9]
*"The Fighting Prince of Donegal", A Walt Disney Film, made in 1966 about the life of Prince Red Hugh O’Donnell (i.e. Hugh Roe), starring Peter McEnery, Susan Hampshire, Gordon Jackson, and Andrew Keir.
*"Vicissitudes of Families", by Sir Bernard Burke, Ulster King of Arms, published by Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts, Paternoster Row, London, 1861. (Chapter on O’Donnells, pages 125-148).
*"The Fate and Fortunes of the Earls of Tyrone (Hugh O’Neill) and Tyrconnel (Rory O’Donel), their flight from Ireland and death in exile," by the Rev. C. P. Meehan, M.R.I.A., 2nd edition, James Duffy, London, 1870.
*"Erin’s Blood Royal – The Gaelic Noble Dynasties of Ireland", by Peter Berresford Ellis, Constable, London, 1999, (pages 251-258 on the O’Donel, Prince of Tirconnell).
*"Vanishing Kingdoms - The Irish Chiefs and Their Families", by Walter J. P. Curley (former US Ambassador to Ireland), with foreword by Charles Lysaght, published by The Lilliput Press, Dublin, 2004 [ISBN 1-84351-055-3 & ISBN 1-84351-056-1] . (Chapter on O'Donnell of Tyrconnell, page 59).
*A" View of the Legal Institutions, Honorary Hereditary Offices, and Feudal Baronies established in Ireland", by William Lynch, Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, published by Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, Paternoster Row, London, 1830 (O’Donnell: page 190, remainder to Earl’s patent).
Tudor re-conquest of Ireland
Contention of the bards
Tadhg Ó Cianáin
*"The Hunting of the Earl of Tyrone"
* [http://www.geocities.com/bruffsite/murals/index.html Mural depicting flight of the Earls in Bruff Co. Limerick]
* [http://www.flightoftheearls.ie/ 2007 - Donegal County Council/County Development Board - Yearlong Commemoration of Flight of the Earls (1607 - 2007)]
* [http://www.theflightoftheearls.net/ The Flight Of The Earls - By Dr John McCavitt FRHistS]
* [http://www.irelandseye.com/aarticles/history/events/dates/earls.shtm Information on the Flight of the Earls]
* [http://www.flightoftheearls.com Earls Heritage Centre, Rathmullan, County Donegal]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/plantation/planters/es02.shtml BBC History article]
* [http://www.nli.ie The National Library of Ireland's current exhibition, "Strangers to Citizens: the Irish in Europe, 1600-1800"]
* [http://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/multimedia/video/detail.html?siteSect=15045&sid=8867902 Swiss commemoration / short film; March, 2008]
* [http://www.ireland.com/focus/earls/ Irish Times articles on the flight, 2007]
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