Macrophage colony-stimulating factor

Colony stimulating factor 1 (macrophage)

PDB rendering based on 1hmc.
Symbols CSF1; MCSF; MGC31930
External IDs OMIM120420 MGI1339753 HomoloGene7282 GeneCards: CSF1 Gene
EC number
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CSF1 211839 s at tn.png
PBB GE CSF1 207082 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 1435 12977
Ensembl ENSG00000184371 ENSMUSG00000014599
UniProt P09603 Q3TDK0
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000757.4 NM_007778
RefSeq (protein) NP_000748.3 NP_031804
Location (UCSC) Chr 1:
110.45 – 110.47 Mb
Chr 3:
107.54 – 107.56 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Macrophage colony-stimulating factor, or M-CSF, is a secreted cytokine which influences hematopoietic stem cells to differentiate into macrophages or other related cell types. Eukaryotic cells also produce M-CSF in order to combat intercellular viral infection. (See colony-stimulating factor.) M-CSF binds to the Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor. It may also be involved in development of the placenta.[1]



It is a cytokine. The active form of the protein is found extracellularly as a disulfide-linked homodimer, and is thought to be produced by proteolytic cleavage of membrane-bound precursors.[1]

Four transcript variants encoding three different isoforms have been found for this gene. [1]


M-CSF (or CSF-1) is a hematopoietic growth factor that is involved in the proliferation, differentiation, and surival of monocytes, macrophages, and bone marrow progenitor cells.[2] Additionally, high levels of CSF-1 expression are observed in the endometrial epithelium of the pregnant uterus as well as high levels of its receptor CSF1R in the placental trophoblast. Studies have shown that activation of trophoblasitc CSF1R by local high levels of CSF-1 is essential for normal embryonic implantation and placental development. More recenlty, it was discovered that CSF-1 and its receptor CSF1R are implicated in the mammary gland during normal development and neoplastic growth. [3]


Macrophage colony-stimulating factor has been shown to interact with PIK3R2.[4]

Locally produced M-CSF in the vessel wall contributes to the development and progression of atherosclerosis (Rajavashisth et al


  1. ^ a b c "Entrez Gene: CSF1 colony stimulating factor 1 (macrophage)". 
  2. ^ Stanley ER, Berg KL, Einstein DB, Lee PS, Pixley FJ, Wang Y, Yeung YG (1997). "Biology and action of colony-stimulating factor-1". Mol. Reprod. Dev. 46 (1): 4–10. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2795(199701)46:1<4::AID-MRD2>3.0.CO;2-V. PMID 8981357. 
  3. ^ Sapi,E (Jan. 2004). "The role of CSF-1 in normal physiology of mammary gland and breast cancer: an update". Exp. Biol. Med. 229 (1): 1–11. PMID 14709771. 
  4. ^ Gout, I; Dhand R, Panayotou G, Fry M J, Hiles I, Otsu M, Waterfield M D (Dec. 1992). "Expression and characterization of the p85 subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex and a related p85 beta protein by using the baculovirus expression system". Biochem. J. (ENGLAND) 288 ( Pt 2): 395–405. ISSN 0264-6021. PMC 1132024. PMID 1334406. 

Further reading

Rajavashisth T, Qiao JH, Tripathi S, Tripathi J, Mishra N, Hua M, Wang XP, Loussararian A, Clinton S, Libby P, Lusis A. Heterozygous osteopetrotic (op) mutation reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor- deficient mice. J Clin Invest. 1998 Jun 15;101(12):2702-10.

External links

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