# Exotic probability

**Exotic probability**is a branch ofprobability theory that deals with probabilities which are outside the normal range of [0, 1] . The most common author of papers on exotic probability theory isSaul Youssef . According to Youssef, the valid possible alternatives for probability values are thereal number s, thecomplex number s and thequaternion s.Youssef also cites the work of

Richard Feynman ,P. A. M. Dirac ,Stanley Gudder andS. K. Srinivasan as relevant to exotic probability theories.Of the application of such theories to

quantum mechanics ,Bill Jefferys has said: ”Such approaches are also not necessary and in my opinion they confuse more than they illuminate.” [*http://www.lns.cornell.edu/spr/2002-03/msg0040195.html*]**External links*** http://physics.bu.edu/~youssef/quantum/quantum_refs.html

* [*http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/hep-th/0110253 Physics with exotic probability theory*] - paper by Youssef onarXiv .

* http://fnalpubs.fnal.gov/library/colloq/colloqyoussef.html

* [*http://flux.aps.org/meetings/YR97/BAPSAPR97/vpr/layn18-4.html Measuring Negative Probabilities, Demystifying Schroedinger's Cat and Exploring Other Quantum Peculiarities With Trapped Atoms*]

* [*http://www.mathpages.com/home/kmath309.htm MathPages - The Complex Domain of Probability*]

*Wikimedia Foundation.
2010.*

### Look at other dictionaries:

**List of probability topics**— This is a list of probability topics, by Wikipedia page. It overlaps with the (alphabetical) list of statistical topics. There are also the list of probabilists and list of statisticians.General aspects*Probability *Randomness, Pseudorandomness,… … Wikipedia**Negative probability**— In 1942, Paul Dirac wrote a paper The Physical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics [1] where he introduced the concept of negative energies and negative probabilities: Negative energies and probabilities should not be considered as nonsense. They … Wikipedia**Copula (probability theory)**— In probability theory and statistics, a copula can be used to describe the dependence between random variables. Copulas derive their name from linguistics. The cumulative distribution function of a random vector can be written in terms of… … Wikipedia**List of mathematics articles (E)**— NOTOC E E₇ E (mathematical constant) E function E₈ lattice E₈ manifold E∞ operad E7½ E8 investigation tool Earley parser Early stopping Earnshaw s theorem Earth mover s distance East Journal on Approximations Eastern Arabic numerals Easton s… … Wikipedia**Mathematics and Physical Sciences**— ▪ 2003 Introduction Mathematics Mathematics in 2002 was marked by two discoveries in number theory. The first may have practical implications; the second satisfied a 150 year old curiosity. Computer scientist Manindra Agrawal of the… … Universalium**Electron**— For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). Electron Experiments with a Crookes tube first demonstrated the particle nature of electrons. In this illustration, the profile of the cross shaped target is projected against the tube face at right… … Wikipedia**Photon**— This article is about the elementary particle of light. For other uses, see Photon (disambiguation). Photon Photons emitted in a coherent beam from a laser Composition Elementary particle … Wikipedia**Credit default swap**— If the reference bond performs without default, the protection buyer pays quarterly payments to the seller until maturity … Wikipedia**Inflation (cosmology)**— Inflation model and Inflation theory redirect here. For a general rise in the price level, see Inflation. For other uses, see Inflation (disambiguation). Physical cosmology … Wikipedia**Pion**— This article is about the subatomic particles. For the self propelled gun, see 2S7 Pion. Pion The quark structure of the pion. Composition π … Wikipedia