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# Exotic probability

Exotic probability is a branch of probability theory that deals with probabilities which are outside the normal range of [0, 1] . The most common author of papers on exotic probability theory is Saul Youssef. According to Youssef, the valid possible alternatives for probability values are the real numbers, the complex numbers and the quaternions.

Youssef also cites the work of Richard Feynman, P. A. M. Dirac, Stanley Gudder and S. K. Srinivasan as relevant to exotic probability theories.

Of the application of such theories to quantum mechanics, Bill Jefferys has said: ”Such approaches are also not necessary and in my opinion they confuse more than they illuminate.” [http://www.lns.cornell.edu/spr/2002-03/msg0040195.html]

* http://physics.bu.edu/~youssef/quantum/quantum_refs.html
* [http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/hep-th/0110253 Physics with exotic probability theory] - paper by Youssef on arXiv.
* http://fnalpubs.fnal.gov/library/colloq/colloqyoussef.html
* [http://flux.aps.org/meetings/YR97/BAPSAPR97/vpr/layn18-4.html Measuring Negative Probabilities, Demystifying Schroedinger's Cat and Exploring Other Quantum Peculiarities With Trapped Atoms]
* [http://www.mathpages.com/home/kmath309.htm MathPages - The Complex Domain of Probability]

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