A turboexpander, also referred to as a turbo-expander or an expansion turbine, is a centrifugal or axial flow
turbinethrough which a high pressure gasis expanded to produce work that is often used to drive a compressor. [cite book|author=Heinz Bloch and Claire Soares|title=Turboexpanders and Process Applications|edition=|publisher=Gulf Professional Publishing|year=2001|id=ISBN 0-88415-509-9] cite book|author=Frank G. Kerry|title=Industrial Gas Handbook:Gas Separation and Purification|edition=|publisher=CRC Press|year=2007|id=ISBN 0-8493-9005-2] cite book|author=Thomas Flynn|title=Cryogenics Engineering|edition=Second Edition|publisher=CRC Press|year=2004|id=ISBN 0-8247-5367-4]
Because work is extracted from the expanding high pressure gas, the expansion is an
isentropicprocess (i.e., a constant entropyprocess) and the low pressure exhaust gas from the turbine is at a very low temperature, sometimes as low as -90 °C or less.
Turboexpanders are very widely used as sources of
refrigerationin industrial processes such as the extraction of ethaneand natural gas liquids (NGLs) from natural gas, [ [http://freepatentsonline.com/US6915662.html Demethanzer] ] the liquefaction of gases(such as oxygen, nitrogen, helium, argonand krypton) [ [http://www.nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/production/1K.pdf BOC (NZ) publication] : use search function for keyword "expansion"] [ [http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/progress05/v_e_1_shimko.pdf US Department of Energy Hydrogen Program] ] and other low-temperature processes.
Turboexpanders currently in operation range in size from about 750 W to about 7.5 MW (1 HP to about 10,000 HP).
Although turboexpanders are very commonly used in low-temperature processes, they are used in many other applications as well. This section discusses one of the low temperature processes as well as some of the other applications.
Extracting hydrocarbon liquids from natural gas
Raw natural gas consists primarily of methane (CH4), the shortest and lightest
hydrocarbonmolecule, as well as various amounts of heavier hydrocarbon gases such as ethane(C2H6), propane(C3H8), normal butane (n-C4H10), isobutane(i-C4H10), pentanes and even higher molecular weighthydrocarbons. The raw gas also contains various amounts of acid gases such as carbon dioxide(CO2), hydrogen sulfide(H2S) and mercaptans such as methanethiol(CH3SH) and ethanethiol(C2H5SH).
When processed into finished by-products (see
Natural gas processing), these heavier hydrocarbons are collectively referred to as NGL (natural gas liquids). The extraction of the NGL often involves an turboexpander ["Gas Processes 2002", Hydrocarbon Processing, pages 83-84, May 2002 (schematic flow diagrams and descriptions of the NGL-Pro and NGL Recovery processes)] and a low-temperature distillationcolumn (called a "demethanizer") as shown in Figure 2. The inlet gas to the demethanizer is first cooled to about −51 °C in a heat exchanger(referred to as a "cold box") which partially condenses the inlet gas. The resultant gas-liquid mixture is then separated into a gas stream and a liquid stream.
The liquid stream from the gas-liquid separator flows through a valve and undergoes a "throttling expansion" from an absolute pressure of 62 bar to 21 bar , which is an enthalpic process (i.e., a constant enthalpy process) that results in lowering the temperature of the stream from about −51 °C to about −81 °C as the stream enters the demethanizer.
The gas stream from the gas-liquid separator enters the turboexpander where it undergoes an isentropic expansion from an absolute pressure of 62 bar to 21 bar that lowers the gas stream temperature from about −51 °C to about −91 °C as it enters the demethanizer to serve as distillation
Liquid from the top
trayof the demethanizer (at about −90 °C) is routed through the cold box where it is warmed to about 0 °C as it cools the inlet gas, and is then returned to the lower section of the demethanizer. Another liquid stream from the lower section of the demethanizer (at about 2 °C) is routed through the cold box and returned to the demethanizer at about 12 °C. In effect, the inlet gas provides the heatrequired to "reboil" the bottom of the demethanizer and the turboexpander removes the heat required to provide reflux in the top of the demethanizer.
The overhead gas product from the demethanizer at about −90 °C is processed natural gas that is of suitable quality for distribution to end-use consumers by
pipeline. It is routed through the cold box where it is warmed as it cools the inlet gas. It is then compressed in the gas compressor which is driven by the turbo expander and further compressed in a second-stage gas compressor driven by an electrical motorbefore entering the distribution pipeline.
The bottom product from the demethanizer is also warmed in the cold box, as it cools the inlet gas, before it leaves the system as NGL.
Figure 3 depicts a electric power generation system that uses a heat source, a cooling medium (air, water or other), a circulating working fluid and a turboexpander. The system can accommodate a wide variety of heat sources such as:
* Geothermal hot water
* Exhaust gas from internal combustion engines burning a variety of fuels (natural gas, landfill gas,
diesel oil, or fuel oil)
* A variety of waste heat sources (in the form of either gas or liquid)
Referring to Figure 3, the circulating working fluid (usually an organic compound such as R-134a) is pumped to a high pressure and then vaporized in the evaporator by heat exchange with the available heat source. The resulting high-pressure vapor flows to the turboexpander where it undergoes an isentropic expansion and exits as a vapor-liquid mixture which is then condensed into a liquid by heat exchange with the available cooling medium. The condensed liquid is pumped back to the evaporator to complete the cycle.
The system in Figure 3 is a
Rankine cycleas is used in fossil fuel power plants where water is the working fluid and the heat source is derived from the combustionof natural gas, fuel oilor coalused to generate high-pressure steam. The high-pressure steam then undergoes an isentropic expansion in a conventional steam turbine. The steam turbine exhaust steam is next condensed into liquid water which is then pumped back to steam generator to complete the cycle.
When an organic working fluid such as R-134a is used in the Rankine cycle, the cycle is sometimes referred to as an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). [ [http://www.akenergyauthority.org/PDF%20files/ArchiveConferenceMaterial/ORC_Waste_Heat-Holdmann.pdf ORC Technology for Waste Heat Applications] ] ] [ [http://www.csiro.au/science/ps4q.html The Integrated Rankine Cycle Project] ] [ [http://www.geothermie.de/gte/gte36-37/altheim_gaia.htm The Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator at Altheim, Austria] ]
Figure 4 depicts a refrigeration system with a capacity of about 100 to 1000 tons of refrigeration (i.e., 352 to 3,520 KW). The system utilizes a compressor, a turboexpander and an electric motor.
Depending on the operating conditions, the turboexpander reduces the load on the electric motor by some 6 to 15% as compared to a conventional
vapor-compression refrigerationsystem that uses a "throttling expansion" valve rather than a turboexpander."Refrigeration apparatus with expansion turbine", European patent EP 0 676 600 B1, September 6, 2000, Joost J. Brasz, Carrier Corporation [http://www.freepatentsonline.com/EP0676600.pdf EP 0 676 600 B1] (this website requires registration)]
The system employs a high-pressure refrigerant (i.e., one with a low normal boiling point) such as:
*Chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2) known as R-22, with a normal boiling point of –47 °C
*1,1,1,2 Tetrafluoroethane (C2H2F4) known as R-134a, with a normal boiling point of –26 °C
As shown in Figure 4, refrigerant vapor is compressed to a higher pressure resulting in a higher temperature as well. The hot, compressed vapor is then condensed into a liquid. The
condenseris where heat is expelled from the circulating refrigerant and is carried away by whatever cooling medium is used in the condenser (air, water, etc.).
The refrigerant liquid flows through the turboexpander where it is vaporized and the vapor undergoes an isentropic expansion which results in a low-temperature mixture of vapor and liquid. The vapor-liquid mixture is then routed through the evaporator where it is vaporized by heat absorbed from the space being cooled. The vaporized refrigerant flows to the compressor inlet to complete the cycle.
As shown in Figure 4, refrigerant vapor is compressed to a higher pressure resulting in a higher temperature as well. The hot, compressed vapor is then condensed into a liquid. The condenser is where heat is expelled from the circulating refrigerant and is carried away by whatever cooling medium is used in the condenser (air, water, etc.).
Power recovery in fluid catalytic cracker
combustion flue gasfrom the catalyst regenerator of a fluid catalytic crackeris at a temperature of about 715 °C and at a pressure of about 2.4 barg. Its gaseous components are mostly carbon monoxide(CO), carbon dioxide(CO2) and nitrogen(N2). Although the flue gas has been through two stages of cyclones (located within the regenerator) to remove entrained catalyst fines, it still contains some residual catalyst fines.
Figure 5 depicts how power is recovered and utilized by routing the regenerator flue gas through an turboexpander. After the flue gas exits the regenerator, it is routed through a secondary catalyst separator containing "
swirl tubes" designed to remove 70 to 90 percent of the residual catalyst fines. [cite book|author=Alex C. Hoffnab and Lewis E. Stein|title=Gas Cyclones and Swirl Tubes:Principles , Design and Operation|edition=1st Edition|publisher=Springer|year=2002|id=ISBN 3-540-43326-0] This is required to prevent erosion damage to the turboexpander.
As shown in Figure 5, expansion of the flue gas through a turboexpander provides sufficient power to drive the regenerator's combustion air compressor. The electrical
motor-generatorin the power recovery system can consume or produce electrical power. If the expansion of the flue gas does not provide enough power to drive the air compressor, the electric motor-generator provides the needed additional power. If the flue gas expansion provides more power than needed to drive the air compressor, than the electric motor-generator converts the excess power into electric power and exports it to the refinery's electrical system.cite book|author=Reza Sadeghbeigi|title=Fluid Catalytic Cracking Handbook|edition=2nd Edition|publisher=Gulf Publishing|year=2000|id=ISBN 0-88415-289-8] The steam turbineshown in Figure 5 is used to drive the regenerator's combustion air compressor during start-ups of the fluid catalytic cracker until there is sufficient combustion flue gas to take over that task.
The expanded flue gas is then routed through a steam-generating
boiler(referred to as a "CO boiler") where the carbon monoxide in the flue gas is burned as fuel to provide steam for use in the refinery.
The flue gas from the CO boiler is processed through an
electrostatic precipitator(ESP) to remove residual particulate matter. The ESP removes particulates in the size range of 2 to 20 microns from the flue gas.
The possible use of an expansion machine for isentropically creating low temperatures was suggested by
Carl Wilhelm Siemens, a German engineer in 1857. About three decades later, in 1885, Ernest Solvay of Belgiumattempted to use a reciprocating expander machine but could not attain any temperatures lower than –98 °C because of problems with lubrication of the machine at such temperatures.
Georges Claude, a French engineer, successfully used a reciprocating expansion machine to liquefy air. He used a degreased, burnt leather packing as a piston seal without any lubrication. With an air pressure of only 40 bar, Claude achieved an almost isentropic expansion resulting in a lower temperature than had before been possible.
The first turboexpanders seem to have been designed in about 1934 or 1935 by Guido Zerkowitz, an Italian engineer working for the German firm of
Linde AG. ["Turbine for Low Temperature Gas Separation", U.S. Patent 2,165,994, July 1939 (Continuation of an application in March 1934), Guido Zerkowitz, Linde AG [http://www.freepatentsonline.com/2165994.pdf United States Patent US2165994] (this website requires registration)] cite book|author=Ebbe Almqvist|title=History of Industrial Gases|edition=First Edition|publisher=Springer|year=2002|pages=page 165|id=ISBN 0-306-47277-5]
In 1939, the Russian physicist
Pyotr Kapitsaperfected the design of centrifugal turboexpanderss. His first practical prototype was made of Monelmetal, had an outside diameter of only 8 cm (3.15 inches), operated at 40,000 revolutions per minute and expanded 1,000 cubic metres of air per hour. It used a water pump as a brake and had an efficiency of 79 to 83 percent. Most turboexpanders in industrial use since then have been based on Kapitsa's design and centrifugal turboexpanders have taken over almost 100 percent of the industrial gas liquefaction and low temperature process requirements.
In 1978, Pyotr Kapitsa was awarded a Nobel physics prize for his body of work in the area of low-temperature physics. [ [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1978/kapitsa-bio.html Pyotr Kapitsa, The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978] ]
Liquefaction of gases
* [http://actamont.tuke.sk/pdf/2004/n3/27pozivil2.pdf Use of Expansion Turbines in Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations]
* [http://turbolab.tamu.edu/pubs/Turbo35/T35pg081.pdf Full load, full speed test of turboexpander-compressor with active magnetic bearings]
* [http://www.smu.edu/geothermal/Oil&Gas/2007/Dickey_Halley%20Future%20of%20Field%20Installations%20UTC%20Power.pdf Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Generation with HVAC Hardware]
* [http://www.rddynamics.com/products/turboexpand.html R&D Dynamics foil bearing turboexpander]
* [http://www.s2m.fr/E/4-APPLICATIONS/offshore.html S2M magnetic bearing turboexpander]
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