Punch (strike)

articleissues
article=y
refimprove=September 2007
citationstyle=September 2007

infobox martial art term
name = Punch
pic = Jab punch.jpeg
picc
jab.
kanji = 突き
hiragana = つき
revhep = tsuki
kunrei = tuki
In the context of unarmed combat or melee, a punch is "a thrusting blow, esp. with the fist." ["punch." Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. 29 Jun. 2007. ] In some sports and disciplines, such as boxing or martial arts, where punches are regularly practiced, hand wraps or other padding such as gloves may be employed to protect athletes and practitioners from injuring themselves. [Ringside.com " [http://www.ringside.com/WrapYourHands.aspx The Proper Way to Wrap Your Hands] " Retrieved on June 29, 2007.] [ Ballard, Willie L. " [http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5295269.html Portable Hand Wrap] " Mar 22. 1994. Retrieved on June 29, 2007. ]

Punching styles

Many martial arts such as karate, taekwondo, muay thai and wing chun, among others, combine punches with kicks and other strikes, whereas boxing and Fistfight utilize only punches. Punches vary in technique, speed, range, and momentum. A list of some types of punches may be seen as outlined below. "Instructions on "how" to punch are beyond the scope of this article," though descriptive sentences may be used for illustrative purposes only.

Boxing

In boxing, punches are classified according to the motion and direction of the strike; contact is always made with the knuckles. There are four primary punches in boxing: the jab, cross, hook, and uppercut. For more information, see the article on "Boxing".

Karate

Punching techniques in Karate are called "tsuki" or "zuki". Contact is made with the first two knuckles ("seiken") [cite book |last=Oyama |first=Masutatsu |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others= |title=Classic Karate |origdate= |origyear=2004 |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate= |accessyear= |accessmonth= |edition= |series= |date= |year= |month= |publisher=Sterling |location=New York |isbn=1-4027-1287-1 |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages=13 |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote= ] . If any other part of the hand is used to strike with, such as the back of the fist ("uraken") or the bottom of the fist ("tetsui"), then the blow is classified as a strike (uchi).

Karate punches include the thrust punch "oi-zuki" made using the lead-hand, straight punch "choku-zuki", reverse punch "gyaku-zuki", made from the opposite hand, and many other variations. [cite book |last=Funakoshi |first=Gichin |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others= |title=Karate-Do Nyumon |origdate= |origyear=1988 |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate= |accessyear= |accessmonth= |edition= |series= |date= |year= |month= |publisher=Kodansha International |location=New York |isbn=4-7700-1891-6 |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages=51-52, 64-65 |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote= ]

Wing Chun

Wing Chun practitioners punch with a vertical fist, or "sun fist". The impact is made with the bottom three knuckles.

The most common and fundamental punch in Wing Chun, the straight punch, travels in a straight line from the striker's guard to the opponent's body or face. The punch typically travels through the center of the striker's body with the elbow pointed down. Wing Chun practitioners believe that this makes the punch faster and structurally stronger than a horizontal punch due to the whole body being directly behind the punch. Wing Chun practitioners do not usually practice wearing gloves or hand-wraps.

The "One inch punch", made famous by Bruce Lee, is intended for use at very close quarters against an opponent who is close to the practitioner.

Various Types of Punches

This is not a comprehensive list of all punches, due to the large diversity of schools of practice whose techniques, employing arm, shoulder, hip and leg work, may invariably differ.

*Jab: "The jab is a straight blow delivered (generally from a distance) with the arm above the lead foot ... The punch is quick and explosive." ["jab punch." Online Animation. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 29 June 2007 .] [All-Karate.com " [http://www.all-karate.com/140/jab-punch-kizami-zuki Jab Punch] " Retrieved on June 29, 2007.]
*Cross / Straight: A direct punch, like the jab, delivered with the rear hand. [John Scully. " [http://www.saddoboxing.com/learn.html Learn To Box Boxing Punches] " Retrieved on June 29, 2007]
*Hook: A punch involving the use of turning to aim toward the side of the head or body. [Physical-Arts.com " [http://www.physical-arts.com/training/techniques/mn_hook_punch.html Hook Punch Technique] " Retrieved on June 29, 2007 ]
*Uppercut: The fist is raised vertically towards the target, usually the head or upper body. Since most guards are held with the arms in a vertical position, the uppercut can be used to avoid the opponent's attempts at blocking.
*Hammer Fist: A compacted fist is brought down upon the target, usually using the side of the hand or wrist. [cite book |last=Oyama |first=Masutatsu |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others= |title=Classic Karate |origdate= |origyear=2004 |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate= |accessyear= |accessmonth= |edition= |series= |date= |year= |month= |publisher=Sterling |location=New York |isbn=1-4027-1287-1 |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages=26 |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote= ]
*Long fist:Fact|date=June 2007 By tucking the fingertips against the bottom knuckle of each finger, a long fist is formed. They offer decreased strength but increased reach.
*Backfist: A backfist is performed by forming a fist and striking with the tops of the two largest knuckles. [cite book |last=Oyama |first=Masutatsu |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others= |title=Classic Karate |origdate= |origyear=2004 |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate= |accessyear= |accessmonth= |edition= |series= |date= |year= |month= |publisher=Sterling |location=New York |isbn=1-4027-1287-1 |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages=16-17 |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote= ] A "spinning backfist" is performed when the attacker swivels 360 degrees before landing the punch, adding extra momentum to the attack.
*Haymaker:Fact|date=June 2007 A punch in which the arm is whipped sideways from the shoulder joint with minimal elbow bend. The name is derived from the motion, which mimics the action of manually cutting hay by swinging a scythe. Since a haymaker's power is derived from weight transfer and momentum instead of muscle contraction, a long windup is required to generate sufficient force. Haymakers are frequently used from a mounted position in mixed martial arts as part of the "ground and pound" method, as the legs cannot be used to generate power.Fact|date=June 2007
*Overhand:Fact|date=June 2007 The blow is thrown with the hand above the shoulder. Generally, the body is moving downwards, similar to a slipping motion. This is a punch that used commonly against taller opponents. For examples, see Rashad Evans vs. Chuck Liddell or Randy Couture vs. Tim Sylvia
*Chambered Punch: A strike commonly performed in karate, kung fu, and tae kwon do, originating from a "chambered" position. [Tkdtutor.com " [http://tkdtutor.com/09Techniques/Variations.htm Variations] " Retrieved on June 29, 2007]
*Upset Punch:Fact|date=June 2007 Starts with the fist in the chambered position, with the palm facing downwards, delivered to the abdomen or solar plexus.

* Shovel Hook:Fact|date=July 2008 A close range punch that is halfway between a hook and an uppercut.

* Chop Slap: A showboating move. Come down with an open hand and strike the face on the way to chopping the neck.

Other types of hand strikes

In multiple martial-art styles, other hand strikes are taught and used in combination with punches. More information can be found in the "strike" article.

Long-term effects on practitioners

Contrary to some opinions, it is joint overuse, [ Scott J. Zashin. " [http://arthritis.about.com/od/oa/f/athletics.htm Can Sports Cause Osteoarthritis?] " Retrieved on June 29, 2007.] in addition to other factors such as improper technique and protection, not punching as an activity in itself, that is responsible for the development of osteoarthritis.

Records

The Guinness World Record for the most punches in one minute is held by Jim Fung's student, Robert Ardito, who performed 702 punches in one minute at the International Wing Chun Academy in Sydney on the 18th of March, 2007. [Wingchun.com.au " [Robert Ardito http://www.wingchun.com.au/popup_guinnessworldrecord2.html] " Retrieve date unknown] Video: [http://community.guinnessworldrecords.com/kickapps/_Full-contact-punch-strikes-in-one-minute/video/88043/7691.html]

See also

* Martial arts
* Strike
* Hand to hand combat
* Kick
* Fistfight
* Boxing

External links

* [http://ezine.kungfumagazine.com/magazine/article.php?article=74 Kung Fu magazine:One punch-The Wing Chun Warrior's Attack Strategy]
* [http://www.maniacworld.com/bruce-lee-punch.html Bruce Lee discusses the Jeet Kune Do punch]

References


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