The "Halloween Massacre" is the term associated with the major reorganization of U.S. President
Gerald R. Ford's Cabinet on November 4, 1975. Several prominent moderate Republicans in the administration were replaced by more conservative figures. The changes were:
Henry Kissingerwas fired as National Security Advisor (Kissinger retained his post as Secretary of State), and replaced by General Brent Scowcroft.
William Colbywas fired as Director of Central Intelligenceand replaced by Ambassador (and future president) George H.W. Bush.
James Schlesingerwas fired as Secretary of Defense and replaced by Chief of Staff Donald Rumsfeld. Rumsfeld's deputy and protégé, future Vice President Richard Cheney, moved up to be the Chief of Staff.
*Under pressure from Republican Party conservatives, Vice President
Nelson Rockefellerannounced that he would not run for re-election as Ford's running mate in 1976.
Subsequent to these events,
Rogers Mortonwas also replaced by Elliot Richardsonas Secretary of Commerce.
Political commentators quickly dubbed Ford's sweeping changes the "Halloween Massacre," reminiscent of President
Richard M. Nixon's " Saturday Night Massacre" in October 1973. [ The University of Texas, [http://www.ford.utexas.edu/grf/timeline.asp Timeline of President Ford's Life and Career] ,] Historians allege that President Ford's decision was not one of his own design and historically two theories are postulated to support this allegation. First, Donald Rumsfeld and Richard Cheney manipulated their appointments to advance their own agendas within the American political arena. Or, secondly, Rumsfeld and Cheney convinced Ford to make these changes in order to improve his re-election prospects against his primary Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan. [United States Senate, [http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/VP_Nelson_Rockefeller.htm Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller, 41st Vice President (1974-1977)] ]
Veteran political correspondents and commentators initiated newspaper and magazine articles immediately fingering Donald Rumsfeld as the manipulator of these events despite Ford's protestations that he, himself, made the decision alone. [Goldman, Peter, "Ford Shakes Up His Cabinet," Time Magazine, 11/17/75. [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16381141/site/newsweek/ Time Magazine.com] ,] The historiography of the "Halloween Massacre" appears to support these allegations. [Blumenthal, Sidney, "The Long March of Dick Cheney," [http://dir.salon.com/story/opinion/blumenthal/2005/11/24/cheney/index1.html Salon.com] ]
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