Aérospatiale Alouette III


Aérospatiale Alouette III

Infobox Aircraft
name=SA 316 / SA 319 Alouette III


caption= An "Alouette III" of the 22S wing of the French Navy on the landing pad of Lanvéoc base
type=Light utility helicopter
manufacturer= Sud Aviation Aérospatiale
designer=
first flight= 28 February 1959
introduced= 1960
retired= 2004
status=Active duty in some nations
primary user= French Armed Forces
more users= Indian Air Force
produced=1961-1985
number built=2,000+
unit cost=
developed from = Aérospatiale Alouette II
variants with their own articles= Aérospatiale Gazelle

The Aérospatiale Alouette III (French: "Skylark") is a single-engine, light utility helicopter developed by Sud Aviation and later manufactured by Aérospatiale of France. The Alouette III is the successor to the Alouette II, being larger and having more seating. Originally powered by a Turbomeca Artouste IIIB turboshaft engine, the Alouette III is recognised for its mountain rescue capabilities and adaptability.

Development

The first version of the Alouette III, the SE 3160 prototype, first flew on 28 February 1959. Production of the SA 316A (SE 3160) began in 1961 and remained in production until 1968, when it was replaced by the SA 316B.

Operational History

The Alouette III entered in service with the French Armed forces in 1960. From April 1964-1967, three machines were delivered from France for local assembly in Australia, and were used by Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) at the Woomera Rocket Range for light passenger and recovery of missile parts after test launches at the Range.

Served in Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 when 2 planes of the PAF were lost in the war, [http://bharat-rakshak.com/IAF/History/1971War/Appendix3.html] and the Portuguese Colonial War, during 60's and 70's with large utilization in Angola, Mozambique and Guinea, where it proved its qualities.

The SA 316B and the SA 319B both remained in series production up to the early 1980s, when the main production line in France was closed down. However, HAL of India continues to licence-build Alouette IIIs as the Chetak. Versions of the Alouette III were also either licence-built or assembled by IAR in Romania (as the IAR 316), F+W Emmen in Switzerland, and by Fokker and Lichtwerk in the Netherlands.

Production numbers are as follows:
* France: 1453
* India: 300+ (Still in production.)
* Romania: 230
* Switzerland: 60

In June 2004, the Alouette III was retired from the French Air Force after 32 years of successful service. It will be replaced by the Eurocopter EC 355 Ecureuil 2. In the same year, the Swiss Armed Forces announced the retirement of the Alouette III, from the front line by 2006, and entirely by 2010. Venezuelan Air forces retired their Alouette IIIs in the late 90s.

At Baldonnel 21 September 2007 the Alouette III was retired from the Irish Air Corps. During 44 years of successful service, the fleet amassed over 77,000 flying hours. As well as routine military missions, the aircraft undertook some 1,717 Search and Rescue Missions, saving 542 lives and flew a further 2,882 Air Ambulance flights. The oldest of the Alouettes, 195, is currently being kept in 'rotors running' condition for the Air Corps Museum. [ [http://www.airsceneuk.org.uk/hangar/2008/475iac/iac.htm New Wings for the Irish Air Corps] ]

Variants

*The SA 316A was the first production version. Original designation SE 3160.
*The SA 316B is powered by a 425 kW (570 shp) Turboméca Artouste IIIB turboshaft engine, with strengthened main and tail rotor for greater performance. The SA 316B was built under licence in India as the HAL Chetak, and again under licence in Romania as the IAR 316.
*HAL Chetak : Indian production version of the SA 316B.
*IAR 316 : Romanian production version of the SA 316B.
*The SA 319B was a direct development of the SA 316B, it was powered with a 649 kW (870 shp) Turboméca Astazou XIV turboshaft engine, but it was derated to 447 kW (660 hp).
*The SA 316C was powered by a Turbomeca Artouste IIID turboshaft engine. The SA 316C was only built in small numbers.
*G-Car and K-Car : Helicopter gunship versions for the Royal Rhodesian Air Force. The G-Car was armed with two side-mounted Browning machine guns. The K-Car was armed with one 20mm Mauser cannon, fitted inside the cabin, firing from the port side of the helicopter.
*IAR 317 Skyfox: A Romanian helicopter gunship project based on the IAR 316. Only three prototypes were ever built.
*Atlas XH-1 Alpha: A Two-seat attack helicopter project. It was used in the development of the Denel AH-2 Rooivalk‎.

When used as an aerial ambulance, the Alouette III can accommodate a pilot, two medical attendants and two stretcher patients.

Operators

;ALB (SA 319);ANG
*People's Air and Air Defence Force of Angola About 20 former Portuguese aircraft [Andrade 1982, Page 11] ;ARG
*Argentine Navy 14 operated (3 x SE3160, 7 x SA316B and 4 x SA319B) [Andrade 1982, page 15] ;AUS
*Royal Australian Air Force Three aircraft in Service from 1964 to 1967.;AUT
*Austrian Air Force 26 operated (12 x SE3160, 14 x SA316B) [Andrade 1982, page 21] ;BAN
*Bangladesh Air Force Four HAL-built former Indian Air Force 316s [Andrade 1982, page 22] ;BEL
*Belgian Navy Three 316Bs [Andrade 1982, page 25] ;flag|Biafra
*Biafran Air Force operated few helicopters.;BOL ;BFA;BIR
*14 operated (13 x SE3160 and 1 x SE316B) [Andrade 1982, Page 35] ;BDI
*4 operated (1 x SE3160 and 3 x SA316Bs) [Andrade 1982, Page 36] ;CMR
*Cameroon Air Force One SA319 [Andrade 1982, Page 36] ;CHA
*Chad Air Force Ten former French SE3160s [Andrade 1982, Page 43] ;CHI
*Chilean Navy Four SA319Bs [Andrade 1982, Page 46] ;COG
*Congolese Air Force One SA316B [Andrade 1982, Page 50] ;CIV
*Côte d'Ivoire Air Force Four (3 x SE3160, 1 x SA316B) [Andrade 1982, Page 126] ;DNK
*Danish Navy Eight SE3160 [Andrade 1982, Page 55] ;DOM
*Dominican Air Force One SE3160 [Andrade 1982, Page 56] ;ECU (SA 316) ;ESA
*El Salvador Air Force One SA316B [Andrade 1982, Page 188] ;GNQ;ETH
*Ethiopian Air Force Five SE3160 and six Romanian-built SA316B [Andrade 1982, Page 63] ;FRA
*French Air Force 50+ (SE3160 and S316B) [Andrade 1982, Page 72]
*French Army Light Aviation 70+ (SE3160, SA316N and SA319B) [Andrade 1982, Page 73]
*French Navy 43+ (SA316) [Andrade 1982, Page 75]
*Sécurité Civile Six (SA316) [ [http://cohen.frank.free.fr/photos/helicoptere/securitecivile/leparc.htm Helicopters of the Securite Civile (in French)] ] ;GAB
*Gabonese Air Force Five (1 x SE3160, 1 x SA316B, 3 x SA319B) [Andrade 1982, Page 77] ;GHA
*Ghana Air Force Four (SA316B) [Andrade 1982, Page 91] ;GRE
*Hellenic Navyal Aviation Four (SA319B) [Andrade 1982, Page 94] ;GIN
*Guinean Air Force One (SA316B) [Andrade 1982, Page 95] ;GNB (SA 316);flag|Hong Kong|colonial
*Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force Three (2 x SE3160, 1 x 316B) [Andrade 1982, Page 98] ;IND
*Indian Air Force 87+ (55 x French-built SE3160 and SA316B, 32+ Indian-built SA319B Chetak) [Andrade 1982, Page 102/103]
*Indian Navy 18+ (7 x French-built SE3160, 7 x French-built SA316B plus Indian built Chetaks) [Andrade 1982, Page 103] ;IDN
*Indonesian Army Seven (SE3160) [Andrade 1982, Page 106] ;IRN;IRQ
*Iraq Air Force 44 (SA316C) [Andrade 1982, Page 111] ;IRL
*Irish Air Corps Eight SA 316 in service between 1963 and 2007 (3 x SE3160 and 5 x SA316B). [Andrade 1982, Page 61] ;ISR;JOR
*Jordanian Air Force 16 (SA316B) [Andrade 1982, Page 139] ;LAO;LBN
*Lebanese Air Force 13 (8 x SE3160, 5 x SA316B) [Andrade 1982, Page 147] ;LBY
*Libyan Arab Jamahiriyah Army Aviation 13 (SA316B), three later to Malta [Andrade 1982, Page 149] ;MAD
*Malagasy Air Force Two (SE3160, one former French Army) [Andrade 1982, Page 151] ;MWI
*Malawi Army Air Wing One (SA316) [Andrade 1982, Page 151] ;MYS (SA 316)
*Royal Malaysian Air Force 36 (26 x SE3160, 10 x SA316B) [Andrade 1982, Page 153] ;MLT
*Armed Forces of Malta Three (SA316B former Libyan Air Force) [Andrade 1982, Page 154] ;MEX
*Mexican Air Force Three (SE3160) [Andrade 1982, Page 157]
*Mexican Naval Aviation Five (SA319B) [Andrade 1982, Page 157] ;MAR
*Royal Moroccan Gendarmie Air Squadron Two (SA316B) [Andrade 1982, Page 159] ;MOZ
*Mozambique Air Force Four (SA316B former Portugal Air Force) [Andrade 1982, Page 161] ;NPL
*Nepal Royal Flight One (SE3160) [Andrade 1982, Page 161]
*Air Battalion, 11th Brigade Royal Nepal Army At least 2 HAL Cheetak. [ [http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_531.shtml Air Combat Information Group - Nepal] ] ;NLD
*Royal Netherlands Air Force 4 for royal flights (SE3160) [Andrade 1982, Page 163] ;NIC
*Nicaraguan National Guard Two [Andrade 1982, Page 166] ;PAK
*Pakistan Air Force 13+ (7 x SE3160, 4 x SA316B, 2 x SA319B plus local production) [Andrade 1982, Page 173]
*Pakistan Army 12+ (11 x SE3160, 1 x SA316B) [Andrade 1982, Page 174]
*Pakistan Navy (SA 316, SA 319);PRC;PER
*Peruvian Air Force 12 (4 x SE3160, 8 x SA316C) [Andrade 1982, Page 178]
*Peruvian Naval Aviation 6 (SA319B) [Andrade 1982, Page 179] ;POR
*Portuguese Air Force 142 (70 x SE3160, 72 x SA316B) [Andrade 1982, Page 185] (SA 319 - 18 in service, expected to retire in 2008-2011);flag|Rhodesia
*Rhodesian Air Force;ROM (IAR 316) ;RWA
*Rwanda Air Force Two SE3160 [Andrade 1982, Page 187] ;SAU
*Royal Saudi Air Force Five (4 x SE3160, 1 x SA316B) [Andrade 1982, Page 190] ;SEY;SIN
*Republic of Singapore Air Force (12 x SA316B, retired in 1978 and was sold to Sri Lanka);flag|South Africa|1928 (SA 316)
*South African Air Force 120 (58 x SE3160, 40 x SA316B plus others) [Andrade 1982, Page 197] ;KOR
*Republic of Korea Navy (SA-319B);flag|South Vietnam;ESP
*Spanish Air Force Five SA319B [Andrade 1982, Page 206]
*Spanish Army Three SA319B [Andrade 1982, Page 208] ;SRI (SA 316);SUR (SA 316);SUI
*Swiss Air Force 84 SE3160 (24 French-built, 60 licence-built) [Andrade 1982, Page 218] ;TUN
*Tunisian Air Force Eight (4 x SE3160, 4 x SA316B) [Andrade 1982, Page 227] ;ARE (Abu Dhabi);flag|Upper Volta
*Upper Volta Air Force Two SA316B [Andrade 1982, Page 335] ;VEN
*Venezuelan Air Force 20 (SE3160) [Andrade 1982, Page 338] ;YUG:
*SFR Yugoslav Air Force
**Special Helicopter Squad of 1st Corps of AF and AD used two SA 316 helicopters.;ZAI
*ZAire Air Force 10 (SE3160 and SA316B) [Andrade 1982, Page 343] ;ZAM
*Zambian Air Force ;ZIM (SA 316)

Civilian operators

;CHI
* ALFA Helicópteros;USA
*Flight for Life

pecifications (SA 316B)

aerospecs
ref=
met or eng?=met
genhide=
crew=2
capacity=5 passengers
length m=10.03
length ft=32
length in=11
span m=
span ft=
span in=
swept m=
swept ft=
swept in=
rot number=1
rot dia m=11.02
rot dia ft=36
rot dia in=2
dia m=
dia ft=
dia in=
width m=
width ft=
width in=
height m=3
height ft=9
height in=10
wing area sqm=
wing area sqft=
swept area sqm=
swept area sqft=
rot area sqm=95.38
rot area sqft=1026
volume m3=
volume ft3=
aspect ratio=
empty weight kg=1143
empty weight lb=2520
gross weight kg=2200
gross weight lb=4950
lift kg=
lift lb=
eng1 number=1
eng1 type=Turbomeca Artouste IIIB turboshaft
eng1 kw=649kW (870hp) derated to 425
eng1 hp=570
eng1 kn=
eng1 lbf=
eng1 kn-ab=
eng1 lbf-ab=
eng2 number=
eng2 type=
eng2 kw=
eng2 hp=
eng2 kn=
eng2 lbf=
eng2 kn-ab=
eng2 lbf-ab=
perfhide=
max speed kmh=210
max speed mph=130
max speed mach=
cruise speed kmh=185
cruise speed mph=115
range km=540
range miles=335
endurance h=
endurance min=
ceiling m=3200
ceiling ft=10,500
glide ratio=
climb rate ms=4.5
climb rate ftmin=950
sink rate ms=
sink rate ftmin=
armament1=
armament2=
armament3=
armament4=
armament5=
armament6=

References

Bibliography

*cite book |last= Andrade|first= John|authorlink= |coauthors= |title= Militair 1982|year= 1982|publisher= Aviation Press Limited|location= London|isbn=0 907898 01 07

External links

* [http://avia.russian.ee/helicopters_eng/snias_alu3.php Aerospatiale SA 316/319 "Alouette III"]
* [http://frenchnavy.free.fr/helicopters/alouette-3/alouette-3.htm Aérospatiale SA 316B/ VSV/ SA 319B Alouette III]
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/europe/alouette3.htm GlobalSecurity.org SA 316/SA 319 Alouette III]
* [http://celag.free.fr/museum/sa319/us_sa319_0.htm Sud Aviation SA 316/319 Alouette III]
* [http://luftfahrtmuseum.com/htmi/itf/sa316.htm The Virtual Aviation Museum - Aérospatiale SE 3160 Alouette III]

ee also

aircontent
related=
* Aérospatiale Alouette II
* Aerospatiale Lama
similar aircraft=
sequence=
* SE 313 - SE 314 - SE 315 - SA 316 - SA 318 - SA 319 - SA 320 - SA 321
lists=
* List of helicopters
* List of utility aircraft
see also=


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