PowerBook 100


PowerBook 100

Infobox computer
Name = PowerBook 100
Photo =
Caption = PowerBook 100
Type = Laptop
Developer = Apple Computer
Released = October 21, 1991Citation
last= Joannidi
first= Christine
title = Macintosh PowerBook 100: Technical Specifications
publisher = Apple, Inc.
date = 2002-03-14
url = http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=112182
accessdate = 2008-05-09
]
Discontinued = September 3, 1992
Processor = Motorola 68000 16 MHz
Memory = 2 to 8 MB
OS = System 6.0.8LCitation
title = System 6.0.8L: ReadMe File (8/95)
publisher = Apple, Inc.
date = August 17, 1995
url = http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=10863
accessdate = 2008-05-03
]
"7.0.1"–7.5.5
Baseprice = US$2,300Citation
last = LePage
first = Rick
title = PowerBooks: price-competitive and technologically brilliant.
publisher = MacWEEK
page = 54
date = October 22, 1991
]

The PowerBook 100 was a portable subnotebook personal computer manufactured by Apple Computer and introduced on October 21, 1991 at the COMDEX computer expo in Las Vegas, Nevada.Citation
title = New Macs headline in Vegas
publisher = MacWEEK
page = 2
date = October 22, 1990
] Priced at US$2,300, the PowerBook 100 was the low-end model of the first three simultaneously released PowerBooks. Its CPU and overall speed closely resembled those of its predecessor, the Macintosh Portable. It had a Motorola 68000 16-megahertz (MHz) processor, 2 to 8 megabytes (MB) of memory, a convert|9|in|cm|adj=on monochrome backlit liquid crystal display (LCD) with 640 × 400 pixel resolution, and the System 7.0.1 operating system. It did not have a built-in floppy disk drive and was noted for its unique compact design that placed a trackball pointing device in front of the keyboard for ease of use.

Former Apple chief executive officer (CEO) John Sculley started the PowerBook project in 1990, allocating $1 million for marketing. Despite the small marketing budget, the new PowerBook line was a success, generating over $1 billion in revenue for Apple in its first year. Sony designed and manufactured the PowerBook 100 in collaboration with the Apple Industrial Design Group, Apple's internal design team. It was discontinued on September 3, 1992, and superseded by the PowerBook 145 and PowerBook Duo series. Since then, it has been praised several times for its design; "PC World" named the PowerBook 100 the tenth-greatest PC of all time in 2006, and US magazine "Mobile PC" chose the PowerBook 100 as the greatest gadget of all time in 2005.

History

From 1990, John Sculley, then CEO of Apple, oversaw product development personally to ensure that Apple released new computers to market more quickly. His new strategy was to increase market share by lowering prices and releasing more "hit" products. This strategy contributed to the commercial success of the low-end Macintosh Classic and Macintosh LC, desktop computers released by Apple in 1990. Sculley wanted to replicate the success of these products with Apple's new PowerBook line.Citation
last = Carlton
first = Jim
title = Apple: The Inside Story of Intrigue, Egomania, and Business Blunders
publisher = Random House
date = 1997
pages = 181–190
isbn = 0812928512
]

Sculley began the project in 1990 and wanted the PowerBook to be released within one year. The project had three managers: John Medica, who managed engineering for the new laptop; Randy Battat, who was the vice president for product marketing; and Neil Selvin, who headed the marketing effort. In 1991, the two leaders in the laptop computer industry were Toshiba and Compaq, both of which had introduced models weighing less than convert|8|lb|kg|2|abbr=on. Medica, Battat, and Selvin deliberately designed the PowerBook to weigh less than its competitors.

Sculley allocated a $1 million marketing budget to the PowerBook product line, in contrast to the $25 million used to market the Macintosh Classic. Medica, Battat, and Selvin used most of the money to produce and air a television commercial that viewers would remember. Advertising agency Chiat/Day filmed retired Los Angeles Lakers basketball star Kareem Abdul-Jabbar sitting uncomfortably in a small airline coach seat yet comfortably typing on his PowerBook. The ad caption read: "At least his hands are comfortable."

Apple unveiled the PowerBook 100 on October 21, 1991 at the Comdex computer expo in Las Vegas, with two other models, the PowerBook 140 and PowerBook 170. The advertisement and the product were both successful. Apple projected US sales of more than 200,000 PowerBooks in the first year, with peak demand in the first three months of release. [Citation
last = Gore
first = Andrew
title = Fall product line on track, but PowerBooks could be scarce.
publisher = MacWEEK
page = 2
date = September 24, 1991
] By January 1992, Apple had sold more than 100,000 PowerBooks, by which time they were in short supply.Citation
last = Pollack
first = Andrew
title = Apple's Net Is Up 10.3% In Quarter
work = The New York Times
date = January 17, 1992
url = http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE0DA1238F934A25752C0A964958260&scp=1&sq=PowerBook+100+supply&st=nyt | accessdate = 2008-05-10
] Apple soon solved the supply problems, and the proceeds from PowerBook sales reached $1 billion in the first year after launch. Apple surpassed Toshiba and Compaq as the market leader in worldwide share of portable computer shipments. [Carlton, p. 191] The PowerBook 100, 140, and 170 contributed greatly to Apple's financial success in 1992.Citation
periodical = Macworld
volume = 10
issue = 1
date = January 1993
] At the end of the financial year, Apple announced its highest figures yet, $7.1 billion in revenues and an increase in global market share from 8 to 8.5 percent, the highest it had been in four years.

However, the initial popularity of the PowerBook 100's did not last. Sales decreased, and by December 1991 the 140 and 170 models had become more popular because customers were willing to pay more for a built-in floppy disk drive and second serial port, which the PowerBook 100 lacked.Citation
last = Said
first = Carolyn
title = PowerBook 100 slips off U.S. price list. (Apple's Macintosh PowerBook 100 notebook computer)
publisher = Macworld
date = August 17, 1992
url = http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-9259598_ITM
accessdate = 2008-06-04
] By August 10, 1992, Apple quietly dropped the PowerBook 100 from its price list but continued to sell existing stock through its own dealers and alternative discount consumer-oriented stores such as Price Club. In these stores, a 4MB RAM/40MB hard drive configuration with a floppy drive sold for less than $1,000 (more than $1,500 less than the similar 2MB/20MB configuration's original list price).

On September 17, 1992, Apple recalled 60,000 PowerBook 100s because of a potential safety problem.Citation
last = Fisher
first = Lawrence M.
title = 60,000 Notebook Computers Are Being Recalled by Apple
work = The New York Times
date = September 17, 1992
url = http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CEEDE1F3CF934A2575AC0A964958260&scp=1&sq=PowerBook+100&st=nyt | accessdate = 2008-05-10
] An electrical short, it was discovered, could melt a small hole in the casing, which occurred in three of the 60,000 notebooks manufactured between October and March 1991. On the day of the recall, Apple shares closed at $47, down $1.25, but some analysts discounted the recall's importance. In addition, the original power supplies had problems with insulation cracks that could cause a short in a fuse on the motherboard; and the computer was prone to cracks in the power adapter socket on the motherboard, which required a $400 replacement motherboard if the warranty had expired.Citation
last = Aker
first = Sharon
title = The Macintosh Bible 7th Edition
publisher = Peachpit Press
date = 1998
page = 835
isbn = 0201874830
]

Features

Most of the PowerBook 100's internal components were based on its predecessor, the Macintosh Portable. It included a Motorola 68HC000 16 MHz processor, had 2 MB memory, no floppy disk drive, and cost approximately $2,300. An external floppy disk drive was available for $279. The dimensions of the PowerBook 100 were an improvement over the Portable. It was convert|8.5|in|cm| in diameter, convert|11|in|cm wide, and convert|1.8|in|cm| high, compared to the Portable, which was convert|14.83|in|cm in diameter, convert|15.25|in|cm wide and convert|4.05|in|cm high.Citation
last= Joannidi
first= Christine
title = Macintosh Portable: Technical Specifications
publisher = Apple, Inc.
date = 2002-03-14
url = http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=112174
accessdate = 2008-05-11
] Another innovation involved using a less expensive passive matrix display instead of the sharper active matrix used on the Portable (and the 170). The PowerBook 100 included the System 7.0.1 operating system as standard, with support for all versions up to System 7.5.5. Apple, however, released System 6.0.8L, which allowed the PowerBook 100 to run System 6. It could also be used with some earlier System 6 versions, although Apple did not officially support this.Citation
title = PowerBook & Macintosh Classic II: No Support for System 6
publisher = Apple, Inc.
date = November 30, 1994
url = http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=9140
accessdate = 2008-05-03
]

The PowerBook 100 had one external serial port, designed for use with a printer or any compatible RS-422 device. It was the first Macintosh to omit an external modem port,Citation
title = AppleSpec pre November 1997
publisher = Apple, Inc.
date = 2008
url = http://www.info.apple.com/support/applespec.legacy/index.html
accessdate = 2008-05-17
] instead offering an optional built-in 2400 baud modem for communications. As a result, for the first time a user could not print directly and access AppleTalk or a faster external modem simultaneously,Citation
title = PowerBook: Internal Modem & Serial Printer Configuration
publisher = Apple, Inc.
date = November 21, 1997
url = http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=15650
accessdate = 2008-05-17
] Citation
title = PowerBook: Using MacLink Plus With Only One Serial Port (3/95)
publisher = Apple, Inc.
date = March 31, 1995
url = http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=16226
accessdate = 2008-05-17
] Citation
title = PowerBook: Miscellaneous Frequently Asked Questions
publisher = Apple, Inc.
date = November 22, 2002
url = http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=19088
accessdate = 2008-05-17
] and devices such as advanced MIDI interfaces could not be used because they required the dedicated use of both ports.Citation
title = APPLE NOTES: Acronyms and MIDI
writer = Martin Russ
publisher = Sound On Sound, Ltd., Cambridge
date = April 1994
url = http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/1994_articles/apr94/applenotes.html
accessdate = 2008-05-17
] A third-party serial modem port could, however, be installed in the internal modem slot for consumers who needed traditional functions.Citation
title = PB Serial Adapter Provides Full Featured Modem Port for Apple PowerBook 150 and PowerBook 100
publisher = Sigma Seven Systems Ltd.
date = January 1999
url = http://ruby.he.net/~sigma/pbsa.html
accessdate = 2008-05-13
]

When the computer was not in use, contents of the memory were preserved as long as the main lead-acid battery remained charged. The PowerBook 100 Power Manager was an integrated circuit, usually placed on the logic board of a PowerBook,Citation
title = PowerBook 100 through PowerBook 5300: Resetting Power Management Unit (PMU)
publisher = Apple, Inc.
date = 2004-05-26
url = http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=58416
accessdate = 2008-05-11
] and was responsible for the power management of the computer. Identical to that of the Macintosh Portable, it controlled the display's backlight, hard drive spin-down, sleep and wake, battery charging, trackball control, and input/output (I/O). The 100 did add a new feature: 3.5-volt batteries backed up permanent and expansion random access memory (RAM) when the PowerBook 100's battery was being replaced or when the 100 was otherwise temporarily removed from all power sources.Citation
title = Macintosh PowerBook 100 Developer Note
publisher = Apple, Inc. (Developer Technical Publications)
date = 1991
url = http://developer.apple.com/documentation/Hardware/Developer_Notes/Macintosh_CPUs-68K_Portable/PowerBook_100.pdf
format = PDF
accessdate = 2008-05-10
] Citation
title = PowerBook 100: Backup Battery Life
publisher = Apple, Inc.
date = May 16, 1994
url = http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=11326
accessdate = 2008-05-17
] This made it a perfect candidate for use with Apple's RAM disk to help increase battery life by accessing the hard disk less frequently, since the 100 was the only PowerBook that maintained the contents of RAM on shutdown in order to reduce startup time.Citation
title = PowerBook 100: Creating and Using a RAM Disk(7/93)
publisher = Apple, Inc.
date = July 07, 1994
url = http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=12858
accessdate = 2008-05-17
]

The PowerBook 100 was the first PowerBook to incorporate SCSI Disk Mode, which allowed it to be used as an external hard disk on a desktop Macintosh. This provided a convenient method for software to be installed onto the PowerBook or transferred to the desktop, without the need for the 100's optional floppy disk drive. A specialized SCSI cable with a unique connector was required, however, to use any SCSI device on the PowerBook series. A second dedicated cable was required for SCSI Disk Mode. This feature was unique to the 100 until Apple introduced new PowerBooks more than a year later.Citation
title = PowerBook: Using SCSI Devices
publisher = Apple, Inc.
date = September 17, 2007
url = http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=13611
accessdate = 2008-05-13
]

There are two versions of the PowerBook 100's QWERTY layout keyboard: a domestic US version with 63 keys and an international ISO version with 64 keys. The caps lock key on the PowerBook 100 did not have a locking position or a lighted indicator of its status, and to compensate, the System 7 operating system software includes an extension file that installs a special menu containing the international caps lock symbol in the upper right-hand corner of the menu bar.

Design

Both the PowerBook 140 and 170 were designed before the 100 by the Apple Industrial Design Group, from March 1990 through February 1991. The 100's styling was based on those computers and represents the first improvements to the PowerBook line as Apple benefited from the lessons learned in developing the more powerful models' enclosure. The 100 was designed between September and December 1990, and retained the same design elements, which were a variation on the Snow White design language Apple had been using since 1984. Specifically, Convert|2|mm|in|abbr=on raised ridges spaced Convert|10|mm|in|abbr=on apart intended to tie it into the existing product line.Citation
last = Kunkel
first = Paul
title = Appledesign: The publisher of the Apple Industrial Design Group
publisher = Graphis Inc., New York
date = May 1997
page = 30
isbn = 1888001259
]

Apple approached Sony in late 1989 because it did not have enough engineers to handle the number of new products that were planned for delivery in 1991.Citation
last = Schlender
first = Brenton R.
title = Apple's Japanese ally. (Sony Corp. designs Apple's PowerBook 100)
publisher = Fortune
page = 151
date = November 4, 1991
] Using a basic blueprint from Apple, including a list of chips and other components, and the Portable's architecture, the 100 was miniaturized and manufactured by Sony in San Diego, California, and Japan.Citation
last = Rebello
first = Kathy
title = Apple gets a little more help from its friends. (possible alliance with Sony)
publisher = BusinessWeek
page = 132
date = October 28, 1991
] [Citation
last = Ely
first = Ed
title = Apple's PowerBook: is it late, or perfectly timed?
publisher = The Business Journal Serving Greater Sacramento
page = 19
date = November 25, 1991
] Sony engineers had little experience building personal computers but nonetheless completed Apple's smallest and lightest machine in under 13 months, cancelling other projects and giving the PowerBook 100 top priority. Sony president Norio Ohga gave project manager Kihey Yamamoto permission to recruit engineers from any Sony division.

Robert Brunner, Apple's head of industrial design at the time, led the design team that developed the laptop, including its trackball and granite color.Citation
last = Lefton
first = Terry
title = Bob Brunner. (marketing successes) (The Marketers of the Year).
publisher = Brandweek
page = 28
date = November 16, 1992
] Brunner said he designed the PowerBook "so it would be as easy to use and carry as a regular book". The dark granite grey color set it apart from other notebook computers of the time and also from Apple's other products, which traditionally were beige or platinum grey. The trackball, another new design element, was placed in the middle of the computer, allowing the PowerBook to be easily operated by both left- and right-handed users. The designers were trying to create a fashion statement with the overall design of the laptop, which they felt made it a more personal accessory, like a wallet or briefcase. Brunner said: "It says something about the identity of the person who is carrying it".

Reception

Crystal Waters of "Home Office Computing" praised the PowerBook 100's "unique, effective design" but was disappointed because the internal modem did not receive faxes, and the 100 had no monitor port.Citation
last = Waters
first = Crystal
title = Pack a traveling Mac: PowerBook 100 - Hardware Review
publisher = Home Office Computing
publisher = BNET
date = February 1992
url = http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1563/is_n2_v10/ai_11936373
accessdate = 2008-05-11
] The low-capacity 20 MB hard drive was also criticized. Once a user's core applications had been installed, little room was left for optional programs and documents. Waters concluded: "Having used the 100 constantly in the past few weeks, I know I wouldn't feel cheated by buying it - if only it had a 40MB hard-disk drive option."

"PC Week" benchmarked the PowerBook 100, measuring it against its predecessor, the Macintosh Portable. The PowerBook 100 took 5.3 seconds to open a Microsoft Word document and 2.5 seconds to save it.Citation
last = Bethoney
first = Herb
title = Lightweight PowerBooks live up to their name
publisher = PC Week
page = 12
date = October 21, 1991
] The Portable took 5.4 and 2.6 seconds respectively. "PC Week" tested the battery life, which delivered 3 hours 47 minutes of use. "Byte magazine"'s review concluded, "The PowerBook 100 is recommended for word processing and communications tasks; the higher-end products offer enough power for complex reports, large spreadsheets and professional graphics."Citation
last = Thompson
first = Tom
title = Apple reinvents the notebook. (Hardware Review) (Apple Macintosh PowerBook 100, 140, 170)
publisher = Byte
page = 253
date = March 1992
] "MacWEEK" described it as "ideal for writers and others on a tight budget."Citation
last = Ford
first = Ric
title = Talkin' about a Mac revolution: PowerBooks represent a big change for Mac computing, opening new doors as the first truly mobile Macs.
publisher = MacWEEK
page = 3
date = January 6, 1992
]

The PowerBook 100 continues to receive recognition from the press. "PC World" named the PowerBook 100 the 10th-greatest PC of all time in 2006, [Citation
title = The 25 Greatest PCs of All Time
publisher = PC World
date = August 11, 2006
url = http://www.pcworld.com/article/126692-7/the_25_greatest_pcs_of_all_time.html
accessdate = 2008-08-09
] and in 2005, US magazine "Mobile PC" chose the PowerBook 100 as the greatest gadget of all time, ahead of the Sony Walkman and Atari 7800. [Citation
title = Apple laptop is 'greatest gadget'
publisher = BBC News
date = February 22, 2005
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/4284501.stm
accessdate = 2008-05-11
] The PowerBook 100 received multiple awards for its design, including the 1999 IDSA Silver Design of the Decade Award, "Form" magazine's 1993 Designer's Design Awards, the 1992 ISDA Gold Industrial Design Excellence Award, the 1992 Appliance Manufacturer Excellence in Design award, and the Industry Forum Design 10 Best - Hannover Fair award. [Citation
title = Complete Award Listing (1986–2008)
publisher = Lunar Design
url = http://www.lunar.com/inside/awards2.html
accessdate = 2008-05-11
]

pecifications

See also

* Macintosh Portable
* List of Macintosh models by case type
* List of products discontinued by Apple Inc.
* List of Macintosh models grouped by CPU type

References

External links

* [http://support.apple.com/kb/HT1752 Vintage and obsolete products] from Apple.com

Navbox with columns
name = Navbox with columns/doc
state = uncollapsed
title = Apple Model Navigation

colstyle = text-align:center; background:silver;
colwidth = 25%

col1header = Replaced
col2header = Current Model
col3header = Successor

col1 =
Macintosh Portable

col2 =
PowerBook 100

col3 = PowerBook 145

PowerBook Duo series

col1footer = Preceding Family Model
col2footer = October 21, 1991
col3footer = Following Family Model


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