"PaIAST|ṭikkūlamanasikāra" (variant: "paIAST|ṭikūlamanasikāra") [The Sinhalese SLTP Tipitaka and Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-5), p. 393, spell this term "paIAST|ṭikkūlamanasikāra" (with two k's) while the Burmese CSCD tipitaka and VRI (1996), p. 10, spell it "paIAST|ṭikūlamanasikāra" (with one k).] is a Pāli term that is generally translated as "reflections on repulsiveness." It refers to a traditional Buddhist meditation whereby thirty-one parts of the body are contemplated in a variety of ways. In addition to developing mindfulness and concentration, this form of meditation is considered conducive to overcoming lust. Along with cemetery contemplations, this type of meditation is one of the two Buddhist meditations on "the foul" (Pāli: "asubha"). [Nanamoli (1998), p. 110, "n". 16, which references the Anapanasati Sutta and the Visuddhimagga, Ch. VI, VIII.]


"PaIAST|ṭikkūla" (Pāli) literally means "against" ("paIAST|ṭi") "the slope" or "embankment" ("kūla") and has been translated adjectivally as "averse, objectionable, contrary, disagreeable" and, in its nounal form, as "loathsomeness, impurity." [See, e.g., Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-5), p. 393, entry for "PaIAST|ṭikkūla" (retrieved 2008-02-02 at]

"Manasikāra" (Pāli), derived from "manasi" (locative of "mana" thus, loosely, "in mind" or "in thought") and "karoti" ("to make" or "to bring into") and has been translated as "attention" or "pondering" or "fixed thought." [See, e.g., Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-5), p. 521, entry "Mano & Mana(s)" (retrieved 2008-02-02 at, and pp. 197-8, entry for "Karoti" (retrieved 2008-02-03 at Similarly, the core Buddhist notion of "yoniso manasikāra" has been translated as "careful attention."]

In contemporary translations, the compound term "paIAST|ṭikkūla-manasikāra" is generally translated as "reflections on repulsiveness" or, adding contextual clarity at the expense of literal accuracy, "reflections on repulsiveness of the body." [See, e.g., Nyanasatta (1994); Soma (2003), pp. 3, 100; VRI (1996), pp. 10, 11.] Alternate translations include "attention directed to repulsiveness" [Buddhaghosa (1999), pp. 235 (Vism. VIII, 42), 236 (Vism. VIII, 43). On p. 243 (Vism. VIII, 80), Nanmoli uses a variant translation: "giving attention to repulsivenes."] and "realisation of the impurity of the body." [Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-5), p. 393, entry for "PaIAST|ṭikkūla" (retrieved 2008-02-02 at]


This type of meditation is traditionally mentioned as an "antidote" to sensual passion. [See, for instance, "Udāyi Sutta" (AN 6.39) (SLTP, n.d.) where contemplation of the the 31 body parts is said to "remove sensual passion" ("kāmarāgassa pahānāya"). In addition, in Thanissaro (1994), "Translator's Introduction," Thanissaro states: " [Khuddakapatha] Passage 3 [which enumerates 32 body parts] gives preliminary guidance [to monastic novices] in the contemplation of the body, a meditation exercise designed to overcome lust."] This is also one of the "four protective meditations," along with recollection of the Buddha, metta practice and recollection of death. [Bodhi (2002), p.6.]

In individual canonical discourses, this type of contemplation is identified as a contributor to a variety of mundane and transcendental goals. For instance, in the "Girimananda Sutta" (AN 10.60), Ven. Ananda's recitation of this and other contemplations immediately cures an ailing monk. [Piyadassi (1997a).] In the "Sampasadaniya Sutta" (DN 28), Ven. Sariputta declares that meditating on these 31 body parts leads to "the attainment of vision, in four ways," and briefly outlines how this method can be used as a springboard by which one "comes to know the unbroken stream of human consciousness that is not established either in this world or in the next." [Walshe (1995), pp. 419-20.] In addition, in the "Iddhipāda-samyutta"'s "Vibhanga Sutta" (SN 51.20), this meditation subject is used to develop the four bases of power ("iddhipāda") by which one is able to achieve liberation from suffering. [Bodhi (2000), pp. 1736-40; Thanissaro (1997b).]

While the Pali Canon invariably includes this form of contemplation in its various lists of "mindfulness" meditation techniques, [E.g., see DN 22, MN 10, MN 119.] the compendious 5th c. CE Visuddhimagga identifies this type of contemplation (along with mindfulness of breathing) as one of the few body-directed meditations particularly suited to the development of concentration (Vism. VIII, 43). [Buddhaghosa (1999), p. 235. That this form of meditation is particularly useful for what is known as "access concentration" is perhaps indirectly reflected in the comments of contemporary vipassana master S.N. Goenka who suggests that, unlike true vipassana, this type of contemplation deals with "imagination or intellectualisation." Goenka thus reserves its use for "some cases, when the mind is very dull or agitated" and thus the mind is unable to follow the breath or more refined sensations. He concludes: "Of course, when the actual practice of Vipassana starts, there should be no aversion towards this ugly body. It is just observed as it is – "yathābhūta". It is observed as body, with sensations arising and passing. The meditator is now on the path." (Goenka, n.d.).]


In Buddhist scriptures, this practice involves mentally identifying 31 parts of the body, contemplated upon in various ways.

Objects of contemplation

This mediation involves meditating on 31 different body parts: :head hairs (Pali: "kesā"), body hairs ("lomā"), nails ("nakhā"), teeth ("dantā"), skin ("taco"),:flesh ("maIAST|ṃsaIAST|ṃ"), tendons ("nahāru"), bones ("aIAST|ṭṭhi"), bone marrow ("aIAST|ṭṭhimiñjaIAST|ṃ"), kidneys ("vakkaIAST|ṃ"), :heart ("hadayaIAST|ṃ"), liver ("yakanaIAST|ṃ"), pleura ("kilomakaIAST|ṃ"), spleen ("pihakaIAST|ṃ"), lungs ("papphāsaIAST|ṃ"), :large intestines ("antaIAST|ṃ"), small intestines ("antaguIAST|ṇaṃ"), gorge ("udariyaIAST|ṃ"), feces ("karīsaIAST|ṃ"), :bile ("pittaIAST|ṃ"), phlegm ("semhaIAST|ṃ"), pus ("pubbo"), blood ("lohitaIAST|ṃ"), sweat ("sedo"), fat ("medo"), :tears ("assu"), skin-oil ("vasā"), saliva ("kheIAST|ḷo"), mucus ("siṅghānikā"), fluid in the joints ("lasikā"), urine ("muttaIAST|ṃ"). [English is from the Thanissaro (2000) translation of Mahasatipatthana Sutta (DN 22). Note that, in Thanissaro (1994), some words are translated differently, e.g., "muscle" instead of "flesh," and "lymph" instead of "pus." Also, Thanissaro (1994) translates "vakkaIAST|ṃ" as "spleen" and "pihakaIAST|ṃ" as "kidney"; thus, compared to Thanissaro (2000), effectively inverting these anatomical objects in the English translations. The Pali is from La Trobe University (n.d.)'s SLTP version of DN 22, BJT page 446, at These 31 body parts are grouped onto six lines consistent with their traditional representation in Pali as shown in MettaNet-Lanka (n.d.) Sinhala SLTP text at and VRI (n.d.) Burmese CSCD text at]

In a few discourses, these 31 body parts are contextualized within the framework of the Great Elements (see "mahabhuta") so that the earth element is exemplified by the body parts from head hair to feces, and the water element is exemplified by bile through urine. [See MN 28, MN 62 and MN 140. See below for more information regarding these discourses.]

A few other discourses preface contemplation of these 31 body parts in the following manner::"Herein ... a monk contemplates this body upward from the soles of the feet, downward from the top of the hair, enclosed in skin, as being full of many impurities." [Piyadassi (1999a) translation of AN 10.60. This preface can also be found, e.g., in SN 51.20 (Thanissaro, 1997b).]

The 31 identified body parts in "pātikūlamanasikāra" contemplation are the same as the first 31 body parts identified in the "Dvattimsakara" ("32 Parts [of the Body] ") verse (Khp. 3) regularly recited by monks. [ [ Piyadassi (1999b).] This is consistent with on-line Sinhala SLTP texts. The on-line Burmese CSCD includes the brain after "feces" ("karīsaIAST|ṃ").] The thirty-second body part identified in the latter verse is the brain ("matthaluIAST|ṅga"). [According to Hamilton (2001), pp. 23-4, in the Sutta Pitaka, the brain is added to the traditional list of 31 body parts only in the Khuddaka Nikaya and there only twice: in the aforementioned Khp. 3 and in PaIAST|ṭis I.6. Hamilton also identifies a similar, abbreviated, differently ordered list that includes the brain in Sn 199 (see, e.g., [ Thanissaro, 1996);] Hamilton attributes the differences between the traditional list of 31 or 32 body parts and the Sutta Nipata text to the latter being in verse.] The Visuddhimagga suggests the enumeration of the 31 body parts implicitly includes the brain in "aIAST|ṭṭhimiñjaIAST|ṃ", which is traditionally translated as "bone marrow." [Buddhaghosa (1999), Vism. VIII, 44. Given Buddhaghosa's inclusion of the brain in "aIAST|ṭṭhimiñjaIAST|ṃ" could lead one to infer that this Pali term might refer to something other than bone marrow in some contexts (e.g., the nervous system).]

Methods of contemplation

A canonical formulation of how to meditate on these is:

:"Just as if a sack with openings at both ends were full of various kinds of grain — wheat, rice, mung beans, kidney beans, sesame seeds, husked rice — and a man with good eyesight, pouring it out, were to reflect, 'This is wheat. This is rice. These are mung beans. These are kidney beans. These are sesame seeds. This is husked rice'; in the same way, the monk reflects on this very body from the soles of the feet on up, from the crown of the head on down, surrounded by skin and full of various kinds of unclean things [as identified in the above enumeration of bodily organs and fluids] ...." [Thanissaro (1997c).]

In regards to this and other body-centered meditation objects, the Mahasatipatthana Sutta (DN 22) provides the following additional context and expected results::"In this way [a monk] remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or externally on the body in & of itself, or both internally & externally on the body in & of itself. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the body, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the body, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to the body. Or his mindfulness that 'There is a body' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world...." [Thanissaro (2000). (Parenthetical expression is in the original translation.)]

According to the post-canonical Pali commentary to the Mahasatipatthana Sutta, one can develop "seven kinds of skill in study" regarding these meditation objects through:
# repetition of the body parts verbally
# repetition of the body parts mentally
# discerning the body parts individually in terms of each one's color
# discerning the body parts individually in terms of each one's shape
# discerning if a body part is above or below the navel (or both)
# discerning the body part's spatial location
# spatially and functionally juxtaposing two body parts [Soma (2003), pp. 101-2. The commentary mentioned here is the Papañcasudani, attributed to Buddhaghosa and thus presumably written in the 5th c. CE. This is similar to what is found in Vism. VIII, 48-60 (Buddhaghosa, 1999, pp. 237-9).]

Traditional sources

The name for this type of meditation is found in the sectional titles used in the Mahasatipatthana Sutta (DN 22) and the Satipatthana Sutta (MN 10), where the contemplation of the 31 body parts is entitled, "PaIAST|ṭikkūla-manasikāra-pabbaIAST|ṃ" (which, word-for-word, can be translated as "repulsiveness-reflection-section"). Subsequently, in the post-canonical Visuddhimagga and other commentarial works, "paIAST|ṭikkūlamanasikāra" is explicitly used when referring to this technique. [Buddhaghosa (1999), pp. 235, 236, 243 (Vism. VIII, 42, 43 83).]

This form of meditation is mentioned in the following discourses ("sutta") in the Pali Canon (listed in order of nikaya and then sutta number within nikaya): [These suttas were found in part through a search of the SLTP canon using a search engine from La Trobe University at] Three of these discourses — MN 28, MN 62 and MN 140 — mention the 31 bodily organs in the context of either four or five great elements ("mahābhūta") which, strictly speaking, in the "(Mahā)SatipaIAST|ṭṭhāna Sutta" is the basis for a separate meditation from "paṭikkūla-manasikāra" contemplation. For example, based on commentarial statements, "paṭikkūla-manasikāra" contemplation could entail spatial awareness of each of the bodily organs or fluids, and is traditionally used as an antidote to lust; on the other hand, contemplation on the elements emphasizes the tactile experiences of solidity, liquidity, heat and air, and serves as a basis for developing equanimity and insight into not-self ("anatta") (e.g., see MN 28).]
* Mahasatipatthana Sutta ("The Great Frames of Reference," DN 22) [Thanissaro (2000).]
* Sampasadaniya Sutta ("Serene Faith," DN 28) [Walshe (1995), pp. 417-25.]
* Satipatthana Sutta ("Frames of References," MN 10). [Nyanasatta (1994). This discourse is virtually the same as the Mahasatipatthana Sutta (Thanissaro, 2000) except that the latter's extended exposition on the Four Noble Truths is absent from the Satipatthana Sutta.]
* Mahahattipadopama Sutta ("The Great Elephant Footprint Simile," MN 28) [Thanissaro (2003).]
* Maharahulovada Sutta ("The Greater Exhortation to Rahula," MN 62) [Thanissaro (2006).]
* Kayagatasati Sutta ("Mindfulness Immersed in the Body," MN 119) [Thanissaro (1997c).]
* Dhatu-vibhanga Sutta ("An Analysis of the Properties," MN 140) [Thanissaro (1997a).]
* In the Samyutta Nikaya's collection regarding the four bases of power ("iddhipada"), in a sutta called "Vibhanga" ("Analysis," SN 51.20) [Bodhi (2000), pp. 1736-40; Thanissaro (1997b).]
* Udayi Sutta ("To Udayi," AN 6.29) [SLTP (n.d.).]
* Girimananda Sutta ("To Girimananda," 10.60) [Piyadassi (1999a).] Elsewhere in Pali literature, this type of meditation is discussed extensively in the post-canonical Visuddhimagga (Vism. VIII, 44-145). [Buddhaghosa (1999), pp. 236-59.]

In several of these sources, this meditation is identified as one of a variety of meditations on the body along with, for instance, the mindfulness of breathing (see Anapanasati Sutta). [E.g., DN 22, MN 10, MN 119, Vism. VIII, 42.]

ee also

*Buddhist meditation
*Anapanasati Sutta
*Mahasatipatthana Sutta



*Bodhi, Bhikkhu (trans.) (2000). "The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya". Boston: Wisdom Pubs. ISBN 0-86171-331-1.
*Bodhi, Bhikkhu (Fall 2002). "Climbing to the Top of the Mountain: An Interview with Bhikkhu Bodhi," Insight Journal, Vol. 19. Barre, MA: Barre Center for Buddhist Studies. Also available on-line at
*Buddhaghosa, Bhadantācariya (trans. from Pāli by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli) (1999). "The Path of Purification: Visuddhimagga". Seattle, WA: BPS Pariyatti Editions. ISBN 1-928706-00-2.
*Goenka, S.N. (n.d.). "Discourses on Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta: Condensed from the discourses during a course in Mahā-satipaṭṭhāna Sutta". Available on-line at The section dealing specifically with "patikulamanasikara" is at
* Hamilton, Sue (2001). "Identity and Experience: The Constitution of the Human Being according to Early Buddhism". Oxford: Luzac Oriental. ISBN 1-898942-23-4.
*Nanamoli, Bhikkhu (trans.) (1998). "Mindfulness of Breathing (Anapanasati): Buddhist Texts from the Pali Canon and Extracts from the Pali Commentaries". Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. ISBN 955-24-0167-4.
*Nyanasatta Thera (1994). "Satipatthana Sutta: The Foundations of Mindfulness" (MN 10). Retrieved 2008-02-02 from "Access to Insight" at
*Piyadassi Thera (trans.) (1999a). "Girimananda Sutta: Discourse to Girimananda Thera" (AN 10.60). Retrieved 2008-02-02 from "Access to Insight" at
*Piyadassi Thera (trans.) (1999b). "Khuddakapatha Suttas (Selections)" (Khp 1-6,9). Retrieved from "Access to Insight" at
*Rhys Davids, T.W. & William Stede (eds.) (1921-5). "The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary" (PED). London: Pali Text Society. A general on-line search engine for the PED is available at
*Soma Thera (2003) (6th reprint). "The Way of Mindfulness". Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society. ISBN 955-24-0256-6. An 1998 edition is available on-line from "Access to Insight" at
*Sri Lanka Tripitaka Project (SLTP) (n.d.). "Anuttariyavaggo" (AN 6.21 - 6.30). Retrieved 2008-02-01 from "MettaNet-Lanka" at The "Udāyi Sutta" (AN 6.29) is identified in this section as "6. 1. 3. 9".
*Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1994). "Khuddakapatha Suttas (Complete)" (Khp 1-9). Retrieved from "Access to Insight" at
*Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1996). "Vijaya Sutta: Victory" (Sn 1.11). Retrieved 2008-03-23 from "Access to Insight" (1997) at
*Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997a). "Dhatu-vibhanga Sutta: An Analysis of the Properties" (MN 140). Retrieved 2008-02-02 from "Access to Insight" at
*Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997b). "Iddhipada-vibhanga Sutta: Analysis of the Bases of Power" (SN 51.20). Retrieved 2008-02-02 from "Access to Insight" at
*Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997c). "Kayagata-sati Sutta: Mindfulness Immersed in the Body" (MN 119). Retrieved from "Access to Insight" at
*Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (2000). "Maha-satipatthana Sutta: The Great Frames of Reference" (DN 22). Retrieved from "Access to Insight" at
*Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (2003). "Maha-hatthipadopama Sutta: The Great Elephant Footprint Simile" (MN 28). Retrieved 2008-02-02 from "Access to Insight" at
*Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (2006). "Maha-Rahulovada Sutta: The Greater Exhortation to Rahula" (MN 62). Retrieved 2008-02-02 from "Access to Insight" at
*Vipassana Research Institute (VRI) (1996). "Mahasatipatthana Sutta: The Great Discourse on the Establishing of Awareness". Seattle, WA: Vipassana Research Publications of America. ISBN 0-9649484-0-0.
*Walshe, Maurice (trans.) (1995). "The Long Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Digha Nikaya". Boston: Wisdom Pubs. ISBN 0-86171-103-3.

External links

* [ "The Section of Reflection on Repulsiveness"] , from: Soma Thera (trans.) ("undated"). "The Commentary to the Discourse on the Arousing of Mindfulness with Marginal Notes". Available on-line at

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