The Vallumbrosan Order (or Vallombrosians) is a Roman Catholic religious order, technically a
Benedictinecongregation, which derives its name from the motherhouse, Vallombrosa(Latin "Vallis umbrosa", 'shady valley'), situated c. 30 km from Florenceon the northwest slope of Monte Secchieta in the Pratomagno chain.
St. John Gualbert, a Florentine named Gualberto Visdomini, was born in the year 985 or 995, and died at Passignano in the year 1073, on 12 July, (his feast dayis still celebrated on this day); he was canonizedin 1193. Because one of his relatives was murdered, his duty was to avenge the deceased. He met the murderer in a narrow lane and was about to slay him, but when the man threw himself upon the ground with arms outstretched in the form of a cross, John forgave him through the love of Christ. On his way home, he entered the Benedictine Church at San Miniatoto pray, and the figure on the crucifix bowed its head to him in recognition of his generosity. This story forms the subject of Burne-Jones's picture "The Merciful Knight", and has been adapted by Shorthouse in "John Inglesant". John Gualbert became a Benedictine monk at San Miniato, but left that monastery to lead a more perfect life. His attraction was for the cenobitic, and not eremitic life, so after staying for some time with the monks at Camaldoli, he settled at Vallombrosa, where he founded his monastery. Mabillon estimates its foundation at a little before 1038. Here, it is said, he and his first companions lived for some years as hermits, but this is rejected by Martène as inconsistent with the reason for leaving Camaldoli. The chronology of the early days of Vallombrosa has been much disputed. The dates given for the founder's conversion varying between 1004 and 1039, and a recent Vallumbrosan writer places his arrival at Vallombrosa as early as 1008. We reach surer ground with the consecration of the church by Rotho, Bishop of Paderborn, in 1038, and the donation by Itta, Abbess of the neighbouring monastery of Sant' Ellero, of the site of the new foundation in 1039. The abbess retained the privilege of nominating the superiors, but this right was granted to the monks by pope Victor II, who confirmed the order in 1056. Two centuries later, in the time of Alexander IV, the nunnery was united with Vallombrosa in spite of the protests of the nuns. The holy lives of the first monks at Vallombrosa attracted considerable attention and brought many requests for new foundations, but there were few postulants, since few could endure the extraordinary austerity of the rule. Thus only one other monastery, that of San Salviat Florence, was founded during this period. But when the founder had mitigated his rule somewhat, three more monasteries were founded and three others reformed and united with the order during his lifetime. The early Vallumbrosans took a considerable part in the struggle of the popes against simony , of which the most famous incident was the ordeal by fire undertaken successfully by St. Peter Igneusin 1068 (Delarc, op. cit.). Shortly before this the monastery of S. Salvi had been burned and the monks ill-treated by the anti-reform party. These events still further increased the reputation of Vallombrosa.
After the founder's death the order spread rapidly. A
Papal Bullof Urban IIin 1090, which took Vallombrosa under the protection of the Holy See, enumerated fifteen monasteries aside from the motherhouse. Twelve more are mentioned in a Bull of Paschal IIin 1115, and twenty-four others in those of Anastasius IV(1153) and Adrian IV(1156). By the time of Innocent IIIthey numbered over sixty. All were situated in Italy, except two monasteries in Sardinia. (now part of Italy) About 1087 Andrew of Vallombrosa (d. 1112) founded the monastery of Cornillyin the Diocese of Orléans, and in 1093 the Abbey of Chezal-Benoît, which later became the head of a considerable Benedictine congregation. There are no grounds for the legend given by some writers of the order of a great Vallumbrosan Congregation in France with an abbey near Paris, founded by king St. Louis. The Vallumbrosan Congregation was reformed in the middle of the fifteenth century by Cassinese Benedictines, and again by John Leonardiat the beginning of the seventeenth century. In 1485 certain abbeys with that of San Salvi at Florence at their head, which had formed a separate congregation, were reunited to the motherhouse by Innocent VIII. At the beginning of the sixteenth century an attempt was made by Abbot-GeneralMilanesi to found a house of studies on university lines at Vallombrosa; but in 1527 the monastery was burned by the troops of Emperor Charles V. It was rebuilt by Abbot Nicolini in 1637, and in 1634 an observatory was established. From 1662–1680 the order was united to the Sylvestrines. In 1808 Napoleon I's troops plundered Vallombrosa, and the monastery lay deserted till 1815. It was finally suppressed by the Italian Government in 1866. A few monks still remain to look after the church and meteorological station, but the abbey buildings have become a school of forestry that was founded in 1870 on the German model, the only one of its kind in Italy. Vallombrosa is also a health resort.
The decline of the order may be ascribed to the hard fate of the motherhouse, to commendams, and to the perpetual wars which ravaged Italy. Practically all the surviving monasteries were suppressed during the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The present Vallumbrosan monasteries, besides Vallombrosa itself, are: Passignano, where St. John Gualbert is buried;
Santa Trinitaat Florence, where the abbot-general resides; Sta Prassede, in Rome; Galloro, near Albano, with the sanctuary of Benedict Ricasoli; and the celebrated sanctuary of Montessoro near Livorno.
Rule and functioning
St. John adopted the
Rule of St. Benedictbut added greatly to its austerity and penitential character. His idea was to unite the ascetic advantages of the eremitic life to a life in community, while avoiding the dangers of the former. Severe scourgingwas inflicted for any breach of rule, silence was perpetual, poverty most severely enforced. The rule of enclosure was so strict that the monks might not go out even on an errand of mercy. The main point of divergence lay in the prohibition of the manual work, which is prescribed by St. Benedict. St. John's choir monks were to be pure contemplatives and to this end he introduced the system of lay-brothers who were to attend to the secular business. He was among the first to systematize this institution, and it is probable that it was largely popularized by the Vallumbrosans. The term "conversi" ( lay brothers) occurs for the first time in Abbot Andrew of Strumi's "Life of St. John", written at the beginning of the twelfth century. The Vallumbrosans do not, strictly speaking, form a separate order, but a Benedictine congregation, though they are not united to the confederated congregations of the Black Monks. The oldest extant manuscript of the customs of Vallombrosa shows a close relationship with those of Cluny. The Vallumbrosans should be regarded only as Benedictines who followed the customs observed at that time by the Black Benedictinesthroughout Europe. "Horror of simony was a special bond between them and Cluny, and it was only special circumstances which caused them later to be looked upon as a peculiar institute within the Benedictine order" (Albers, op. cit. infra). The habit, originally grey, then tawny coloured, is now that of the Black Monks. The abbots were originally elected for life but are now elected at the general chapter, held every four years. The Abbot of Vallombrosa, the superior of the whole order, had formerly a seat in the Florentine Senateand bore the additional title of Count of Monte Verde and Gualdo. The shield of the order shows the founder's arm in a tawny-coloured cowl grasping a golden crutch-shaped crozier on a blue ground. The services rendered by the order have been mostly in the field of asceticism. Besides the Vallumbrosan saints alluded to in other parts of this article there may also be mentioned: St. Veridiana, anchoress (1208–42); Giovanni Dalle Celle(feast, 10 March); the lay brother Melior (1 August). By the middle of the seventeenth century the order had supplied twelve cardinals and more than 30 bishops. F. E. Hugford (1696–1771, brother of the painter Ignazio Hugford), is well known as one of the chief promoters of the art of scagliola(imitation of marblein plaster). Abbot-General Tamburini's works on canon laware well known. Galileowas for a time a novice at Vallombrosa and received part of his education there.
Shortly after the founder's death we find attached to the monastery of Vallombrosa lay sisters who, under the charge of an aged lay brother, lived in a separate house and performed various household duties. This institute survived for less than a century, but when they ceased to be attached to the monasteries of monks, these sisters probably continued to lead a conventual life. Blessed
Bertha d'Alberti(d. 1163) entered the Vallumbrosan Order at Florence and reformed the convent of Cavrigliain 1153. St. Umiltàis usually regarded as the foundress of the Vallumbrosan Nuns. She was born at Faenzaabout 1226, was married, but with the consent of her husband, who became a monk, entered a monastery of canonesses and afterwards became an anchoressin a cell attached to the Vallumbrosan church of Faenza, where she lived for twelve years. At the request of the abbot-general she then founded a monastery outside Faenza and became its abbess. In 1282 she founded a second convent at Florence, where she died in 1310. She left a number of mystical writings. In 1524 the nuns obtained the Abbey of S. Salvi, Florence. There are still Vallumbrosan nunneries at Faenzaand San Gimignano, besides two at Florence. The relics of Bl. Umiltà and her disciple Bl. Margherita are venerated at the convent of Spirito Santo at Varlungo. The habit is similar to that of the Benedictine Nuns.
Bernard degli Uberti
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