- Election management body
An election management body or EMB is the authority in a nation charged with administering the electoral process. EMBs can be independent, mixed, or governmental.
An independent model EMB, typically called the
Electoral Commissionis independent and autonomous of the executive, has and manages its own budget. Countries which had an independent EMB in 2006 include Armenia, Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Canada, Costa Rica, East Timor, Estonia, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Liberia, Mauritius, Nigeria, Poland, Romania, South Africa, and Thailand. More recent constituents often include a constitutional guarantee of the EMB's independence. South Africa is an example at Section 190.
A mixed model EMB, has an independent board to determine policy, but implementation a matter for an executive department with varying degrees of supervision by the independent board. Countries which had a mixed EMB in 2006 include Cameroon, France, Germany, Jamaica, Japan, Mali, Senegal, Spain, and Togo.
A government model EMB, typically called the Secretary of State or the
Ministry of the Interioroperates within the executive and is directed by a cabinet minister. Countries which had government model EMBs in 2006 included Denmark, Seychelles, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, and the United States. A government model EMB may also include local authoritiesas agents of the central EMB.
A judicial model EMB, chiefly found in
Latin American nations, has the electoral authority closely supervised by and ultimately responsible to a special Electoral Court. Countries which had judicial EMBs in 2005 included Argentina, Costa Rica, Brazil, and Mexico.
The EMB may also be responsible for
redistricting. In federations there may be a separate EMB for each subnational government.
*Secretary of State
[http://www.aceproject.org/ace-en/topics/em Electoral Management at ACE Encyclopaedia]
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