William Cheselden

Infobox Scientist
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birth_date = October 19, 1688
birth_place = Somerby, Leicestershire
death_date = April 10, 1752
death_place = Bath
residence =
citizenship =
nationality = English
ethnicity =
field = surgery
work_institutions = St George's Hospital
alma_mater =
doctoral_advisor =
doctoral_students =
known_for = lithotomy
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influences = William Cowper
influenced =
prizes =
religion =
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William Cheselden (October 19, 1688 – April 10, 1752) was an English surgeon and teacher of anatomy and surgery, who was influential in establishing surgery as a scientific medical profession.

Life

Cheselden was born at Somerby, Leicestershire. He studied anatomy in London under William Cowper (1666-1709), and began lecturing anatomy in 1710. In 1713 he published his "Anatomy of the Human Body", which achieved great popularity and went through thirteen editions, mainly because it was written in English instead of Latin as it was customary. In 1718 he was appointed an assistant surgeon at St Thomas' Hospital, (London), becoming full surgeon in the following year, and he was also chosen one of the surgeons to St George's Hospital on its foundation in 1733. In 1710 he was admitted to the London Company of Barber-Surgeons and he was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1712. In 1733 he published "Osteographia or the Anatomy of Bones", the first full and accurate description of the anatomy of human skeletal system.

Cheselden retired from St Thomas' in 1738 and moved to the Chelsea Hospital. His abode is listed as "Chelsea College" on the 1739 Royal Charter for the Foundling Hospital, a charity for which he was a founding governor. In 1744 he was elected to the position of Warden of the Company of Barber-Surgeons, and had a role in the separation of the surgeons from the barbers and to the creation of the independent Company of Surgeons in 1745, an organisation that would become later the famous Royal College of Surgeons of England.

He died at Bath in 1752.

Works

Cheselden is famous for the invention of the lateral lithotomy approach to remove bladder stones, which he first performed in 1727 and which had a short duration (minutes instead of hours) and a low mortality rate (less than 10%). Cheselden had already developed in 1723 the suprapubic approach, which he published in "'A Treatise on the High Operation for the Stone".

He also effected a great advance in ophthalmic surgery by his operation of iridectomy, described in 1728, for the treatment of certain forms of blindness by the production of an artificial pupil. Cheselden also described the role of saliva in digestion.

He attended Sir Isaac Newton in his last illness, and was an intimate friend of Alexander Pope and of Sir Hans Sloane.

ource


*1911
*R.H. Nichols and F A. Wray, "The History of the Foundling Hospital" (London: Oxford University Press, 1935), p. 353.
*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Ballesteros Sampol
first=Juan José
authorlink=
year=2007|month=Sep.

title= [William Cheselden: singular lithotomist and great illustrator of the XVIII Century]
journal=Arch. Esp. Urol.
volume=60
issue=7
pages=723–9
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 17937331
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Mark
first=Harry H
authorlink=
year=2003|month=Feb.

title=The strange report of Cheselden's iridotomy
journal=Arch. Ophthalmol.
volume=121
issue=2
pages=266–8
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 12583795
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Weygand
first=Z
authorlink=
year=|month=.

title= [From the experience of Cheselden (1728) to the experiences of Dr. Guillie on contagious ophthalmia (1819-1820). Different methods of using those who were blind at birth as point of proof.]
journal=Histoire des sciences médicales
volume=34
issue=3
pages=295–304
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 11640524
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Sanders
first=M A
authorlink=
year=1999|month=Nov.

title=William Cheselden: anatomist, surgeon, and medical illustrator
journal=Spine
volume=24
issue=21
pages=2282–9
publisher = | location =
pmid = 10562998
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

doi=10.1097/00007632-199911010-00019
*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Guest
first=J
authorlink=
year=1997|month=Aug.

title=William Cheselden (1688-1752): humane anatomist and master surgeon
journal=The Australian and New Zealand journal of surgery
volume=67
issue=8
pages=524–7
publisher = | location =
pmid = 9287918
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

doi=10.1111/j.1445-2197.1997.tb02031.x
*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Hausmann
first=H
authorlink=
year=1989|month=Mar.

title= [William Cheselden (1688-1752). On the 300th birthday of the English surgeon]
journal=Zeitschrift für Urologie und Nephrologie
volume=82
issue=3
pages=151–4
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 2658419
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes

year=1989|month=Mar.

title=William Cheselden tercentenary
journal=Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
volume=71
issue=2 Suppl
pages=26–9
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 2653161
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Dahl
first=D S
authorlink=
year=1968|month=May.

title=William Cheselden (1688-1752)
journal=Investigative urology
volume=5
issue=6
pages=627–9
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 4914853
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=BRACKETT
first=A S
authorlink=
year=1956|month=Jun.

title=William Cheselden, 1688-1752
journal=Connecticut medicine
volume=20
issue=6
pages=467–8
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 13317466
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=RUSSELL
first=K F
authorlink=
year=|month=.

title=The osteographia of William Cheselden
journal=Bulletin of the history of medicine
volume=28
issue=1
pages=32–49
publisher = | location = | issn =
pmid = 13141000
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

External links

* [http://www.surgical-tutor.org.uk/default-home.htm?surgeons/cheselden.htm~right William Cheselden (1666-1709)] . Surgical Tutor.
* [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/historicalanatomies/cheselden_home.html Cheselden, Wm: Osteographia or the Anatomy of the Bones] . Scanned pages of the original work. Historical Anatomies in the Web. US National Library of Medicine.
* [http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/CHA_CHR/CHESELDEN_WILLIAM_1688_1752_.html William Cheselden] Article from the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.


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