Common optical phenomena are often due to the interaction of light from the sun or moon with the atmosphere, clouds, water, dust, and other particulates. One common example is the rainbow, when light from the sun is reflected and refracted by water droplets. Some, such as the green ray, are so rare they are sometimes thought to be mythical. Others, such as Fata Morganas, are commonplace in favored locations.
A list of optical phenomena
Optical phenomena include those arising from the optical properties of the atmosphere; the rest of nature (other phenomena); of objects, whether natural or human-made (optical effects); and of our eyes (Entoptic phenomena). Also listed here are unexplained phenomena that could have an optical explanation and "optical illusions" for which optical explanations have been excluded.
There are many phenomena that result from either the particle or the wave nature of light. Some are quite subtle and observable only by precise measurement using scientific instruments. One famous observation is of the bending of light from a star by the Sun observed during a solar eclipse. This demonstrates that space is curved, as the theory of relativity predicts.
Observations of some phenomena such as the photoelectric effect, which is the flow of electric current in a material or through a vacuum (as in a photocell) when the material is exposed to light, led to advances in science, since they could not be easily explained by existing theory.
Atmospheric optical phenomena
- Alexander's band, the dark region between the two bows of a double rainbow.
- Anticrepuscular rays
- Auroral light (northern and southern lights, aurora borealis and aurora australis)
- Belt of Venus
- Blue Flash
- Blue moon
- Circumzenithal arc
- Crepuscular rays
- Earthquake lights
- Earth's shadow
- Glories (also known as Brocken's Specter or Specter of the Brocken)
- Green Flash
- Halos, of Sun or Moon, including sun dogs
- Heiligenschein or halo effect, partly caused by the Opposition effect
- Cloud iridescence
- Light pillar
- Mirages (including Fata Morgana)
- Shadow set
- Tyndall effect
Other optical phenomena
- Asterism, star gems such as star sapphire or star ruby.
- Aura, a phenomenon in which gas or dust surrounding an object luminesces or reflects light from the object.
- Aventurescence, also called the Schiller effect, spangled gems such as aventurine quartz and sunstone.
- The camera obscura
- Chatoyancy, cat's eye gems such as chrysoberyl cat's eye or aquamarine cat's eye
- Chromatic polarization
- Diffraction, the apparent bending and spreading of light waves when they meet an obstruction.
- Double refraction or birefringence of calcite and other minerals
- The Double-slit experiment
- Evanescent wave
- Fluorescence, also called luminescence or photoluminescence.
- Mie scattering (Why clouds are white)
- Metamerism as of alexandrite
- Newton's rings
- Pleochroism gems or crystals, which seem many-colored
- Polarized light-related phenomena such as double refraction, or Haidinger's brush
- Rayleigh scattering (Why the sky is blue, sunsets are red, and associated phenomena)
- Synchrotron radiation
- The separation of light into colors by a prism
- The Zeeman effect
- Thomson Scattering
- Total internal reflection
- Twisted light
- The Umov effect
- The ability of light to travel through space or through a vacuum.
- Diffraction of light through the eyelashes
- Haidinger's brush
- Monocular diplopia (or polyplopia) from reflections at boundaries between the various ocular media
- Phosphenes from stimulation other than by light (e.g., mechanical, electrical) of the rod cells and cones of the eye or of other neurons of the visual system
- Purkinje images.
- The unusually large size of the Moon as it rises and sets, the moon illusion
- The shape of the sky, the sky bowl
Some phenomena are yet to be conclusively explained and may possibly be some form of optical phenomena. Some[weasel words] consider many of these "mysteries" to simply be local tourist attractions that are not worthy of thorough investigation.
- ^ "Green Rays"
- ^ http://www.stateoftheart.nl/phenomenon/index2.html
- ^ http://www.qsl.net/w5www/marfa.html
- ^ http://www.outtahear.com/beyond_updates/Mantle/Hess.htm
- ^ http://www.uq.edu.au/news/?article=4265
- ^ http://geoexplorer.tamu.edu/bigthicket/stories/saratogalight.html
- ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,501021125-391567,00.html
- Thomas D. Rossing and Christopher J. Chiaverina, Light Science: Physics and the Visual Arts, Springer, New York, 1999, hardback, ISBN 0-387-98827-0
- Robert Greenler, Rainbows, Halos, and Glories, Elton-Wolf Publishing, 1999, hardback, ISBN 0-89716-926-3
- Polarized Light in Nature, G. P. Können, Translated by G. A. Beerling, Cambridge University Press, 1985, hardcover, ISBN 0-521-25862-6
- M.G.J. Minnaert, Light and Color in the Outdoors, ISBN 0-387-97935-2
- John Naylor "Out of the Blue: A 24-hour Skywatcher's Guide", CUP, 2002, ISBN 0-521-80925-8
- Abenteuer im Erdschatten (German).
- The Marine Observers' Log
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