Souda Bay is a bay and natural harbour on the northwest coast of the Greek island of
Crete. The bay is about 15 km long and only two to four km wide, and a deep natural harbour. It is formed between the Akrotiri peninsula and Cape Drapano, and runs west to east. The bay is overlooked on both sides by hills, with a relatively low and narrow isthmusin the west near Chania.
Near the mouth of Souda bay, between the Akrotiri and the town of
Kalives, there is a group of small islands with Venetian fortifications. The largest island is Souda Island, giving its name to the bay.
Souda Bay is now a popular tourist destination although there are no real public beaches due to the presence of the naval base. Villages such as Megala Chorafia and Kalives afford fine views of the bay, and house-building, particularly for foreigners and tourist companies, is spreading along the bay.
Ancient and Medieval
There have been port facilities on the bay since ancient times, previously serving the city of Aptera. Aptera was founded in the 7th Century BC and was an important city during the ancient and early
Byzantineperiods. It was destroyed by the Saracens in AD823. The nearest large ancient city was Kydonia, which flourished in the Minoanera on Crete; moreover, during a portion of the first millennium BCKydonia held influence over Aptera. [C. Michael Hogan, "Cydonia", The Modern Antiquarian, January 23, 2008 [http://letmespeaktothedriver.com/site/10881/cydonia.html#fieldnotes] ]
The Venetians occupied the area in 1207. In 1571 an Ottoman military force landed at Souda and caused major destruction in Chanea area. The Venetians forified Souda Island between 1570 and 1573, in order to protect the area from Ottoman raiders and pirates. However, Souda Bay remained a pirate infested area during the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. The Venetians managed to hold on to the strategic islands within Souda Bay until 1715, over thirty years after the fall of Crete to the Ottomans.
In 1822 an Egyptian army of approximately 10,000 under Hassan Pasha landed at Souda to defeat the Cretan Revolution of 1821.
After the Cretan Revolution of 1866–1869 the Ottomans built fortresses at Aptera and Kalami, barracks, a military hospital and a naval base. They also built the town of
Soudaat the head of the bay, as the new port of the nearby city of Chania. The fortress at Kalami is still in use as prisons. The naval base was officially inaugurated in 1872, in the presence of Sultan Abdul Aziz.
Cretan State (1898–1913)
In the period of the semi-independent
Cretan Statethe area attracted international interest, as it offered port facilities to foreign naval vessels enforcing the Cretan autonomy. The fist High Commissioner, Prince George of Greece, disembarked at Souda Bay on December 9, 1898. The church of Saint Nicholas was build during this period.
Union with Greece to WW II (1913–1940)
In 1913, events marking the union of Crete with Greece took place on Souda Island. On
February 1the metallic Ottoman flag, the last symbol of Ottoman rule, was removed and replaced by the greek flag on May 1. Also the ruined chapel was rebuilt and dedicated to Saint George.
In 1916 the British liner SS "Minnewaska", requisitioned by the British Army as a troops carrier, struck a mine and was beached at Souda Bay.
After 1923 the area was used as an Hellenic Army base, housing the artillery units of V Infantry Division. [ cite web |url=http://www.hellenicnavy.gr/nk_history_gr.asp |accessdate=2008-04-26 |title=Naval Dock Crete history |language=Greek]
World War IIBritish and Commonwealth troops withdrew from mainland Greece in April 1941 and 25,000 men, mainly from New Zealand and Australia, disembarked at Souda Bay.
In May 1941, during the German attack named "
Operation Merkur", Allied troops retreated from the Souda area to Sfakiain the south of the island. The Germans occupied the area until 1945. The principal Allied War Cemetery of the island, designed by architect Louis de Soissons, is located at Souda.
Current military activities
Naval Dock Crete
Souda is an important port for freight and ferries to
Pireaus, and a strategic Hellenic Navyand NATOnaval base ("Naval Dock Crete", in greek: "Ναύσταθμος Κρήτης", pron. "Nafstathmos Kritis"). The " Forward Logistics Site Souda Bay" (FLS Souda Bay) is under the operational control of NATO [http://www.afsouth.nato.int/factsheets/navsouth.htm COMNAVSOUTH] .
The modern Hellenic Navy base was founded in 1951. The Hellenic Navy radio communications station SXH is also located since 1929 at Mournies, near Souda. [ cite book | author=Kevin Nice | title=Ferrell's Confidential Frequency List (13th Edition) | publisher=PW Publishing Ltd | year=2003 | isbn=1-874110-35-2 | pages=535 ]
Since 2007 Souda Bay naval base is host of "
NATO Maritime Interidiction Operational Training Centre" (ΝMIOTC), which is located at the Northern Sector of the base (Marathi). [http://www.hellenicnavy.gr/kenap/gen/location_en.html]
ouda Air Base
The strategic importance is enchanced by the Souda Air Base (LGSA) on Akrotiri Peninsula (coord|35|31|56|N|24|08|43|E |region:GR_type:airport |name=Souda Air Base), serving
Hellenic Air Force[http://www.haf.gr/en/structure/units/ata/units/115pm.asp 115 Combat Wing] and US Navy units operating under the title [https://www.souda.navy.mil/ US Naval Support Activity Souda Bay] , as well as regular and chartered civil aviation flights as Chania International Airport.
NATO Missile Firing Installation" or "NAMFI" (coord|35|34|22|N|24|10|25|E |region:GR |name=NAMFI) is an extensive missile firing range located north of Souda Air Base. NAMFI was established in 1968 as a NATOtraining facility for Air Defence Systems and it takes advantage of clear atmospheric conditions throughout the year. Currently NAMFI is regularly used by the armed foreces of Belgium, Germany, Greece and Netherlands. In the past it was also used by Denmark, France, Norway and the USA.
Today the firing range is used mostly for Patriot and Hawk launches, although a wide range of surface to air and air to surface missiles are fired occasionally. As the trjectories of the missiles cross busy air and sea areas, an Air and Sea surveillance radar system is used to resolve possible conflicts. [http://www.namfi.gr]
Philately and Postal history
The post office at Souda opened officially in 1912, although a postal agent operated there previously, possibly since 1908.
A special local stamp depicting Souda Island was issued on
November 15, 1913to commemorate the union with Greece and was sold only by cretan post offices. This stamp, printed by Banbury, Wilkinson & Co. Ltd. in the United Kingdom, is commonly called "Souda Issue". [cite book
title=Hellas 2004: stamp catalog and postal history, Volume II
Battle of Crete
List of Greek military bases
Military of Greece
Chania International Airport
* [http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/fall_of_crete.htm Battle of Crete]
*cite web |url=https://www.souda.navy.mil/ |title=US Naval Support Activity Souda Bay (Official web site) |accessdate=2008-02-16
*cite web |url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/souda-bay.htm |title=US Naval Support Activity Souda Bay (Global Security web site) |accessdate=2008-02-16
*cite web |url=http://www.haf.gr/en/structure/units/ata/units/115pm.asp |title=HAF 115 Combat Wing |accessdate=2008-02-16
*cite web |url=http://www.hellenicnavy.gr/shipyards_kritis.asp |accessdate=2008-04-26 |title=Naval Dock Crete |language=Greek: Official web site of Hellenic Navy.
* [http://www.namfi.gr NATO Missile Firing Installation (NAMFI)]
* [http://www.hellenicnavy.gr/kenap/gen/location_en.html NATO Maritime Interidiction Operational Training Centre]
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