Sucre


Sucre
Sucre
Charcas
La Plata, Chuquisaca
Panorama of the Old Town of Sucre.

Flag
Nickname(s): The White City, City of the 4 Names
Sucre is located in Bolivia
Sucre
Location of Sucre within Bolivia.
Coordinates: 19°2′2.04″S 65°15′45.36″W / 19.0339°S 65.2626°W / -19.0339; -65.2626Coordinates: 19°2′2.04″S 65°15′45.36″W / 19.0339°S 65.2626°W / -19.0339; -65.2626
Country Bolivia
Departament Chuquisaca
Province Oropeza Province
Founded September 29, 1539
Government
 – Mayor Verónica Berríos
Elevation 2,750 m (9,022 ft)
Population (2006)
 – Total 225,000
Time zone BOT (UTC−4)
Area code(s) 4
Website www.sucre.gob.bo/
Official name: Historic City of Sucre
Type: Cultural
Criteria: iv
Designated: 1991 (15th session)
Reference #: 566
State Party:  Bolivia
Region: Latin America and the Caribbean

Sucre, also known historically as Charcas, La Plata and Chuquisaca (population 247,300 in 2006) is the constitutional capital of Bolivia and the capital of the department of Chuquisaca. Located in the south-central part of the country, Sucre lies at an elevation of 2750m (9,000 ft). This relatively high altitude gives the city a cool temperate climate year-round.

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History

On November 30, 1538, Sucre was founded under the name Ciudad de la Plata de la Nueva Toledo by Pedro Anzures, Marqués de Campo Redondo. In 1538, the Spanish King Philip II established the Audiencia de Charcas in La Plata with authority over an area which covers what is now Paraguay, southeastern Peru, Northern Chile and Argentina, and much of Bolivia. The Audiencia de Charcas was a subdivision of the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1601, the Recoleta Monastery was founded by the Franciscans and in 1609, an archbishopric was founded in the city. In 1624, St Francis Xavier University of Chuquisaca was founded.

Very much a Spanish city during the colonial era, the narrow streets of the city centre are organised in a grid, reflecting the Andalusian culture that is embodied in the architecture of the city's great houses and numerous convents and churches. Sucre remains the seat of the Roman Catholic Church in Bolivia, and a common sight is members of religious orders dressed in traditional costume. For much of its colonial history, Sucre's temperate climate was preferred by the Spanish royalty and wealthy families involved in silver trade coming from Potosí. Testament to this is the Glorieta Castle. Sucre's University (Universidad Mayor Real & Pontificia de San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca) is one of the oldest universities in the new world.

Festival time in Sucre

Until the 19th century, La Plata was the judicial, religious and cultural centre of the region. In 1839, after the city became the capital of Bolivia, it was renamed in honour of the revolutionary leader Antonio José de Sucre. Too remote after the economic decline of Potosí and its silver industry, it saw the Bolivian seat of government move to La Paz in 1898. Many[who?] argue Sucre was the epicentre that initiated the independence campaign against Spain in all of Latin America. The first "Grito Libertario" (Shout for Freedom) in any Western Hemisphere Spanish colony of took place in Sucre in 1809. Ironically, Bolivia was the last territory to gain its independence in 1825. In 1991, Sucre became a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The city attracts thousands of tourists every year due to its well-preserved downtown with buildings from the 18th and 19th centuries. Nestled at the foot of the twin hills of Churuquella and Sika Sika, Sucre is the gateway to numerous small villages that date from the colonial era, the most well-known of which is Tarabuco, home of the colorful "Pujllay" festival held each March. Most of these villagers are members of one of the indigenous ethnicities. Many dress in clothing distinctive to their respective villages.

Government

Sucre is the capital of Chuquisaca department and the constitutional capital of Bolivia, where the Supreme Court is located. The government of the City of Sucre is divided into the executive and legislative branches. The Mayor of Sucre is the head of the city government, elected for a term of five years by general election. The legislative branch consists of The Municipal Council, which elects a President, Vice President and Secretary from a group of eleven members.

The current mayor of Sucre is Verónica Berríos (of the MAS party), who took office on 21 June 2010, and was briefly replaced by Santos Romero in January 2011.[1]

Date Began Date Ended Governor Party Notes
Nov 2008 Aydeé Nava PAÍS
Nov 2008 30 May 2010 Hugo Loayza MBL Assumed office after Nava was indicted on corruption charges
30 May 2010 18 June 2010 Jaime Barrón Poveda PAÍS Elected in regional election on 4 April
22 June 2010 10 January 2011 Verónica Berríos MAS Designated as interim Mayor by Sucre's Council in Resolution 335/10 after Barrón was indicted on charges of organizing the violence of 24 May 2008[1]
10 January 2011 27 January 2011 Santos Romero MAS Designated as interim Mayor by Sucre's Council in Resolution 03/11[1]
27 July 2011 Verónica Berríos MAS Restored to office when the Guarantees Tribunal of Chuquisaca's Superior Court of Justice annulled Resolution 03/11[1]

The current Municipal Council was elected in the regional election of 4 April 2010. The election was by proportional representation with the Pact of Social Integration and the Movement Towards Socialism gaining the largest and second largest shares of the vote.

The council elected in April 2010 and seated in late December 2010 is as follows:

Office Council Member Biography Party
President Domingo Martínez Cáceres Agricultural engineer, former Sub-Mayor, previous Council President, docent in the Agronomy Faculty at UMRPSFXCH. Sucre First  
Vice President Germán Gutiérrez Gantier Lawyer, former Mayor of Sucre, former national Deputy, former member of the Judicial Council, docent Pact of Social Integration  
Secretary Arminda Corina Herrera Gonzales Teacher, Constituent Assembly member for Chuquisaca and former MAS member New Citizen Alternative  
Nelson Guzmán Fernández Communicator, law student, leader of Federación Universitaria Local and the University Club. Pact of Social Integration  
Susy Barrios Quiroz Psychologist, former Sub-Mayor of Districts 2 and 5, President of Feminine Civic Committee of Chuquisaca Pact of Social Integration  
Norma Rojas Salazar Executive Secretary of Bolivian Red Cross and neighborhood leader Pact of Social Integration  
Juán Nacer Villagómez Ledezma Public health doctor, former docent, former functionary of the Health Ministry and former chief of the Planning Unit of the Departmental Health Service MAS-IPSP  
Verónica Berríos chosen as interim Mayor 19 June 2010
Vladimir Paca Lezano alternate serving since June 2010
Berrios: Laboratory worker, lawyer, sociology student
MAS-IPSP  
José Santos Romero Campesino leader, former leader of Chaunaca Subcentral of the campesion federation, and member of the Association of Milk Producers of Potolo MAS-IPSP  
Marlene Rosales Valverde Businesswoman and leader of Fourth Federations of Shopkeepers of Sucre. MAS-IPSP  
Lourdes Millares Lawyer, former national Deputy for NFR and former head of PODEMOS parliamentary delegation Pact of Social Integration (ran with Sucre First)  
Sources: "Alcalde electo en Sucre sólo tendrá cuatro concejales". Correo del Sur. 2010-04-06. http://www.cedib.org/index.php?/abril-2010/alcalde-electo-en-sucre-solo-tendra-cuatro-concejales-correo-del-sur-06/04/2010.html. Retrieved 2011-02-03.  "Crisis institucional se apodera del flamante gobierno municipal de Sucre". Los Tiempos. 2010-06-02. http://www.lostiempos.com/diario/actualidad/nacional/20100602/crisis-institucional-se-apodera-del-flamante-gobierno-municipal-de_73664_136906.html. Retrieved 2011-02-03. 

Geography and territorial organization

Sucre is divided into eight, numbered districts: the first five of these are urban districts, while Districts 6, 7, and 8 are rural districts. Each is administered by a Sub-Mayor (Spanish: Subalcalde), appointed by the Mayor of Sucre. The rural districts include numerous rural communities outside the urban area.

Sucre is served by Juana Azurduy de Padilla International Airport, situated 5 km to the Northwest and connected by Avenida Juana Azurduy de Padilla.

The City of Four Names

Each of the well known names represent a specific era of the city's history.

  • Charcas was the indigenous name for the place upon which the Spaniards built the colonial city.
  • La Plata was the name given to the emerging Hispanic city of privilege and honor.
  • The name Chuquisaca was bestowed upon the city during the independence era.
  • Sucre honors the great marshal of the Battle of Ayacucho (December 9, 1824), Don Antonio José de Sucre.

Buildings

The House of Freedom (La Casa de la Libertad)
Built in 1621, it is perhaps the most important building of the nation. The republic was founded in this building by Simón Bolívar who wrote the Bolivian Constitution.
The "Salón de la Independencia" houses the Bolivian Declaration of Independence.

National Library (La Biblioteca Nacional)
Built on the same year of the foundation of the Republic, it is the first and the most important historical, bibliographical and documentation center of the country. The National Library has documents that date from 15th century.

Metropolitan Cathedral (La Catedral Metropolitana)
Built between 1559 to 1712, the cathedral has the "Museo Catedraliceo" which is the first and most important religious museum of the country. The "Pinacoteca" has a vast collection of paintings by Colonial and Republican masters and also by Europeans such as Bitti, Fourchaudt and Van Dyck. The Cathedral contains a vast amount of jewelry made of gold, silver and gemstones.

Archbishop's Palace (El Palacio Arzobispal)
Built in 1609, was an important religious and historic institution during colonial times.

Churches and Convents
San Felipe Nery
San Francisco
La Recoleta
Santa Teresa
Santa Clara

Churches
Santo Domingo
San Lazaro
San Sebastian
Iglesia de la Merced
San Agustín
Santa Mónica
Santa Barbara
San Miguel

Chapels
Loreto's Chapel
Virgen de Guadalupe

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Fallo judicial restituye a Alcaldesa de Sucre". Los Tiempos [byline: Correo del Sur]. 2011-01-28. http://www.lostiempos.com/diario/actualidad/politica/20110128/fallo-judicial-restituye-a-alcaldesa-de-sucre_110589_217524.html. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • sucré — sucré, ée (su kré, krée) part. passé de sucrer. 1°   Rendu doux avec du sucre. Votre café est sucré. Un verre d eau sucrée. 2°   Il se dit des fruits, des légumes qui sont fort doux, qui ont le goût du sucre. Ces fruits sont très sucrés. 3°   Par …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • SUCRE (A. J. de) — SUCRE ANTONIO JOSÉ DE (1795 1830) Figure marquante, Sucre peut être considéré comme le Saint Just des guerres d’indépendance hispano américaines. Il est le compatriote de Bolívar, et son fidèle lieutenant, le suivant dans toutes ses campagnes; sa …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • sucre — SÚCRE s.m. Unitate monetară în Ecuador. [< sp. sucre]. Trimis de LauraGellner, 01.10.2005. Sursa: DN  SUCRE SÚCR/ s. m. unitate monetară a statului Ecuador. (< sp. sucre) Trimis de raduborza, 15.09.2007. Sursa: MDN …   Dicționar Român

  • Sucre [3] — Sucre, 1) Hauptstadt des Depart. Chuquisaca in Bolivia (Südamerika) und eine der drei Hauptstädte der Republik, 2694 m ü. M., in einer von Bergen geschützten Ebene, am Cochimayo, einem Nebenfluß des Pilcomayo, hat gut gebaute, meist einstöckige… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • sucre — monetary unit of Ecuador, 1886, named for Antonio José de Sucre, Venezuelan general …   Etymology dictionary


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