Acetylcarnitine

Drugbox
IUPAC_name = 3-acetyloxy-4-trimethylammonio-butanoate


width = 141
CAS_number=3040-38-8
ATC_prefix=N06
ATC_suffix=BX12
ATC_supplemental=
PubChem=1
DrugBank=
C=9|H=17|N=1|O=4
molecular_weight = 203.236
bioavailability=
metabolism =
elimination_half-life=
excretion =
pregnancy_category =
legal_status =
routes_of_administration=

Acetyl-L-carnitine or ALCAR, is an acetylated form of L-carnitine. ALCAR has been claimed to be superior to normal L-carnitine in terms of bioavailability. However, at least one study has suggested that the acetylated form may have a "lower" oral bioavailability. [cite journal
last =Eder
first =K.
authorlink =
coauthors = et Al.
title =Free and total carnitine concentrations in pig plasma after oral ingestion of various L-carnitine compounds
journal = Int J Vitam Nutr Res
volume =75
issue =1
pages =3–9
publisher =
date =2005
url =http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=15830915&dopt=Abstract
doi =
id =
accessdate = 2007-03-13
]

Chemical Derivation

Acetyl-L-Carnitine is L-Carnitine, acetylated.

L-carnitine is derived from the lysine and methionine amino acids.

Health Claims

It is claimed that ALCAR provides several benefits. Advocates of acetyl-L-carnitine market it as a life extension supplement. There may be some benefit in cases of end stage renal disease or peripheral arterial disease. [cite journal
last =Brass
first =Eric P.
authorlink =
coauthors = William R. Hiatt
title =The Role of Carnitine and Carnitine Supplementation During Exercise in Man and in Individuals with Special Needs
journal =Journal of the American College of Nutrition
volume =17
issue =3
pages =207–215
publisher =
date =1998
url =http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/full/17/3/207
doi =
id =
accessdate = 2007-03-13
pmid =9627906
] When supplemented alongside Lipoic acid, ALCAR appears to reverse some of the damage to mitochondria associated with aging. [cite journal
last =Ames
first =B. N.
authorlink =
coauthors =J. Liu
title =Delaying the mitochondrial decay of aging with acetylcarnitine
journal =Ann N Y Acad Sci
volume =1033
issue =1
pages =108–16
publisher =
date =2005
url =http://www.annalsnyas.org/cgi/content/abstract/1033/1/108
doi =
id =
accessdate = 2007-03-13
pmid =15591008
]

ALCAR supplementation has been shown to be neuroprotective in instances of cerebral ischemia, [cite journal
last =Zanelli
first =Santina A.
authorlink =
coauthors =Nina J. Solenski, Robert E. Rosenthal, and Gart Fiskum
title =Mechanisms of ischemic neuroprotection by acetyl-L-carnitine
journal =Ann N Y Acad Sci
volume =1053
issue =
pages =153–161
publisher =
date =2005
url =http://www.annalsnyas.org/cgi/content/full/1053/1/153
doi =
id =
accessdate = 2007-03-14
] peripheral nerve injury, [cite journal
last =Wilsona
first =Andrew
authorlink =
coauthors =Andrew Harta, Thomas Brännströmf, Mikael Wiberga, and Giorgio Terenghi
title =Delayed acetyl-l-carnitine administration and its effect on sensory neuronal rescue after peripheral nerve injurystar, open
journal =J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
volume =60
issue =2
pages =
publisher =
date =2007
doi =
id =
accessdate = 2007-03-14
] and to be beneficial in the treatment of Parkinson's disease in animals. [cite journal
last =Beal
first =Flint
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =Bioenergetic approaches for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease
journal = Ann Neurol
volume =53
issue =S3
pages =S39–S48
publisher =
date =2003
url =http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/104085776/ABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
doi =
id =
accessdate = 2007-03-14
]

ALCAR supplementation has also been shown to reverse syptoms associated with mental decline in the elderly. [cite journal
last =Salvioli
first =G
authorlink =
coauthors = Neri, M
title =L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly
journal =Drugs Exp Clin Res
volume =20
issue =4
pages =169–76
publisher =
date =1994
url =http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=7813389&query_hl=44&itool=pubmed_docsum
doi =
id =
accessdate = 2007-03-14
]

ALCAR is being researched in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. [cite journal
last =Hafiz
first =Mohmmad Abdul
authorlink =
coauthors =Vittorio Calabrese, Menotti Calvani, and D. Allan Butterfield
title =Acetyl-L-carnitine-induced up-regulation of heat shock proteins protects cortical neurons against amyloid-beta peptide 1-42-mediated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity: Implications for Alzheimer's disease
journal =J Neurosci Res
volume =84
issue =2
pages =398–408
publisher =
date =2006
url =http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112597017/ABSTRACT
doi =
id =
accessdate = 2007-03-14
]

Food Sources

* Animal brain [ [http://www.rockwellnutrition.com/product.asp?itemid=847&catid=44 Acetyl L Carnitine by Designs For Health (DFH) ] ]

References

Other reviews

*Pauling|id=othernuts/carnitine|title=L-Carnitine|author=Jane Higdon
*" [http://www.umm.edu/altmed/ConsSupplements/CarnitineLCarnitinecs.html Carnitine (L-carnitine)] ", "University of Maryland Medical Center"


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