Fram

"Fram" ("Forward") is a ship that was used in expeditions in the Arctic and Antarctic regions by the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup, Oscar Wisting, and Roald Amundsen between 1893 and 1912. "Fram" was probably the strongest wooden ship ever built. It was designed by the Norwegian shipwright Colin Archer for Fridtjof Nansen's 1893 Arctic expedition in which "Fram" was supposed to freeze into the Arctic ice sheet and float with it over the North Pole.

"Fram" is said to be the wooden ship to have sailed farthest north and farthest south. "Fram" is currently preserved in whole at the Fram Museum in Oslo, Norway.

Construction

Nansen's ambition was to explore the Arctic farther north than anyone else. To do that, he would have to deal with a problem that many sailing in the polar ocean had encountered before him: the freezing ice would press and crush a ship. Nansen's idea was to build a ship that could survive the pressure, not by pure strength, but because it would be in a shape designed to let the ice push the ship up, so it would "float" on top of the ice.

Nansen commissioned the shipwright Colin Archer from Larvik to construct a vessel with these characteristics. "Fram" was built with an outer layer of greenheart wood to withstand the ice and almost without a keel to handle the shallow waters Nansen expected to encounter. The rudder and propeller were designed to be retracted into the ship. The ship was also carefully insulated to allow the crew to live onboard for up to five years.

Expeditions

Fram was used in several expeditions:

Through the Arctic ice sheet

Due to shipwreckage, most notable from the USS "Jeannette" as well as driftwood findings in the regions of Svalbard and Greenland, Nansen speculated as to whether there was an ocean current flowing beneath the ice sheet from east to west, bringing driftwood from the Siberia region to Svalbard and further west. When Nansen had "Fram" built, he could explore this.

Nansen undertook the expedition that came to last for three years. When Nansen understood that Fram would not pass the North Pole directly by the force of the current, he and Hjalmar Johansen set out to reach the pole by ski. Reaching 86° 14' northern latitude, he had to turn back to spend the winter at Franz Joseph Land. Nansen and Johansen survived on walrus and polar bear meat and blubber. Finally meeting a British expedition, they managed to reach Norway only days before the Fram arrived there. The Fram had spent nearly three years beset in the ice. [Apsley Cherry-Garrard, "The Worst Journey in the World", Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1922, p. xxii]

verdrup's scientific explorations

In 1898, Otto Sverdrup led a scientific expedition to the Canadian Arctic islands. "Fram" was slightly modified for this journey, its freeboard being increased.

"Fram" left harbour June 24, 1898, with 17 men onboard. Their aim was to chart the land of the Arctic Islands, and to sample the geology, flora and fauna.

Amundsen's South Pole expedition

"Fram" was used by Roald Amundsen in his polar expedition from 1910 to 1912.

Preservation of Fram

The ship was left to decay in storage between 1912 and the late 1920s, when Lars Christensen, Otto Sverdrup and Oscar Wisting initiated efforts to preserve her. In 1935 the ship was installed in the Fram Museum where it now stands.

Named after "Fram"

* Framheim, (Literally "Home of the Fram") Amundsen's Base at the Bay of Whales in Antarctica during his quest for the South Pole.
* Fram Rupes, an escarpment on Mercury
* Fram crater, a small crater on Mars, visited by the Mars Exploration Rover "Opportunity" in 2004
* Fram Basin, the deepest point in the Arctic Ocean
* Fram Strait, a passage from the Arctic Ocean to the Greenland Sea and Norwegian Sea, between Greenland and Spitsbergen.
*Fram, ursul polar, ("Fram, the Polar Bear"), a Romanian children's book by Cezar Petrescu.
* Fram, a song by British post-rock band iLiKETRAiNS
* FRAM CQ, Southern California soccer club
*Fram, a moody Glaswegian indie rock band [http://www.fram.org.uk]
* "Fram", a play by Tony Harrison, premièred at the National Theatre London, 2008

Other ships named Fram

* A ship built in 1958 and named after Axel Enström was later renamed "Fram". [ [http://www.poosu.net/3fram.html poosu.net on the Finnish "Fram"] ]

* Harald V, the King of Norway has had a number of sailboats for regatta use named "Fram". He became world champion in sailing with "Fram X" in 1987 and is currently racing in "Fram XVI" (2006).
* The Norwegian passenger and freight line Hurtigruten operates a ship called MS "Fram".

Notes

References

* [http://www.coolantarctica.com/Antarctica%20fact%20file/History/antarctic_ships/fram.htm Antarctic exploration ship Fram]

* [http://www.fram.museum.no/en/ The Fram Museum website (English version)]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Fram — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Para otros usos de este término, véase Fram (desambiguación). El Fram (que en español ,significa Adelante ) es un barco usado en las expediciones a las regiones articas y antarticas por los exploradores noruegos… …   Wikipedia Español

  • FRAM — (v. norw., schwed., isl., färö. fram „vorwärts“) steht für: Fram (Schiff), ein ehemaliges norwegisches Polarforschungsschiff Amundsens Fram Expedition, eine damit durchgeführte Expedition MS Fram, ein Schiff der Hurtigruten Framstraße, ein Seeweg …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Fram — (v. norw., schwed., isl., färö. fram „vorwärts“) steht für: ein ehemaliges norwegisches Polarforschungsschiff, siehe Fram (1892) Amundsens Fram Expedition, eine mit dem Segelschiff Fram durchgeführte Expedition MS Fram, ein Schiff der Hurtigruten …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • fram — fram; fram·able; fram·be·sia; fram·boise; fram·er; fram·ing; fram·mit; fram·boe·sia; …   English syllables

  • fram — ˈfram verb (frammed ; frammed ; framming ; frams) Etymology: origin unknown South & Midland : pound, beat * * * fram see …   Useful english dictionary

  • Fram —   [norwegisch »vorwärts«], norwegisches Polarforschungsschiff, von F. Nansen (Nordpolarmeer, 1893 96), O. Sverdrup (Kanadisch Arktischer Archipel, 1898 1902) und R. Amundsen (Südpolargebiet, 1911 12) benutzt; heute in Bygdøy ausgestellt …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Fram — 59°54′12″N 10°41′58″E / 59.90333, 10.69944 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • FRAM — Типы компьютерной памяти Энергозависимая DRAM (в том числе DDR SDRAM) SRAM Перспективные T RAM Z RAM TTRAM Из истории Память на линиях задержки Запоминающая электронстатическая трубка Запоминающая ЭЛТ Энергонезависимая ПЗУ PROM …   Википедия

  • fram — 1. prep w.d.i. local from, by; temporal since, from; agent by; as a result of; (with verbs of saying and hearing) of, about, concerning; fram gán to depart; lǽtan fram refrain from; fram swícan to fall off, rebel; þéodan fram to separate; fram ,… …   Old to modern English dictionary

  • FRAM — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. En tourisme, FRAM est un tour opérateur français. En informatique, FRAM est une mémoire d ordinateur non volatile à l état de recherche et développement.… …   Wikipédia en Français

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