linguistics, abessive (abbreviated ABESS, from Latin "abesse" "to be distant"), caritive and privative (abbreviated PRIV) are names for a grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun. In English, the corresponding function is expressed by the preposition"" or by the suffix "."
The name "abessive" is derived from Latin "abesse" "to be away/absent," and is especially used in reference to
Finno-Ugric languages. The name "caritive" is derived from Latin "carere" "to lack", and is especially used in reference to Caucasian languages. The name "privative" is derived from Latin "privare" "to deprive."
Somali language, the abessive case is marked by "-laa" or "-la" and dropping all but the first syllableon certain words For example::"jeceyl" "love":"jeelaa" "loveless":"dar" "clothes":"darla" "clothesless" eg naked
In Australian languages
In Martuthunira, the privative case is formed with two suffixes, -wirriwa and -wirraa. What determines which suffix is used in a given situation is unclear.
Finnish language, the abessive case is marked by "-tta" for back vowels and "-ttä" for front vowels according to vowel harmony. For example::"raha" "money":"rahatta" "without money"An equivalent construction exists using the word "ilman" and the partitive::"ilman rahaa" "without money"or, more uncommonly::"rahaa ilman" "without money"The abessive case of nounsis rarely used in writing and even less in speech, although some abessive forms are more common than their equivalent "ilman" forms::"tuloksetta" "unsuccessfully, fruitlessly":"Itkin syyttä." "I cried for no reason."The abessive is, however, commonly used in nominal forms of verbs (formed with the affix "-ma-" / "-mä-"), such as "puhu-ma-tta" "without speaking", "osta-ma-tta" "without buying," "välittä-mä-ttä" "without caring:":"Juna jäi tulematta." "The train didn't show up."This form can often be replaced by using the negative form of the verb::"Juna ei tullut."
It is possible to occasionally hear what is wrong usage of the abessive in Finnish, where the abessive and "ilman" forms are combined::"ilman rahatta"There is debate as to if this is interference from Estonian.
Estonian also uses the abessive, which is marked by "-ta" in both the singular and the plural::"(ilma) autota" "without a car" (preposition "ilma" is considered a mistake against textual style)
Tallinnboasts a pair of bars that play on the use of the comitativeand abessive, the [http://www.nimetabaar.ee/English.html Nimeta baar] (the pub with no name) and the [http://www.baarid.ee/en/NimegaBar/programm.php Nimega baar] (the pub with a name).
The nominal forms of verbs are marked with the affix "-ma-" and the abessive marker "-ta:":"Rong jäi tulemata." "The train didn't show up."
abessivemarker for nouns in Skolt Sámi is "-tää" in both the singular and the plural::"Riâkkum veä'rtää." "I cried for no reason."The abessive-like non-finite verb form ( converb) is "unicode|-ǩâni" or "-kani:":"Son vuõ'lji domoi unicode|mainsteǩâni mõ'nt leäi puättam." "He/she went home without saying why he/she had come."Unlike in Finnish, the abessive is still commonly used in Skolt Sámi.
abessivemarker for nouns in Inari Sámi is "-táá." The corresponding non-finite verb form is "-hánnáá," "-hinnáá" or "-hennáá."
Other Sami languages
The abessive is not used productively in the Western Sámi languages, although it may occur as a
In Altaic Languages
The suffix "-siz" (variations: "-sız","-suz","-süz") is used. Ex: Evsiz, barksız, görgüsüz, yurtsuz.
*cite book |first=Alan Charles |last=Dench |year=1995 |title=Martuthunira: A Language of the Pilbara Region of Western Australia |location=Canberra |publisher=Pacific Linguistics. Series C-125 |id=ISBN 0-85883-422-7 |url=http://www.linguistics.uwa.edu.au/staff/alan_dench/martuthunira |authorlink=Alan Dench
* [http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAbessiveCase.htm Glossary of linguistic terms - What is abessive case?]
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abessive case — noun case used to express the lack or absence of something. It has the meaning of the English preposition without or the affix less. Some languages that use the abessive case are Erzya, Estonian, Finnish, and Inari Sami. Syn: car … Wiktionary
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abessive — /a bes iv/, Gram. adj. 1. noting a case, as in Finnish, whose distinctive function is to indicate absence or lack. n. 2. the abessive case. [1890 94; < L abess(e) to be distant + IVE] * * * … Universalium
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abessive — (ˈ)a|besiv adjective Etymology: Latin abesse to be absent + English ive more at absent of a grammatical case : denoting absence or lack … Useful english dictionary
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