Olympique de Marseille


Olympique de Marseille
Marseille
Olympique Marseille logo
Full name Olympique de Marseille
Nickname(s) Les Phocéens, L'OM
Founded 1899
Ground Stade Vélodrome,
Marseille
(Capacity: 60,031[1])
Owner Margarita Louis-Dreyfus
Chairman Vincent Labrune
Manager Didier Deschamps
League Ligue 1
2010–11 Ligue 1, 2nd
Website Club home page
Home colours
Away colours
Third colours
Current season

Olympique de Marseille (French pronunciation: [ɔlɛ̃pik də maʁsɛj], locally [ɔlɛ̃ˈpikə də mɑχˈsɛjə]; also known as l'OM IPA: [lo.ɛm], locally [loˈɛmə]) is a French association football club based in Marseille. Founded in 1899, the club plays in Ligue 1 and have spent most of its history in the top tier of French football. Marseille have been French champions nine times and have won the Coupe de France a record ten times. In 1993, the club became the first and only French club to win the UEFA Champions League. In 1994, Marseille was relegated because of a bribery scandal, losing its domestic trophy, but not the UEFA Champions League title. In 2010, Marseille became French champions again, under the stewardship of former club captain Didier Deschamps.

Marseille's home ground is the 60,031-person-capacity Stade Vélodrome located in the southern part of the city, where they have played since 1937.[1] The Stade Vélodrome is renowned for its lively atmosphere. The club enjoys a large fan-base having regularly averaged the highest all-time attendance in French football. Marseille's average home gate for the 2008–09 season was 52,276, the highest in the Ligue 1.[2]

Marseille's traditional kit colours were white shirts and shorts with blue socks until 1986. Since 1986, Marseille have played with white shirts, white shorts and white socks, and the blue color became lighter due to Adidas marketing. The club's current badge was adopted in 2004. The club's motto Droit Au But (French for "Straight to the Goal") appears under the badge and a star representing the victory in the Champions League is featured on the top. In 1997, Marseille was purchased by Franco-Swiss businessman Robert Louis-Dreyfus.

Contents

History

Olympique de Marseille was founded by René Dufaure de Montmirail, a French sport official, in 1892, as an omnisport club. Known as Sporting Club, US Phocéenne, and Football Club de Marseille in the first five years after its founding, the club adopted the name Olympique de Marseille in 1899, in honor of the anniversary of Marseille's founding by Greeks from Phocaea some 25 centuries earlier, with the name Olympique, coming from ancient Olympic Games and the colours (reversed flag of Greece) chosen to represent the club. At first, rugby union was the most important team sport of the club, the motto Droit au but coming from rugby. Affiliated with USFSA since 1898, it was only in 1902, thanks to English and German (still according to André Gascard), that football began to be played by Olympique de Marseille. Richer and better organized than other football teams of Marseille (Sporting, Stade, Phocéenne.), Olympique de Marseille, playing at the Stade de l'Huveaune, took the leadership in the city. In 1904, Olympique de Marseille won the first Championnat du Littoral, opposing teams from Marseille and its suburbs, and took part in the final rounds of the eleventh French championship. At that time, the word "football" applied to rugby, and people used the word "Association" (which would be soccer in North America) for football.

During the twenties, Olympique de Marseille became an important team in France, winning the Coupe de France in 1924, 1926 and 1927. The team won the French championship in 1929, defeating Club Français. The Coupe de France in 1924 was the club's first major title, won against FC Sète which dominated French football at the time. In the twenties, numerous French internationals such as Jules Dewaquez, Jean Boyer or Joseph Alcazar played for Marseille.[3] In 1930, Marseille lost against Sète, which would be the winner, in the semi-final round. In 1931, the team became champion of the South-East, with victories against rivals such as Sète. In Coupe de France, l'OM lost in 5 matches to Club Français, winning the second match which was canceled due to the disqualification of the Marseille striker Vernicke. Even though the 1931–32 season was less successful, Marseille easily entered professionalism. In 1932, the team became a member of the union of professional clubs. On 13 January 1932 at 9:15 pm, at the Brasserie des Sports, Mr. Dard, Mr. Bison, Dr. Rollenstein, Mr. Etchepare, Mr. Leblanc, Mr. Mille, Mr. Anfosso, Mr. Sabatier, Mr. Seze, Mr. Bazat, Mr. Molteroj, and Mr. Pollack elected the following committee:

Honour Presidents: Paul Le Cesne et Fernand Bouisson President: M. Dard Vice-Presidents: Mr. Leblanc, Mr. Bison, Mr. Etchepare, Dr. Rollenstein et Mr. Anfosso General Secretary: Mr. Possel-Daydier Treasurer: Mr Bison (assisted by Mr Ribel).

For the first championship, Division 1 was divided into two pools. Marseille finished second in the first, behind Lille OSC. For its first match of the championship, Marseille defeated the future champion, Lille.

In 1937, Marseille won its first professional French championship thanks to goal average (+30 for Marseille, +17 for FC Sochaux-Montbéliard). The arrival of Vasconcellos made the defence stronger, whereas former goalkeeper Laurent Di Lorto shone with Sochaux and France. In the meantime, Marseille won the Coupe de France in 1935 and 1938 but failed a double success in 1934, due to FC Sète.

In 1938, Larbi Ben Barek signed with Marseille and became "the black pearl" for the team. World War II would cut his career short. The 1942–43 season was full of records: 100 goals in 30 matches, including 20 in one match (20–2 against Avignon), in which Aznar scored 9 goals, including the first 8 (Marseille was leading 8–0), playing only 70 minutes. Aznar scored 45 goals in 30 matches, plus 11 in cup games, for a record of 56 goals in 38 matches. With the minots (young players) of the moment (Scotti, Robin, Dard, Pironti), Marseille won the cup in two matches against FC Girondins de Bordeaux (4–0).

In 1948, thanks to a draw against Sochaux, Marseille became the champions of France. The two last victories at the Stade Vélodrome against Roubaix (6–0) and FC Metz (6–3) were important, as Aznar and Robin's returned in spring.

In 1952, Marseille was about to be relegated, but Gunnar Andersson saved his team, finishing as best scorer with 31 goals. The team won (5–3) on aggregate against US Valenciennes.The same year, Marseille lost at the Stade Vélodrome against AS Saint-Étienne 10–3, but Liberati was injured. In 1953, Gunnar Andersson would take the record of goals scored in one season with 35. Marseille was runner-up in the Coupe de France (OGC Nice won 2–1) in 1954 and the Coupe Drago in 1957 to (RC Lens which won 3–1). Marseille were struggling at the time and were relegated for the first time in 1959. From 1959 to 1965, the team played in the second division, except during the 1962/63 season, finishing 20th out of 20 in the first division. In 1965, Marcel Leclerc became president.

Marcel Leclerc era and crisis

The first period of Olympique de Marseille's domination of the French League started in the early '70s under Marcel Leclerc's presidency (1965–1972). His ambition allowed Marseille to return to the First division in 1965–66. They went on to win the Coupe de France in 1969 as well as the First division in 1971 with a record of 44 goals by Josip Skoblar, helped by Roger Magnusson. The arrival of Georges Carnus and Bernard Bosquier from Saint-Étienne helped them to win the Ligue 1 and the Coupe de France in 1972. Marseille played in the European Cup in 1971–72 and 1972–73 but were defeated by AFC Ajax of Johan Cruijff and Juventus. However, success was not to last. Marcel Leclerc was forced to leave the club on 19 July 1972. The president was a stubborn man, and he threatened the whole league by threatening to withdraw his professional team from Ligue 1 because the federation refused to accept three foreign players in one team (Leclerc wanted to acquire the Hungarian star Zoltán Varga but he had already the maximum number of two foreigners in his team). But Marseille decided, instead of following Leclerc against the league, to fire him.[4] Then followed an era of crisis with Marseille only winning a Coupe de France in 1976 and being relegated to the second division, where they played with a bunch of young local players: the Minots who allowed the team to return back to First division in 1984. Éric Di Meco was one of them.

Bernard Tapie era and OM/VA bribery scandal

On 12 April 1986, Bernard Tapie became president, thanks to Marseille mayor Gaston Defferre, and promptly built the greatest team ever seen in France. His first signings were Karl-Heinz Forster and Alain Giresse, who were bought after the 1986 FIFA World Cup. Tapie signed a large number of highly regarded players over the next few years in his pursuit of the European Cup, such as Jean-Pierre Papin, Chris Waddle, Klaus Allofs, Enzo Francescoli, Abedi Pelé, Didier Deschamps, Basile Boli, Marcel Desailly, Rudi Völler and Eric Cantona as well as appointing high-profile coaches like Franz Beckenbauer, Gérard Gili and Raymond Goethals. Between 1989 and 1992, Olympique de Marseille won 4 League titles in a row and the French Cup. The highlight of the club's history is winning the new format Champions League in 1993. Basile Boli scored the only goal against Italy's A.C. Milan in the final held in Munich's Olympic Stadium. That triumph was the first time ever for a French club and it made Didier Deschamps and Fabien Barthez the youngest captain and goalkeeper, respectively, to capture the title.

This, however, was followed by a decade of decline. In 1994, due to financial irregularities and a match fixing scandal involving then president Bernard Tapie, they suffered forced relegation to the second division, where Marseille stayed two years before coming back to First division. Moreover, they lost their 1992–93 Division 1 title and the right to play in the UEFA Champions League 1993-94, the 1993 European Super Cup and the 1993 Intercontinental Cup. This scandal, called l'affaire VA-OM (VA for Union Sportive Valenciennes-Anzin and OM for Olympique de Marseille), was denounced by Valenciennes, whose players Jacques Glassmann,[5] Jorge Burruchaga[6] and Christophe Robert[6] were contacted by Marseille player Jean-Jacques Eydelie,[7] in order to let OM win and, more importantly, not to injure any OM player ahead of the UEFA Champions League final.

Return to success?

Marseille returned to the top flight in 1996 with backing from Adidas's owner Robert Louis-Dreyfus. He chose Rolland Courbis as coach, signed Fabrizio Ravanelli, Laurent Blanc, and Andreas Köpke, and Marseille finished 11th for his return. For the 1998–99 season, the team celebrated his centenary and built a team of stars: Robert Pirès, Florian Maurice, and Christophe Dugarry, culminating in a second place finish in the French championship, behind Bordeaux and an appearance in the UEFA Cup Final in 1999, losing to Parma. Courbis left the team in November 1999, after a poor start to the season. The closest Marseille to get another trophy was when they reached the UEFA Cup Final in 2004, impressively beating Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk, Internazionale, Liverpool, and Newcastle United along the way. But they were beaten in the final by newly-crowned Spanish champions Valencia CF and once again fans were forced to continue waiting for the next trophy to come along.

In 2005, Marseille succeeded in winning Intertoto Cup, beating the likes of Lazio and Deportivo La Coruña in doing so, and earning another shot at the UEFA Cup.

In January 2007, there was negotiation between Dreyfus and Jack Kachkar, a Canadian doctor and businessman (CEO of pharmaceutical company Inyx), about the selling of the club. As Jack Kachkar took too much time to buy the team, Robert Louis-Dreyfus decided on 22 March 2007 not to sell to the Canadian businessman.[8]

Another close call to glory was in the French Cup final against Sochaux in May 2007. However, they lost on penalties after a 2–2 draw after extra time, to the disappointment of everyone linked with the club, but they soon wiped all that disappointment away by qualifying for the 2007–08 UEFA Champions League group stage, after securing 2nd place with a game to go.

In the Champions League, Marseille became the first French team to win at Anfield when they beat 2007 runners-up Liverpool 1–0, and the team took 6 out of 6 points from their opening two games. They only drew one more match, and in a winner-takes-all final group game they lost 4–0 to Liverpool, who became the first English team to win at the Stade Vélodrome. Marseille, coming third in the Champions League Group A, then joined the UEFA Cup.[9]

Marseille finished the 2008–09 season with a second place finish in Ligue 1, following a tight race with Girondins de Bordeaux for the title. This earned them a direct entry into the group stages of the UEFA Champions League, their third consecutive season in the competition. Marseille won the 2010 Coupe de la Ligue Final beating Bordeaux 3–1 at the Stade de France in March 2010. This was their first major title since their Champions League triumph 17 years previously. Two months later, Marseille won their first league championship for 18 years with two games to spare after beating Rennes 3–1.[10][11]

Marseille defeated PSG on penalties to win the 2010 Trophée des Champions at Stade 7 Novembre in Rades, Tunisia before the season began. Marseille then became the first team to win back-to-back Coupe de la Ligue successes when they won the 2011 edition by beating Montpellier HSC 1–0 on 23 April. Before that, they qualified for the last 16 of the UEFA Champions League for the first time since their historic success, but lost unluckily 2–1 at Old Trafford to Manchester United and also set a Champions League record by thrashing MSK Zilina 7–0 in what was the biggest away win in the competition's history.

In 2011, Marseille lost the Ligue 1 championship title but qualified for the UEFA Champions League for the fifth time in a row, a club record. On 27 July 2011, Marseille successfully won the 2011 Trophée des Champions title by beating LOSC Lille Métropole 5–4 at Stade de Tanger in Morocco. The result was significant as OM were 3–1 down with 5 minutes to go, only to embark on a remarkable comeback which saw 5 goals scored in the last five minutes with Andre Ayew scoring a hat-trick.

Rivalries

Le Classique

PSG 1–3 OM (15-03-2010)

PSG-OM or OM-PSG, often referred to as Le Classique (The Classic) is a football match that is contested between French clubs Paris Saint-Germain and Olympique de Marseille. The term Classique is modeled on the El Clásico, which is contested between Real Madrid and Barcelona. Like all the game's major rivalries, the antipathy between Paris Saint-Germain and Marseille extends outside the pitch. The so-called French clásico has a historical, cultural and social importance that makes it more than just a football game, pitching capital against province and "Provence" and the chosen ones of French football against its enfants terribles (terrible children).[12][13] With PSG being located in the north in the French capital and Marseille located along the Mediterranean coast, the rivalry is often referred to as "the North versus the South."

PSG and Marseille are the only French clubs to have won European trophies, having won the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1996 and the UEFA Champions League in 1993 respectively, and were the two dominant forces before the emergence of Lyon at the beginning of the 21st century. However, despite their recent ups and downs, PSG and l'OM remain, along with Saint-Étienne, the French clubs with the most faithful and passionate fan base, giving the country's biggest match a special atmosphere.[12][14]

Stadium

Stade Vélodrome

From 1904 to 1937, Marseille played at the Stade de l'Huveaune. The club was the owner of the venue, contrary to its current stadium. L'Huveaune, a time named "Stade Fernand Buisson" in honour of a former rugby player of the club who became deputee was renovated at the beginning of the twenties, thanks to supporter's financial help. It had a capacity of 15,000. After 1937, l'OM used this venue under Marcel Leclerc's presidency in order to compel the city of Marseille to lower the rent of Stade Vélodrome and during the renovation of Vélodrome for Euro 1984, during the 1982/83 season. The stadium again underwent redevelopment in time for the 1998 World Cup and was transformed into an immense ground composed of two Curva ends (Virage Nord and Virage Sud – North Curve and South Curve) which house the supporters groups as well as the main stand, Jean Bouin, and the imposing Ganay stand. Today, the team regularly fills their impressive home, the Stade Vélodrome, which seats 60,013.

The municipality will cover the stadium and increase its capacity to 67,000 in order to receive the Euro 2016 games.

Before the start of each home game the song Jump by Van Halen is heard. When a goal is scored by Marseille in their home matches the song Come with Me by Puff Daddy is played.

Badge

Club founder René Dufaure de Montmirail drew inspiration from his personal seal, which featured interlaced letters "D" and "M", to create the club's first badge. The club's motto, "Droit au but", dates from the days when the club's main sport was rugby, under the name "Football Club de Marseille". The original badge featured an ornate letter "M" superimposed over an "O", with the club motto draped across the glyph. The logo persisted for three decades, until 1935, when an art deco shield was adopted, with a simple "M" encased within the "O". In 1972, Olympique redesigned its logo, this time preferring a complex "M" letterform. In 1986, the club re-adopted its first badge; the logo evolved slightly over the next few decades, gaining a star in 1993 to commemorate the club's UEFA Champions League trophy. To commemorate the club's 100th anniversary in 1999, a variant featuring a golden "O" and a turquoise "M" was used; a similar 110th anniversary logo was used during the 2009–2010 season.

The most recent form was revealed on 17 February 2004; the "O" and "M" are rendered as a single unit in turquoise without shading or borders, and the logo is capped by the golden star and sits above the club motto, also rendered in gold.

Supporters

OM Supporters in Stade de France

The atmosphere in the Stade Vélodrome is created by the dominance of OM's own supporters who are housed in the Curva style ends behind the goals.

Virage Nord-Patrice de Peretti

The North Curve is home to the Yankee Nord Marseille, Marseille Trop Puissant, Fanatics, and Dodgers supporters associations who buy up the tickets at the start of each season and sell them on to their members. The Virage Nord is situated next to the away enclosure which is protected by high fences. In 2002, the Virage Nord was officially given the name of Patrice de Peretti (1972–2000), the late founder and leader of the supporters group Marseille Trop Puissant. In 2010, the third kit of OLympique was a tribute to MTP, with the red, yellow and green colours of Africa, symbols of this left-wing curva.

Virage Sud Chevalier de la roze

As with the Virage Nord, the South Curve is controlled by supporter's associations with the Commando Ultras 1984 and the South Winners dominating the central section and Amis de l'OM and Club Central des Supporteurs filling the remaining sections of the stand. The 2007/2008 third shirt of OM was a tribute to South Winners fans which the colours are orange, as they are traditionally left winged fans.

Livorno – AEK – Marseille

There is a strong relationship between AS Livorno, AEK Athens, and Olympique Marseille. Marseille fans often lift banners and create choreography in support of the fellow teams.

Honours

Marseille's tally of nine French championships is second only to AS Saint-Étienne's total of ten.[15] Marseille also have the record in Coupe de France titles (with 10).[16] Marseille have achieved two Championship and Cup "Doubles" (in 1972 and 1989).[17] They are the only French club to win the UEFA Champions League, in 1993.[18]

National titles

  • Coupe Charles Drago
    • Winners (1) : 1957
  • Championnat de France Amateurs
    • Winners (1) : 1929
  • Championnat de France USFSA
    • Runners-up (1) : 1919

Regional titles

  • South-East DH Championship
    • Winners (4) : 1927, 1929, 1930, 1931
    • Runners-up (4) : 1921, 1922, 1924, 1925
  • Coastline USFSA Championship
    • Winners (7) : 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1919
    • Runners-up (6) : 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914

International titles

Reserve titles

  • South-East DH Championship
    • Winners (2) : 1958, 1966
    • Runners-up (1) : 1962
  • Coastline USFSA Championship 3
    • Winners (1) : 1910
  • Coastline USFSA Championship 4
    • Winners (1) : 1910

Youth titles

  • French Under 16 championship
    • Winners (3) : 1979, 2008, 2009

Players

Current squad

As of 30 August 2011.[21]

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
1 France GK Gennaro Bracigliano
2 Spain DF César Azpilicueta
3 Cameroon DF Nicolas N'Koulou
4 France MF Alou Diarra
7 France MF Benoît Cheyrou
8 Argentina MF Lucho González
10 France FW André-Pierre Gignac
11 France FW Loïc Rémy
12 Burkina Faso MF Charles Kaboré
13 Mali DF Djimi Traoré
15 France DF Jérémy Morel
16 Brazil GK Elinton Andrade
17 Cameroon DF Stéphane Mbia
No. Position Player
18 France MF Morgan Amalfitano
20 Ghana FW André Ayew
21 Senegal DF Souleymane Diawara
23 Ghana FW Jordan Ayew
24 France DF Rod Fanni
25 France FW Billel Omrani
26 France DF Jean-Philippe Sabo
28 France MF Mathieu Valbuena
29 France FW Chris Gadi
30 France GK Steve Mandanda (captain)
France DF Gérard Roland
France DF Cédric D'Ulivo
France DF Julien Rodriguez

Out on loan

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
9 Brazil FW Brandão (at Grêmio until the end of the 2011 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A season)
14 Senegal DF Leyti N'Diaye (at Ajaccio until the end of the 2011-12 Ligue 1 season)
27 Senegal DF Pape M'Bow (at Mons until the end of the 2011–12 Belgian Pro League season)
Togo DF Senah Mango (at Monaco until the end of the 2011-12 Ligue 2 season)
Gabon MF Alexander N'Doumbou (at Orléans until the end of the 2011–12 Championnat National season)
Ghana MF Kevin Osei (at Bayonne until the end of the 2011–12 Championnat National season)

Reserve Squad

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
Morocco GK Samir Kouakbi
Togo GK Cédric Mensah
France DF Cédric D'Ulivo
Algeria DF Salim Laassami
France DF Christophe Lowinsky
France DF Jean-François Paoletti
France DF Gérard Roland
France MF Samir Abbes
France MF Landing Bodian
France MF Anthony Marin
No. Position Player
France MF Florian Moulet
Cameroon MF Théodore Boris Nkoa
France MF Ahmed Nouri
France MF Thomas Pechart
France FW Najib Ammari
France FW Chris Gadi
France FW Samir Malcuit
Croatia FW Niko Maričić
France FW Bilal Omrani
Georgia (country) FW Gurami Enukidze

Notable players

Ballon d'Or

The following players have won the Ballon d'Or whilst playing for Olympique de Marseille:

European Golden Shoe

The following players have won the European Golden Shoe whilst playing for Olympique de Marseille:

Other players

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b "Velodrome Stadium". om.net. http://www.om.net/en/Club/502001/Stade_Velodrome. Retrieved 13 January 2008. 
  2. ^ "Attendances 2008/09". ligue1.com. http://www.ligue1.com/ligue1/stat/affluence_club.asp?saison=2008/2009. Retrieved 28 September 2009. 
  3. ^ "History of l'OM". OM official site. 08/04/2006. http://www.om.net/fr/Club/501002/Histoire_de_l_OM/25675/Historique_de_l_OM. Retrieved 26 April 2007. 
  4. ^ France Football, N°2936 bis, PP 28–29 La nuit des longs couteaux à l'OM
  5. ^ "Tapie Directly Implicated As Marseille Trial Opens". International Herald Tribute. 14 March 1995. Archived from the original on 28 November 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061128001024/http://www.iht.com/articles/1995/03/14/tapie.php. Retrieved 12 March 2007. 
  6. ^ a b "Argentine Charged in Marseille case". New York Times. 2 July 1993. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE7D61F3DF931A35754C0A965958260. Retrieved 12 March 2007. 
  7. ^ "Wenger slams former Marseille Chairman". Eurosport. 23 January 2006. http://www.eurosport.com/football/sport_sto817893.shtml. Retrieved 12 March 2007. 
  8. ^ "Kachkar, It's over now". RTL. 29 March 2007. http://www.rtl.fr/sports/article.asp?dicid=523798. Retrieved 26 April 2007. 
  9. ^ Marseille 0–4 Liverpool BBC Sport – 11 December 2007
  10. ^ Bairner, Robin (5 May 2010). "Olympique de Marseille Win 2009–10 Ligue 1 Title". Goal.com (Ellinton Invest Inc.). http://www.goal.com/en-us/news/465/france/2010/05/05/1910716/olympique-de-marseille-win-2009-10-ligue-1-title. Retrieved 5 May 2010. 
  11. ^ "Marseille clinches ninth French league title". Sports Illustrated (Time Warner). 5 May 2010. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/2010/soccer/wires/05/05/2080.ap.soc.french.roundup.4th.ld.writethru.0522/. Retrieved 5 May 2010. [dead link]
  12. ^ a b "France’s passion play". FIFA.com. 29 May 1993. http://www.fifa.com/classicfootball/stories/classicderby/news/newsid=1037223.html#frances+passion+play. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  13. ^ "French Football League – Ligue 1, Ligue 2, Coupe de la Ligue, Trophée des Champions". Ligue1.com. http://www.ligue1.com/ligue1/lireArticle.asp?idArticle=14341. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  14. ^ http://www.iss.europa.eu/nc/actualites/actualite/browse/41/article/european-football-cultures-and-their-integration-theshort-twentieth-century/?tx_ttnews[page]=2&cHash=f0de756510
  15. ^ François Mazet and Frédéric Pauron. "France – List of Champions". RSSSF. http://www.rsssf.com/tablesf/franchamp.html#summ. Retrieved 18 February 2009. 
  16. ^ François Mazet and Frédéric Pauron. "France – List of Cup Finals". RSSSF. http://www.rsssf.com/tablesf/francuphist.html. Retrieved 18 February 2009. 
  17. ^ Stokkermans, Karel. "Doing the Double: Total Number of Domestic Doubles". RSSSF. http://www.rsssf.com/miscellaneous/doublerec.html#tnd. Retrieved 18 February 2009. 
  18. ^ "1992/93: French first for Marseille". uefa.com. http://www.uefa.com/competitions/ucl/history/season=1992/intro.html. Retrieved 18 September 2009. 
  19. ^ Until 2002, when the Ligue 1 was formed, the top tier of French football was known as Division 1.
  20. ^ The trophy was known as Challenge des champions until 1995, and as Trophée des Champions ever since.
  21. ^ Olympique de Marseille. "Site officiel de l'Olympique de Marseille". OM.net. http://www.om.net/fr/Equipes/201001/Effectif_pro. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 

References

  • Alain Pécheral (2007). La grande histoire de l'OM. L'Équipe. ISBN 2916400079. 
  • Thierry Agnello (2008). Droit au but : l'histoire de l'Olympique de Marseille. Hugo Sport. ISBN 9782755601831. 

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