La Paz

La Paz
Nuestra Señora de La Paz
La Paz[1] (Spanish)
Chuquiago Marka or Chuqiyapu (Aymara)
La Paz (English)
View of La Paz from Av. del Ejército in 2008. At the back, The Americas Bridge.


Motto: "Los discordes en concordia, en paz y amor se juntaron y pueblo de paz fundaron para perpetua memoria"
Nuestra Señora de La Paz is located in Bolivia
Nuestra Señora de La Paz
Location of La Paz within La Paz Department
Coordinates: 16°30′S 68°09′W / 16.5°S 68.15°W / -16.5; -68.15Coordinates: 16°30′S 68°09′W / 16.5°S 68.15°W / -16.5; -68.15
Country  Bolivia
Departament La Paz
Province Pedro Domingo Murillo
Founded October 20, 1548 by Alonso de Mendoza
Independence July 16, 1809
 – Mayor Luis Antonio Revilla Herrero [2]
 – City 472 km2 (182.2 sq mi)
 – Urban 3,240 km2 (1,251 sq mi)
Elevation 3,640 m (11,942 ft)
Population (2008[3])
 – City 877,363
 – Density 6,275.16/km2 (16,252.6/sq mi)
 – Metro 2,364,235
Time zone BOT (UTC−4)
Area code(s) 2
HDI (2010) 0.672 – high[4]

Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈnwes.tɾa seˈɲoɾa ðe la pas]; English: Our Lady of Peace; Aymara: Chuquiago Marka or Chuqiyapu) is the administrative capital of Bolivia, as well as the departmental capital of the La Paz Department, and the second largest city in the country (in population) after Santa Cruz de la Sierra.[3] It is located in the western part of the country in the department of the same name It is located at an elevation of 3,650 m (11,975 ft) above sea level, making it the world's highest "de facto" capital city, or administrative capital.

The official capital of Bolivia is Sucre and it is the seat of Justice, La Paz has more government departments, hence the "de facto" qualifier.[5] The city sits in a "bowl" surrounded by the high mountains of the altiplano.

As it grows, the city of La Paz climbs the hills, resulting in varying elevations from 3,000 meters to 4,100 meters (9,840 ft to 13,450 ft). Overlooking the city is towering triple-peaked Illimani, which is always snow-covered and can be seen from several spots of the city, including from the neighbor city of El Alto. As of the 2001 census, the city had a population of 877,363.[6] La Paz Metropolitan area, formed by the cities of La Paz, El Alto and Viacha, make the most populous urban area of Bolivia, with a population of 2.3 million inhabitants and surpassing the metropolitan area of Santa Cruz de la Sierra.[7]



Government Palace of Bolivia in downtown La Paz

Founded in 1548 by the Spanish conquistadors at the site of the Native American settlement, Laja, the full name of the city was originally Nuestra Señora de La Paz (meaning Our Lady of Peace). The name commemorated the restoration of peace following the insurrection of Gonzalo Pizarro and fellow conquistadors four years earlier against Blasco Núñez Vela, the first viceroy of Peru. The city was later moved to its present location in the valley of Chuquiago Marka.[8]

Control over the former Inca lands had been entrusted to Pedro de la Gasca by the Spanish king (and Holy Roman Emperor) Emperor Charles V. Gasca commanded Alonso de Mendoza to found a new city commemorating the end of the civil wars in Peru; the city of La Paz was founded on October 20, 1548.

In 1549, "Juan Gutierrez Paniagua" was commanded to design an urban plan that would designate sites for public areas, plazas, official buildings, and a cathedral. La Plaza de los Españoles, which is known today as the Plaza Murillo, was chosen as the location for government buildings as well as the Metropolitan Cathedral.

Spain controlled La Paz with a firm grip and the Spanish king had the last word in all matters political. In 1781, for a total of six months, a group of Aymara people laid siege to La Paz. Under the leadership of Tupac Katari, they destroyed churches and government property. Thirty years later Indians laid a two-month siege on La Paz – where and when the legend of the Ekeko is set. In 1809 the struggle for independence from the Spanish rule brought uprisings against the royalist forces. It was on July 16, 1809 that Pedro Domingo Murillo famously said that the Bolivian revolution was igniting a lamp that nobody would be able to turn-off. This formally marked the beginning of the Liberation of South America from Spain. Pedro Domingo Murillo was hanged at the Plaza de los Españoles that night, but his name would be eternally remembered in the name of the plaza, and he would be remembered as the voice of revolution across South America.

In 1825, after the decisive victory of the republicans at Ayacucho over the Spanish army in the course of the Spanish American wars of independence, the city's full name was changed to La Paz de Ayacucho (meaning The Peace of Ayacucho).

Legislative Palace of Bolivia.

In 1898, La Paz was made the de facto seat of the national government, with Sucre remaining the nominal historical as well as judiciary capital. This change reflected the shift of the Bolivian economy away from the largely exhausted silver mines of Potosí to the exploitation of tin near Oruro, and resulting shifts in the distribution of economic and political power among various national elites.[9]


The city in winter, with Illimani in the background.
Satellite image of La Paz and El Alto

Located at 16°30′0″S 68°08′0″W / 16.5°S 68.133333°W / -16.5; -68.133333 (−16.5, −68.1333), La Paz is built in a canyon created by the Choqueyapu River (now mostly built over), which runs northwest to southeast. The city's main thoroughfare, which roughly follows the river, changes names over its length, but the central tree-lined section running through the downtown core is called the Prado.

The geography of La Paz (in particular the altitude) reflects society: the lower areas of the city are the more affluent areas. While many middle-class residents live in high-rise condos near the center, the houses of the truly affluent are located in the lower neighborhoods southwest of the Prado. And looking up from the center, the surrounding hills are plastered with makeshift brick houses of those less economically fortunate.

The satellite city of El Alto, in which the airport is located, is spread over a broad area to the west of the canyon, on the Altiplano. La Paz is renowned for its unique markets, very unusual topography, and traditional culture.

La Paz is located in the valleys of the Andes, and is closer to the Eastern split of the Altiplano region. Therefore, it is closer to the famous mountains such as the Illimani (guardian of La Paz), Huayna Potosi, Mururata, and Illampu. On the Western side of the Altiplano divide, about an hour to the West of the La Paz, is the site of the tallest mountain in Bolivia and 9th tallest mountain in the Andes, the Sajama Volcano. In July 1994, an earthquake rated at 8.2 struck just 200 miles north of La Paz, the largest earthquake since the Sumbawa earthquake of 1977. Part of the water supply is derived from glaciers, which are becoming a less reliable source of water.[10]


The city is divided into seven main districts, called "Macro Distritos", which at the same time are divided into 21 small districts or zones.[11] The city is commonly divided by the people into three main zones: South Zone, Central Zone and North Zone.

  • 1st Main District: Cotahuma: San Jorge, Sopocachi, Alto Sopocachi (Sopocachi Highlands), Pasankeri, Tembladerani, Llojeta, Alpacoma, Belén, Tacagua, San Pedro, Alto San Pedro (San Pedro Highlands)
  • 2nd Main District: Max Paredes: Gran Poder, Obispo Indaburu, Villa Victoria, El Tejar, Alto Tejar, Chamoco Chico, Munaypata, Pura Pura, Ciudadela Ferroviaria
  • 3rd Main District: Periférica: Limanipata, Achachicala, Vino Tinto, 25 de Mayo, 5 Dedos, Santiago de Lacaya, Rosasani, La Merced, Chuquiaguillo
  • 4th Main District: San Antonio: Villa de Copacabana, Villa Armonía, Villa San Antonio, Kupini, Callapa, Pampahasi, San Isidro
  • 5th Main District: Distrito Sur (South District): Irpavi, Bolonia, Alto Irpavi, Koani, Achumani, Achumani-Meseta, Alto Achumani, Calacoto, Alto Calacoto, Cotacota, Chasquipampa, Ovejuyo, Obrajes, Alto Obrajes, Bajo LLojeta, Bella Vista, Alto Seguencoma, Bajo Seguencoma.
  • 6th Main District: Mallasa: Amor de Dios, Aranjuez, Mallasilla, Isla Verde, Mallasa, Jupapina,

Comunidad Chiaraque.

  • 7th Main District: Distrito Centro (Central District): El Rosario, San Sebastián, Santa Bárbara, Casco Urbano Central, Parque Urbano Central, Miraflores, Casco Viejo

Main neighborhoods and zones

La Paz skyline from the "Via Balcón".
Buildings in San Jorge, on the 1st District (Cotahuma).
  • San Jorge:, located on the 1st District (Cotahuma) and near Sopocachi, it is one of the main residential and diplomatic areas of the city. In contains several buildings, both residential and offices, and embassies, including the Spain Embassy, the United States Embassy, the United Kingdom Embassy and others. One of the main avenues of the city, Arce Avenue, starts on this zone.
Aerial view of Calacoto, on the 5th District.
  • Sopocachi:, located in the 1st District (Cotahuma), Sopocachi is probably one of the oldest residential neighborhoods, located 10 minutes away from the center of the city. Despite the expansion and development of the area, this quarter maintained its residential property. In the last years, there has been an important commercial expansion, mainly on the surroundings of Abaroa Square, one of the many squares and parks of the zone.
  • San Pedro:, located on the 1st District (Cotahuma), on the right bank of the Choqueyapu River and built around the "Plaza de San Pedro" (official name: Plaza Sucre, Sucre Square), is home to numerous shops, businesses and small enterprises, especially printing, spare parts and auto maintenance and repair shops. San Pedro's "Rodriguez Market" remains as one of the most popular middle-class and oldest of the city. The San Pedro prison is located here.
  • Centro: (Downtown) is located on the 7th District and comprises the center of La Paz and principal avenues of the city, like Arce Avenue, July 16 Avenue (also known as "Prado Avenue"), Mariscal Santa Cruz Avenue and Camacho Avenue, this last one being the home of the headquarters of the principal banks and companies of the country.
  • Casco Viejo:, located on the 7th District, is the historic and ancient center of La Paz. It now houses museums, hotels, shops and buildings as the Mayor City of La Paz and the Central Bank of Bolivia. In the Old Quarter is the Plaza Murillo, which is home to the Government Palace and the National Congress.
  • Miraflores:, located on the 7th District, Miraflores district is separated from downtown by a long barrel (called Parque Urbano Central, Central Urban Park) and connected by the Bridge of the Americas and two avenues. Originally a residential zone, its growth has led it to become a major recreational center. It houses universities (including the Universidad Mayor de San Andrés's faculty of medicine), hospitals and the Estadio Hernando Siles(capacity of 45,000 people).
Skyline of Sopocachi, located on the 1st District.
  • Northern District:, located on the 2nd and 3rd districts, it has a significant industrial activity (mainly food), being the Cervecería Boliviana Nacional (Bolivian National Brewery) the most significant industry founded by Germans, and one of the city's biggest companies in the country. It connects La Paz with the city of El Alto by the "autopista"or Highway.
  • Southern District:, located on the 5th district has less height than the rest of La Paz (3,200 to 2,800 meters). This area houses the most affluent and exclusive neighborhoods of the city, like Calacoto, La Florida and Achumani, among others. It has been benefited from steady economic growth and is now the second commercial and financial center of the city, housing international firms like Moody's, Citibank, Aon Corporation, Huawei, Millicom International Cellular, Nissan Motor Corporation represented by Taiyo Motors, Pan American Silver Corporation, a Sumitomo Corporation branch, Ernst & Young, and the "MegaCenter", Bolivia's biggest shopping mall (52.000 mts2 of construction).


Under the Köppen climate classification, La Paz has a subtropical highland climate. Owing to the altitude of the city, temperatures are consistently cool throughout the year, though the diurnal temperature variation is typically large. The city has a relatively dry climate, with rainfall occurring mainly in the slightly warmer months of November to March. The sun passes directly overhead in early November and early February. Ultraviolet solar radiation intensity is the same as Cairns, Australia, for both cities lie on nearly identical latitudes. The two cloudiest months of the year; both in late summer - February and March, both receive a low daily average of 5.0 hours of sunshine. Conversely, the two sunniest months of the year; both in winter - June and July, both receive an abundant daily average of 9.0 hours of sunshine. The seasonally uneven distribution of the year's annual precipitation, often results in destructive mudslides experienced in summer, due to the copious amount of precipitation typically observed throughout the season. The wettest month is January while the driest month is June, the city receiving a monthly average of 130 mm (5.1 in) and 5 mm (0.2 in) of precipitation respectively.


Central Bank building.

The economy of La Paz has improved greatly in recent years, mainly as a result of improved political leaders. Due to the long period of high inflation and economic struggle faced by Bolivians in the 1980s and early 1990s, a large Informal Economy developed. Evidence of this is provided by the markets found all around the city. While there are stable markets, almost every street in the downtown area and surrounding neighborhoods has at least one vendor on it. La Paz remains the principal center of manufacturing enterprises that produce finished-product goods for the country, with about two-thirds of Bolivia's manufacturing located nearby. Historically, industry in Bolivia has been dominated by mineral processing and the preparation of agricultural products. However, in the urban centre of La Paz, small plants carry out a large portion of the industry. Food, tobacco products, clothing, various consumer goods, building materials, and agricultural tools are produced. "The tin quotations from London are watched in La Paz with close interest as an index of the country's prosperity; a third of the national revenue and more than half of the total customs in 1925 were derived from tin; in short, that humble but indispensable metal is the hub around which Bolivia's economic life revolves. The tin deposits of Bolivia, second largest in the world, ... invite development."


La Paz is the home of some of the biggest football teams in Bolivia.

  • Club Bolivar. Founded in 1925, it was named in honor of the Libertador Simón Bolívar, the team has won most of the tournaments national and international championships in the last 20 years. In the year 1964 was a bad year, and it lost the category, playing the next year in the second category.
  • The Strongest. Founded in 1908 and hosts some of its games and trains on its home stadium. Is the oldest team, and the one that has won more tournaments during the 20th century. It has its own stadium named Rafael Mendoza. Don Rafael Mendoza was one of the most important presidents. In 1968 an airplane accident took the life of almost all the players, but Rafael Mendoza made many efforts so that the team rises again as one of the most important of the country.
  • La Paz F.C.

However, these three teams play the majority of their games in the city stadium, Estadio Hernando Siles. It is host to several other teams that play in the first and second divisions such as: Mariscal Braun (2nd), Always Ready (3rd), Municipal (3rd) and Chaco Petrolero (3rd).

La Paz hosts the national football team and international games.


The city hosts some of the most important universities of the country:

  • Universidad Mayor de San Andrés. Opened in 1830, the second oldest university in Bolivia.
  • Universidad Católica Boliviana San Pablo
  • Escuela Militar de Ingeniería
  • Universidad Privada Boliviana
  • Universidad Nuestra Señora de La Paz
  • Universidad Privada Franz Tamayo
  • Universidad Privada San Francisco de Asis
  • Universidad Loyola
  • Universidad NUR
  • Universidad La Salle
  • Universidad Tecnológica Boliviana
  • Universidad Privada del Valle
  • Universidad Central de Bolivia
  • Universidad Salesiana de Bolivia
  • Universidad de Aquino Bolivia
  • Universidad Adventista de Bolivia
  • Universidad Saint Paul
  • Universidad Real
  • Universidad de Los Andes
  • Fundación Infocal La Paz
  • Escuela Normal Superior Simón Bolívar
  • Escuela Industrial Superior "Pedro Domingo Murillo"


Tiwanaku Square in front of the football stadium

La Paz is an important cultural center of Bolivia. The city hosts several cathedrals belonging to the colonial times, such as the San Francisco Cathedral and the Metropolitan Cathedral, this last one located on Murillo Square, which is also home of the political and administrative power of the country. Hundreds of different museums can be found across the city, the most notable ones on Jaén Street, which street design has been preserved from the Spanish days and is home of 10 different museums.

The home of the Bolivian government is located on Murillo Square and is known as "Palacio Quemado" (Burnt Palace) as it has been on fire several times. The palace has been restored many times since, but the name has remained untouched.

Main sights

Museums and cultural centers

  • The former home of Pedro Domingo Murillo, martyr of the independence revolution of 1809, has been preserved and is now a museum. The house displays a collection of furniture, textiles, and art from colonial times.
  • Museo Costumbrista: Displays ceramic dolls wearing traditional customs that show how was life in the early 19th century. Also on display are photos of old La Paz.
  • Museo Nacional de Arqueología (Nacional Museum of Archeology): Depicts a collection of artifacts of the Tiawanaku culture.
  • Museo del Litoral (Museum of the Coastal Region): Displays objects from the 1879 war in which Bolivia lost its sea coast to Chile.
  • Museo del Oro (Gold Museum): Depicts pre-Conquest works made of gold, silver and copper.
  • Museo de Etnografía y Folklore (Ethnography and Folkolore Museum): Placed in a house built in the late 18th century, it exhibits customs and art of two ethnic groups: Chipayas and Ayoreos.
  • Museo del Charango (Museum of Charango): Located in Calle Linares, the museum displays an incredible variety of charangos. Other native instruments are displayed as well.
  • Museo de Historia Natural (Natural History Museum): Exhibits on Bolivia's paleontology, geology, paleontology, zoology, and botany.
  • Casa Museo Marina Nuñez del Prado (Marina Nuñez del Prado House Museum): Displays Quechua and Aymara-theme sculptures by Bolivian artist Marina Nuñez del Prado.
  • Museo Nacional de Arte (National Art Museum): Located in calle Comercio, on a former palace built in 1775, displays works by Melchor Perez de Holguín and Marina Nuñez del Prado, among others.
  • Mercado de Brujas (Witches' Market): Merchandise sold here includes herbs, remedies as well as other ingredients used in Aymara traditions.
  • Feria de Alasitas: This fair is celebrated each year on January 24 in honor of a little god of abundance known as Ekeko, which means dwarf in Aymara.

Churches and cathedrals

  • Metropolitan Cathedral, built in 1835 and located next to the Presidential Palace, on Murillo Square;
  • San Francisco Church, founded in 1548 and rebuilt 1784.


Local festivities

  • January 24: Alasitas,in all neighborhoods
  • February 2: Virgen de Copacabana, (Villa Copacabana)
  • May 1: San José Obrero (V. Nuevo Potosí)
  • May 3: Señor de la Santa Cruz (Calvario, Tacagua, Calacoto)
  • May 13: Virgen de Fátima (Villa Fátima)
  • May 14: San Isidro, Labrador (San Isidro)
  • May 17: Señor de la Sentencia (Villa Armonía)
  • May: Jesus, Señor del Gran Poder (movible, Gran Poder)
  • June 13: San Antonio de Padua (San Antonio)
  • June 24: San Juan Bautista (Valle Hermoso, San Juan)
  • June 29: San Pedro Apóstol (San Pedro)
  • July 16: Virgen del Carmen, Patroness of Bolivia and the Armed Forces of the Nation Efemerides of La Paz
  • July 25: Apóstol Santiago (Munaypata, Pampahasi, Pasankeri, Periférica, Alto Delicias)
  • August 15: Virgen de Urqupiña (Urkupiña)
  • August 15: Virgen de la Asunción (Villa Victoria)
  • September 8: Virgen de las Nieves (V. Copacabana, M. Paredes, La Portada, Achachicala, Alto Irpavi, Cotahuma, Las Nieves)
  • September 8: Virgen de los Remedios (Miraflores)
  • September 14: Señor de la Exaltación (Obrajes, G. de Lima, Bajo Tejar, Vino Tinto)
  • September 24: Virgen de la Merced (Cota Cota)
  • October 7: Virgen del Rosario (El Rosario)
  • November: Cristo Rey (Pura Pura)
  • December 4: Santa Barbara (Santa Bárbara, Llojeta)
  • December 8: Virgen de la Concepción (Kupini, Sopocachi, Achumani)



Waiting area in El Alto International Airport for domestic flights.

La Paz is served by El Alto International Airport (IATA code: LPB), which is situated eight miles (14 km) south-west of La Paz. At an elevation of 4,061 metres (13,323 ft), it is one of the highest major airports in the world. Airport facilities include a bank, bars, car rentals, restaurants, free wi-fi internet and duty-free shops. The runway has a length of 4,000 metres (13,123 ft) (or 2.5 miles). Additionally, it is the second airport in the Western Hemisphere, and the third airport in the world, to successfully pass the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Universal Security Audit Program (USAP).


Bus Station

La Paz Bus Station, previously bus and train station, was built by the French architect Gustave Eiffel. The main gateway for transporting intercities bus travel in La Paz with several daily departs to all the main Bolivian cities. Bus Terminal in La Paz is the main city bus station. The city is connected by road with the city of Oruro where you can access the cities of Sucre, Potosí and south of the country. There is an important road that connects the road to Oruro in the cities of Cochabamba and Santa Cruz. There are also access roads to paviementados Copacabana and Tiwanaku to the west, near the Lake Titicaca, which continues until the city of Cuzco via the border town of Desaguadero. There are also roads north to get to The Yungas crossing the Andes Mountains.

The bus terminal has daily departures to major cities. There are also trips to other cities in countries like Chile and Peru. For departures to smaller cities and towns within the department, using informal stations located in Villa Fatima (departures to Los Yungas, Beni and Pando, Upper San Pedro (outputs Apolo) and near the General Cemetery (outputs Copacabana and other nearby cities to Lake Titicaca, and also Tiwanacu, Desaguadero where you can go to Peru).


  • The postal service is run by ECOBOL (National Company) which has its headquarters in La Paz. There are other companies offering courier and transport logistics courier nationally and internationally.
  • The private telecommunications company 'Entel' is located in the city. Provides services telephony, Internet, cell phone, data and voice. The telephone cooperative Cotel is responsible for managing much of their phones and now offers Internet services and cable television among others.
  • Area Code: 2
  • Country Code: 591
  • The main daily newspapers in circulation are: 'La Razon, 'El Diario, 'La Prensa, 'Jornada and 'El Alteño' . Other papers of local importance are: Extra and PEOPLE. There are also several other publications and weekly magazines.
  • There are 18 television channels with offices in La Paz. Channel 7 is state property. The main ones are: Unitel, ATB Bolivia, Red Uno, Bolivision, Red PAT. Channel 13 is managed by the Universidad Mayor de San Andres. Two local companies offer cable television service as Multivision and Cotel TV.

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

La Paz is part of the Union of Capital Cities Latin America[14] from October 12, 1982 establishing brotherly relations with the following cities:

Additionally, agreement was reached by Twin Cities with:

In June 2008 it signed a twinning agreement with the City of Spain Zaragoza, Spain.

La Paz belongs to Merco Ciudades, signed by 180 urbes of the member countries of Mercosur,[18] since 1999.



  • La Paz is the highest capital city in the world.
  • El Alto International Airport is the highest international airport in the world (13,325 feet above mean sea level).
  • The water boils there at a temperature of 80 °C (176 °F).
  • La Paz has the highest recognized olympic stadium. FIFA issued a rule forbidding the organisation of official matches in stadiums in more than 2,500 meters of altitude because players become more exhausted with less oxygen.
  • La Paz bus station was built by Gustav Eiffel who also built the Eiffel Tower.

See also


  1. ^ Breve Historia de nuestro país (pág.3), Bolivian Government Official Website(Spanish)
  2. ^ "¿Quién es Luis Revilla?". Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  3. ^ a b "World Gazetteer". World Gazetteer. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  4. ^ "W.K. Kellogg Foundation: Overview – Bolivia: La Paz – El Alto". 
  5. ^ "The Highest City in the World —". Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  6. ^ Observatorio Bolivia Democrática
  7. ^ "La Paz – profile of geographical entity including name variants". World Gazetteer. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  8. ^ "La Paz". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2008. 
  9. ^ "La Paz," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2008. Archived 2009-10-31.
  10. ^ Shukman, David (2009-12-04). "Glacier threat to Bolivia capital". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  11. ^ "ATLAS – Del Gobierno Municipal de La Paz" (in Spanish). 2006. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  12. ^ "Historical weather for La Paz, Bolivia". Weatherbase. Retrieved January 2011. 
  13. ^ "Médias e registros – La Paz, Bolívia". The Weather Channel (in Portuguese). Retrieved January 2011. 
  14. ^ "Declaración de Hermanamiento múltiple y solidario de todas las Capitales de Iberoamérica (12-10-82)" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  15. ^ Madrid city council webpage "Mapa Mundi de las ciudades hermanadas". Ayuntamiento de Madrid. Madrid city council webpage. 
  16. ^ "Descentralized Cooperation" (in (Portuguese)). Prefeitura.Sp. Retrieved 2010-01-31. [dead link]
  17. ^ "International Relations – São Paulo City Hall – Official Sister Cities". Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  18. ^ Mercociudades. "Mercocities: member cities". Retrieved 2010-01-31. 

External links

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