Infobox Ethnic group
poptime=approximately 85 million (2000 census)
Indonesia: 83.2 million Central Java: 30.6 million East Java: 27.5 million Lampung: 4.2 million West Java: 3.9 million North Sumatra: 3.7 million Yogyakarta: 3 million Jakarta: 2.9 million South Sumatra: 1.9 million Riau: 1.2 million Banten: 1.0 million East Kalimantan: 0.7 million Jambi: 0.7 million Aceh: 0.6 million South Kalimantan: 0.4 million Bengkulu: 0.3 million Central Kalimantan: 0.3 million
Papua: 0.3 million
Malaysia: 1 million
New Caledonia: 5,000
Netherlands: 150,000-300,000Fact|date=February 2007
Islam. Some adherents of Kejawen Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism
related-c=Sundanese, Madurese, Balinese, MalaysThe Javanese are an
ethnic groupnative to the Indonesian island of Java. They are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of the island. At 90 million people ( as of 2004), it is the largest ethnic groupon the island, and also in Indonesia.
Origin and distribution
Like most Indonesian ethnic groups, including the Sundanese of
West Java, the Javanese are of Austronesianorigins whose ancestors are thought to have originated in Taiwan, and migrated though the Philippines, reaching Java between 1,500BCE and 1,000BCE. [Taylor (2003), p. 7.]
The Javanese were traditionally concentrated in the provinces of
East Java, Central Javaand Yogyakarta, but due to migration within Indonesia (as part of government transmigration programs or otherwise) there are now high populations of Javanese people in almost all the Indonesian provinces. (The province of West Javais home to the Sundanese, Indonesia's second largest ethnic group who are ethnically distinct from the Javanese).
Javanese people use
Javanese languagein everyday speech. In a public poll held circa-1990, approximately 12% of Javanese used Indonesian, around 18% used both Javanese and Indonesian, and the rest used Javanese exclusively. However since that time use of Indonesian is likely to have increased.
Culturally, Javanese people adopt a paternalistic system that traces the hierarchic lineage of the father. This system is particularly used to determine descendants' right to use royal titles before their names. However, it is not customary for Javanese to have a descended family name.
Most Javanese follow
Islamas their religion. Some also follow Christianity( Protestantismand Catholicism), which are rather concentrated in Central Java(particularly Surakarta, Magelangand Yogyakartafor Catholicism). In a much smaller scale, Buddhismand Hinduismalso are found in the Javanese community.
Many Javanese follow the ethnic religion Kejawen, which is animistic with strong influences of
Hinduismand Buddhismand some rituals in Islam. The Javanese community is also known for syncretismof beliefs. All the outside cultures were absorbed and interpreted according to the Javanese traditional values, creating a new set of religious beliefs unique to local culture.
Indonesia, Javanese can be found in all professions, especially in the governmentand the military. Traditionally, most Javanese are farmers. This was especially common because of the fertile volcanic soil in Java.
The famous American anthropologist
Clifford Geertzin the 1960s divided the Javanese community into three "aliran" or "streams": santri, abanganand priyayi. According to him, the Santri followed an orthodox interpretation Islam, the abangan was the followed a syncretic form of Islam that mixed Hindu and animist elements (often termed " Kejawen"), and the priyayi was the nobility. [cite book | last = McDonald | first = Hamish | title = Suharto's Indonesia | publisher = Fontana | date = 1980 | location = Melbourne | pages = pp. 9-10 | isbn = ISBN 0-00-635721-0] But today the Geertz opinion is often opposed because he mixed the social groups with belief groups. It was also difficult to apply this social categorisation in classing outsiders, for example other non-indigenous Indonesians such as persons of Arab, Chinese and Indian descent.
Social stratification is much less rigid in northern coast area, which is much more egalitarian.
Javanese origin artforms are among the best known in
Indonesiaand the whole archipelago. The famous Javanese wayangpuppetry culture was influenced by Hindu and Buddhist traditions. The Wayang repertoire stories, lakon, are mostly (loosely) based on epics from India; Ramayanaand Mahabharata. These epics and stories influenced wayang puppetry as well as Javanese classical dances. The influences from Islamand the Western worldalso can be found.The art of Batikand Kerisdagger are among Javanese origin art expressions. Gamelanmusical ensembles are found in both Java and Bali. All of these artforms holds important position, and function within Javanese culture and tradition.
Javanese do not usually have family names or surnames. Many have just a single name. For example,
Sukarnoor Suharto. Javanese names may come from traditional Javanese languages, many of which are derived from Sanskrit. Names with the prefix "Su-",which means "good", are very popular. After the advent of Islam, many Javanese began to use Arabicnames, especially among clerics and northern coast populations, where Islamic influences are stronger. Commoners usually only have one-word names, while nobilities use two-or-more-word names, but rarely a surname. Due to the influence of other cultures, many people started using names from other languages, mainly European languages. ChristianJavanese usually use Latin baptistnames followed by a traditional Javanese name.
Some people use a
patronymic. For example, Abdurrahman Wahid's name is derived from his father's name ( Wahid Hasyim) who was an independence fighter and minister. In turn, Wahid Hasyim's name was derived from that of his father: Hasyim Asyari, a famous cleric and founder of the Nahdlatul Ulamaorganization.
List of Javanese
*Javanese in Singapore
* Kuncaraningrat. (1985) "Javanese culture" Singapore: Oxford University Press,
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