Bran is the hard outer layer of grain and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. Along with germ, it is an integral part of whole grains, and is often produced as a by-product of milling in the production of refined grains. When bran is removed from grains, the grains lose a portion of their nutritional value. Bran is present in and may be milled from any cereal grain, including rice, corn (maize), wheat, oats, barley and millet. Bran should not be confused with chaff, which is coarser scaly material surrounding the grain, but not forming part of the grain itself.
Rice bran is a byproduct of the rice milling process (the conversion of brown rice to white rice), and it contains various antioxidants that impart beneficial effects on human health. A major rice bran fraction contains 12%-13% oil and highly unsaponifiable components (4.3%). This fraction contains tocotrienols (a form of vitamin E), gamma-oryzanol and beta-sitosterol; all these constituents may contribute to the lowering of the plasma levels of the various parameters of the lipid profile. Rice bran also contains a high level of dietary fibres (beta-glucan, pectin and gum). In addition, it also contains ferulic acid, which is also a component of the structure of nonlignified cell walls. However, some research suggests there are levels of inorganic arsenic (a toxin and carcinogen) present in rice bran. One study found the levels to be 20% higher than in drinking water. Other types of bran (derived from wheat, oat or barley) contain less arsenic than rice bran, and are just as nutrient rich.
The high oil content of bran makes it subject to rancidification, one of the reasons that it is often separated from the grain before storage or further processing. The bran itself can be heat-treated to increase its longevity.
Uses of bran
Bran is often used to enrich breads (notably muffins) and breakfast cereals, especially for the benefit of those wishing to increase their intake of dietary fiber. Bran may also be used for pickling (nukazuke) as in the tsukemono of Japan.
Rice bran, in particular, finds many uses in Japan, where it is known as nuka (糠; ぬか). Besides using it for pickling, Japanese people also add it to the water when boiling bamboo shoots, and use it for dish washing. In Kitakyushu City, it is called jinda and used for stewing fish, such as sardine.
In Myanmar, rice bran, called phwei-bya, is mixed with ash and used as a traditional detergent for washing dishes. Rice bran is also stuck to commercial ice blocks to hinder them from melting. It is also burned for fuel for rice mills in the rice growing regions of the Irrawaddy delta.
Use of rice bran as a food item is common among the people of the South Indian state of Kerala.
Rice bran and rice bran oil are widely used in Japan as a natural beauty treatment. The high levels of oleic acid makes it particularly well absorbed by human skin, and it contains over 100 known vitamins, minerals and antioxidants, including gamma oryzanol, which is believed to impact pigment development.
Bran was found to be the most successful slug deterrent by BBC's TV programme, Gardeners' World.
It is a common substrate and food source used for feeder insects, such as mealworms and waxworms.
Bran for pets and livestock
Rice bran is sometimes fed to horses for its nutritional value, particularly as a plant-based fat supplement. It is considered an excellent way to put weight onto a thin horse, without the problems associated with overfeeding grain. Rice bran is also included in some foods for aging dogs.
- ^ "Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Bran and Its Products Are an Order of Magnitude Higher than in Bulk Grain - Environmental Science & Technology (ACS Publications)". Pubs.acs.org. 2008-08-21. http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/esthag/asap/abs/es801238p.html. Retrieved 2010-02-09.
- ^ "Superfood rice bran contains arsenic - environment - 22 August 2008 - New Scientist". Environment.newscientist.com. http://environment.newscientist.com/channel/earth/dn14592-superfood-rice-bran-contains-arsenic.html?feedId=online-news_rss20. Retrieved 2010-02-09.
Barley resources History Types of barleyGenus: Hordeum · Cultivars: Bere Agronomy Trade Parts of the plant Basic preparations As an ingredient Associated human diseases Related concepts Further information Wheat resources History Types of wheat Agronomy Trade Parts of the plant Basic preparations As an ingredient Associated human diseases Related concepts Further information
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bran — bran … Dictionnaire des rimes
bran — [ brɑ̃ ] n. m. • bren XIIe ; lat. pop. °brennus, rad. gaul. °brenno 1 ♦ Partie la plus grossière du son. Par anal. Bran de scie : sciure de bois. 2 ♦ (XVe) Région. Excrément. On trouve aussi BREN [ brɑ̃; brɛ̃ ] … Encyclopédie Universelle
bran — (bran) s. m. 1° Partie du son la plus grossière. Bran de Judas, tache de rousseur au visage. Locution vieillie, et qui vient sans doute de ce qu on se représenta Judas roux. 2° Bran de scie, poudre qui tombe du bois quand on le scie.… … Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré
Bran — Törzburg Törcsvár … Deutsch Wikipedia
Bran — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Bran puede hacer referencia a: Bran, municipio de Rumanía. Bran, comuna francesa en Charente Marítimo. Bran mac Febal, navegante legendario irlandés. Bran el Bendito, caudillo mítico de la Britannia pagana. Bran es… … Wikipedia Español
Bran — /bran/, n. 1. Welsh Legend. a king of Britain and the brother of Manawydan and Branwen: his head was buried at London as a magical defense against invasion. He was sometimes regarded as a sea god or Christian saint. 2. a male given name, form of… … Universalium
bran — BRAN. subst. m. Matière fécale. Il est bas. f♛/b] On appelle bassement Bran de Judas, Certaines taches de rousseur qui viennent au visage et aux mains. On appelle Bran de son, La plus grosse partie du son; et Bran de scie, La poudre du bois qu on … Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798
Bran — Bran, n. [OE. bren, bran, OF. bren, F. bran, from Celtic; cf. Armor. brenn, Ir. bran, bran, chaff.] 1. The broken coat of the seed of wheat, rye, or other cereal grain, separated from the flour or meal by sifting or bolting; the coarse, chaffy… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Bran — bran. (Del fr. branle, cierto baile antiguo). bran de Inglaterra. m. Baile usado antiguamente en España. * * * Pequeña ciudad situada en Transilvania, junto a la frontera con Valaquia (actualmente, Rumania) en plenos Cárpatos Transilvanos.… … Enciclopedia Universal
bran — Bran, m. Combien qu il signifie du son, Furfur, si est il usurpé aussi pour l excrement de l homme, Stercus. Selon cette acception l on dit avec indignation et desdaing à quelqu un, Bran, bran, ou Bran pour vous, Stercoreris, ou Stercus tibi. Et… … Thresor de la langue françoyse
bran — ou Bren. s. m. Matiere fecale. On appelle, Bran de Judas, Certaines taches de rousseur qui viennent au visage. Bran de vin. s. m. Terme dont on se sert ordinairement dans les armées pour signifier de l eau de vie. On appelle, Bran de son, La plus … Dictionnaire de l'Académie française