- Southern Sami
Southern Sami is the south-westernmost of the
Sami languages. It is a seriously endangered language; the last strongholds of this language are the municipalities of Snåsaand Hattfjelldalin Norway. There are approximately 2000 people considered ethnically Southern Sami in Norway and Sweden, but only approximately 500 of them can fluently speak the language.
Southern Sámi is one of the six
Sámi languagesthat has an official written language, but only a few books have been published for the language, one of which is a good-size Southern Sámi-Norwegian dictionary.
Southern Sami uses the
latin alphabet: A/a, B/b, D/d, E/e, F/f, G/g, H/h, I/i, (Ï/ï), J/j, K/k, L/l, M/m, N/n, O/o, P/p, R/r, S/s, T/t, U/u, V/v, Y/y, Æ/æ, Ø/ø, Å/å
Ä/ä is a variant of Æ/æ, Ö/ö is a variant of Ø/ø. The variants Ä/ä, Ö/ö are used in
Sweden, Æ/æ, Ø/ø in Norway, in accordance with the usage in Swedish and Norwegian. The Ï/ï represents a back version of I/i, many texts do not distinguish between the two.
C/c, Q/q, W/w, X/x, Z/z are used in words of foreign origin.
Southern Sami has two dialects, the northern and the southern dialect. The phonological differences between the dialects are relatively small; the phonemic system of the northern dialect is explained below.
The vowel phonemes of the northern dialect are the following; orthographic counterparts are given in brackets:
Southern Sámi is one of the few
Sámi languagesthat still differentiates between the accusative and the genitive morphologically.
Southern Sami verbs conjugate for three grammatical persons:
Southern Sami verbs conjugate for three grammatical numbers:
Southern Sami, like Finnish, the other Sámi languages and Estonian, has a
negative verb. In Southern Sámi, the negative verb conjugates according to tense (past and non-past), mood (indicative and imperative), person (1st, 2nd and 3rd) and number (singular, dual and plural). This differs from some other the other Sami languages, e.g., from Northern Sami, which do not conjugate according to tense.
Unlike the other
Sámi languages, Southern Sámi is an SOV language.
* Bergsland, Knut. "Røroslappisk grammatikk", 1946.
* Bergsland, Knut. "Sydsamisk grammatikk", 1982.
* Bergsland, Knut and Lajla Mattson Magga. "Åarjelsaemien-daaroen baakoegærja", 1993.
* Hasselbrink, Gustav. "Südsamisches Wörterbuch I–III"
* [http://www.kirjasto.oulu.fi/saamilottit/ Sámi lottit] Names of birds found in Sápmi in a number of languages, including Skolt Sámi and English. Search function only works with Finnish input though.
* [http://www.risten.no/bakgrunn/gram/sma/index.html Southern Sámi grammar]
* [http://giellatekno.uit.no/a-sma.html Southern Sámi analyzer]
* [http://www.saemiensijte.no/ Samien Sijte] - Southern Sámi Museum and Cultural Center
* [http://www.uit.no/ssweb/dok/seminar/sorsamisk/sorsami.html Sørsamisk forskning og undervisning] - Universitetet i Tromsø
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