Symphonia Domestica, Op. 53 (Domestic Symphony) is a tone poem for large orchestra by Richard Strauss. The work is a musical reflection of the secure domestic life so valued by the composer himself and, as such, harmoniously conveys daily events and family life.
History and composition
In 1898, Strauss became the chief conductor of the Royal Court Opera in Berlin. It was at this point in his life that the composer took a keen interest in his own circumstances and turned his attention to his status and personal history. When he began composing the Symphonia Domestica, he intended it to be the sequel to Ein Heldenleben, the next instalment of the autobiography of the now-successful artist. Of it, Strauss said "My next tone poem will represent a day in my family life. It will be partly lyrical, partly humorous – a triple fugue will bring together Papa, Mama and Baby."
The piece is scored for piccolo, 3 flutes, 2 oboes, oboe d'amore, English horn, clarinet in D, 3 clarinets (1 & 2 in B♭, 3 in A), bass clarinet in B♭, 4 bassoons, contrabassoon, 4 saxophones (soprano in C, alto in F, baritone in F, bass in C), 8 horns in F, 4 trumpets in F and C, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, tenor drum, bass drum, triangle, cymbals, antique cymbals, tambourine, glockenspiel, 2 harps, and strings.
The program of the work reflects the simplicity of the subject-matter. After the whole extended family (including the aunts and uncles) has been introduced, the parents are heard alone with their child. The next section is a three-part adagio which begins with the husband's activities. The clock striking 7am launches the finale.
The most detailed exposition of the work's structure is that which was provided for the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra's performance on December 12, 1904. On that occasion, the concert programme carried the following outline:
- I. Introduction and development of the chief groups of themes
- The husband's themes: (a) Easy-going; (b) Dreamy; (c) Fiery
- The wife's themes: (a) Lively and gay; (b) Grazioso
- The child's theme: Tranquil
- II. Scherzo
- Parents' happiness. Childish play. Cradle song (the clock strikes seven in the evening).
- III. Adagio
- Doing and thinking. Love scene. Dreams and cares (the clock strikes seven in the morning).
- Awakening and merry dispute (double fugue). Joyous confusion.
Strauss reserved the premiere for his American tour in 1904, and Carnegie Hall in New York was booked. He would conduct it himself. Originally the premiere was scheduled for March 9, but the orchestral parts were delayed, so it was postponed to March 21. The later date allowed more rehearsals, of which 15 were required before Strauss was satisfied. The Wetzler Symphony Orchestra was adequate, but not much more. During a performance of his Don Quixote two nights earlier, the orchestra had broken down in the middle of the piece.
A typical performance of the work lasts approximately forty-four minutes.
In 1925, Strauss wrote a piece for Paul Wittgenstein for piano left-hand and orchestra, using themes from the Symphonia Domestica, titled Parergon zur Symphonia Domestica, Op. 73.
Conductor Orchestra Recorded Eugene Ormandy Philadelphia Orchestra 1938 Carl Schuricht Orchestra of La Scala Opera House, Milan 1941 Richard Strauss Vienna Philharmonic 1944 Wilhelm Furtwängler Berliner Philharmoniker 1944 Franz Konwitschny Staatskapelle Dresden 1956 Clemens Krauss Vienna Philharmonic 1952 Fritz Reiner Chicago Symphony Orchestra 1956 George Szell Cleveland Orchestra 1957 Dimitri Mitropoulos Wiener Philharmoniker 1957 Zubin Mehta Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra 1968 Rudolf Kempe Staatskapelle Dresden 1972 Herbert von Karajan Berliner Philharmoniker 1973 Lorin Maazel Vienna Philharmonic 1983 Zubin Mehta Berliner Philharmoniker 1985 Neeme Järvi Scottish National Orchestra 1986 Gerard Schwarz Seattle Symphony 1988 Edo de Waart Minnesota Orchestra 1990 Wolfgang Sawallisch Philadelphia Orchestra 1993 Lorin Maazel Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra 1995 André Previn Vienna Philharmonic 1995 Vladimir Ashkenazy Czech Philharmonic Orchestra 1997 David Zinman Zurich Tonhalle Orchestra 2002
There is also a two-piano version, which Martha Argerich and Alexandre Rabinovitch recorded in 1995 for Teldec.
- Content from adaptation of the notes of Ernst Krause.
Tone poems by Richard Strauss
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