Land and liberty (slogan)


Land and liberty (slogan)

Land and Liberty (Spanish: "Tierra y Libertad", Russian: Zemlya i Volya) is an anarchist political slogan. It was originally used as a name of the Russian revolutionary organization Zemlya i Volya in 1878, then by the revolutionary leaders of the Mexican Revolution; the revolution was fought over land rights, and the leaders such as Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa were fighting to give the land back to the natives from whom it was expropriated either by force or by some dubious manner. Without land, the peasants were at the mercy of landowners for subsistence.

Similarly, during the Russian Revolution, the main concern of the peasants was to free themselves from subservience to landowners, to get a plot of land if they had none, or to expand on their land holdings. Consequently, the Russian peasants welcomed the Russian Revolution under the banner "Zemlya i Volya": "Land and Liberty".

The slogan of "Tierra y Libertad" was also used during the Spanish Revolution (1936–1939). In 1995, a film covering the Spanish Civil War was released with the title Land and Freedom.

Contents

Meaning

In a narrow sense, the possession of land meant freedom from the landowner. And this may have been the main concern of both the Mexican and Russian peasants.

In a broader sense, the slogan can be interpreted[by whom?] to mean that the necessary (though not the sufficient) condition of liberty is something like possession or access to subsistence land. If possession or access to land is a necessary condition of liberty, then its deprivation results in some form of slavery: tenancy, sharecropping, wage-slavery. Access to land is only a necessary condition because even with access, the government may impose taxes to such an extent that one is not free. For example, in the Soviet Union in 1932–1933, the government was removing from the peasants their agricultural products to the extant that it produced an artificial[citation needed] famine which directly or indirectly killed roughly 2.582 million[1] people only in Ukraine. (See Soviet famine of 1932–1933). So, the possession of or access to subsistence land is a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for liberty.

In the following passage, F. A. Lange points out the relation of the possession of land to liberty: "In former times the marauding minority of mankind, by means of physical violence, compelled the working majority to render feudal services, or reduced them to a state of slavery or serfdom, or at least made them pay a tribute. Nowadays the dependence of the working classes is secured in a less direct but equally efficacious manner, viz. by means of the superior power of capital; the labourer being forced, in order to get his subsistence, to place his labour power entirely at the disposal of the capitalist. So there is a semblance of liberty; but in reality the labourer is exploited and subjected, because, all the land having been appropriated, he cannot procure his subsistence directly from nature, and, goods being produced for the market and not for the producer's own use, he cannot subsist without capital. Wages will rise above what is wanted for the necessaries of life, where the labourer is able to earn his subsistence on free land, which has not yet become private property. But wherever, in an old and totally occupied country, a body of labouring poor is employed in manufactures, the same law, which we see at work in the struggle for life throughout the organized world, will keep wages at the absolute minimum" F. A. Lange, Die Arbeiterfrage. Ihre Bedeutung fur Gegenwart und Zukunft. Vierte Auflage. 1861, pp. 12, 13. Quoted by H. J. Nieboer, Slavery: As an Industrial System (Ethnological Researches), 2nd edition, 1909, p. 421.

Appropriation as title

Land and Liberty is the title of a publication produced in Britain by the supporters of the land value taxation programme described by Henry George in his book Progress and Poverty. The journal was first published towards the end of the nineteenth century, originally under the name "Land Values". It was given its present title just before World War I. At present, the journal is quarterly. Articles are mostly about economics and political topics, with special reference to their relationship to land tenure and taxation. An almost-complete archive of Land Values and Land and Liberty is held at the library of The School of Economic Science in Mandeville Place, London.

See also

References

  1. ^ Jacques Vallin; France Mesle, Serguei Adamets, Serhii Pyrozhkov (November 2002). "A New Estimate of Ukrainian Population Losses during the Crises of the 1930s and 1940s". Population Studies 56 (3): 249–264. doi:10.1080/00324720215934. JSTOR 3092980. 

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Land and Liberty (Russia) — Land and Liberty, was a Russian clandestine revolutionary organization of Narodniki (middle or upper class revolutionaries attempting to spread socialism in rural areas) in the 1870s. In Russian, it is Земля и воля, transliterated Zemlya i volya… …   Wikipedia

  • Land and liberty — may refer to:*Land and Liberty, a Russian revolutionary organization *Land and Liberty, a movement co founded by Alexandr Herzen, which advocated Polish independence. *The slogan land and liberty used in both the Russian and Mexican Revolutions * …   Wikipedia

  • Slogan (disambiguation) — Slogan may refer to:*Slogan main article, definition *Slogan (heraldry) article on slogans used in heraldry, specifically Scottish heraldry *Advertising slogan article on the various uses of slogans in advertisements **List of advertising slogans …   Wikipedia

  • Liberty High School (Bakersfield, California) — Infobox School name = Liberty High School imagesize = caption = location = streetaddress = 925 Jewetta Avenue city = Bakersfield state = California district = Kern High School District zipcode = 93312 country = USA coordinates = principal = Pat… …   Wikipedia

  • Media and Publishing — ▪ 2007 Introduction The Frankfurt Book Fair enjoyed a record number of exhibitors, and the distribution of free newspapers surged. TV broadcasters experimented with ways of engaging their audience via the Internet; mobile TV grew; magazine… …   Universalium

  • Newtown area graffiti and street art — Since the 1980s, the area around the historic inner Sydney suburb of Newtown, NSW including the suburbs of Newtown, Enmore, Erskineville, Camperdown and St Peters has had works of graffiti and street art placed on local walls.[citation needed]… …   Wikipedia

  • HISTORICAL SURVEY: THE STATE AND ITS ANTECEDENTS (1880–2006) — Introduction It took the new Jewish nation about 70 years to emerge as the State of Israel. The immediate stimulus that initiated the modern return to Zion was the disappointment, in the last quarter of the 19th century, of the expectation that… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Liste des personnages de GTA IV: The Lost and Damned — Personnages de Grand Theft Auto IV Plusieurs personnages apparaissent dans Grand Theft Auto IV, dont les évènements du jeu se passent en automne 2008. Les personnages apparaissant dans le jeu sont diverses et peuvent être issus de différents… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Liste des personnages de Grand Theft Auto: The Lost and Damned — Personnages de Grand Theft Auto IV Plusieurs personnages apparaissent dans Grand Theft Auto IV, dont les évènements du jeu se passent en automne 2008. Les personnages apparaissant dans le jeu sont diverses et peuvent être issus de différents… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Liste des personnages de lost and damned — Personnages de Grand Theft Auto IV Plusieurs personnages apparaissent dans Grand Theft Auto IV, dont les évènements du jeu se passent en automne 2008. Les personnages apparaissant dans le jeu sont diverses et peuvent être issus de différents… …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.