NAMC YS-11


NAMC YS-11
NAMC YS-11
A YS-11 of Japan Air Commuter
Role Turboprop Airliner
Manufacturer Nihon Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation
First flight August 30, 1962
Introduction March 30, 1965, for All Nippon Airways (first passenger flight with Japan Air Commuter in 1965)
Produced 1962–1974
Number built 182

The NAMC YS-11 is a turboprop airliner built by a Japanese consortium, the Nihon Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation. The program was initiated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in 1954, the aircraft was rolled out in 1962, and production ceased in 1974.

Contents

Development and design

In the mid-to-late 1950s, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry identified a requirement for a short-haul airliner to replace Douglas DC-3s flying on Japan's domestic routes, and encouraged companies in Japan's aircraft industry to collaborate to develop and produce the new airliner. A joint venture between Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Fuji Heavy Industries (now better known as the parent company of automobile manufacturer Subaru), Shin Meiwa, Showa Aircraft Industry Company and Japan Aircraft Industry Company was set up in 1957, being formalised as the Nihon Aeroplane Manufacturing Company (NAMC) in 1959.[1][2]

NAMC designed a low-winged twin-turboprop monoplane seating 60 passengers. Although the aircraft was mainly designed and manufactured in Japan, the engines were built by Rolls-Royce, with the 2,275 kW (3,050 ehp) Rolls-Royce Dart RDa.10/1 being selected for the new aircraft.[3] Electronic equipment, avionics, mechanical and fuselage components were supplied either by Japanese companies or foreign suppliers during the YS-11's production lifetime. The twin-engined YS-11 delivered similar operational performance to the four-engined Vickers Viscount, and had 50% more capacity than the similarly configured Fokker F27 Friendship.

The first prototype made its maiden flight from Nagoya Airport on August 30, 1962, with the second prototype flying on December 28, 1962. It received its Japanese Type certificate on August 25, 1964, with American Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification following on September 9, 1965.[3]

To date, the YS-11 is the only successful commercial aircraft to have been manufactured by a Japanese firm, either before or after World War II. 182 were produced in total, of which 82 were exported to 15 countries.[4]

Operational history

The first production YS-11 flew on October 23, 1964 and was delivered on March 30, 1965, with initial airline operations by Toa Airways beginning in April 1965.[3] At first, deliveries were mainly to Japanese airlines, and NAMC developed the YS-11A, with higher gross weight, to make the aircraft more attractive to the North American market, and in particular to meet the requirements of Piedmont Airlines, which ordered 10 YS-11A-200s, with an option for a further 10.[5] Orders slowed after the needs of the Japanese commuter airlines for which it had been designed were met, and this, together with growing losses, resulted in production being stopped after completion of 182 aircraft, with the last YS-11 being delivered to the Japanese Maritime Self-Defence Force on May 11, 1973.[6]

The YS-11 was slowly phased out by airlines in Japan due to new directives issued by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism requiring all commercial aircraft in Japan to be fitted with a Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). Aircraft without TCAS were forced to cease operations at the end of 2006. Since equipping a YS-11 with TCAS would have cost ¥100 million (US$1.083 million), such a refit was deemed economically unsound.[citation needed] Aircraft that were still in flying condition were sold to foreign companies. On September 30, 2006, Japan Air Commuter Flight 3806 marked the final flight for a YS-11 in Japan's commercial aviation industry.[7] In 2007, the YS-11 was added to the Mechanical Engineering Heritage of Japan No. 13.

Variants

YS-11
YS-11-100
Initial production variant. 23,500 kg (51,810 lb) gross weight. 48 built.[5]
YS-11A-200
Increased gross weight (24,500 kg (54,010 lb) passenger airliner.[5]
YS-11A-300
Combi version of YS-11-200, fitted with large cargo door and capable of carrying both passengers and freight.[5]
YS-11A-400
Pure cargo version of -200, used only by Japanese defence forces.[5]
YS-11A-500
Passenger airliner with further increased (25,000 kg (55,110 lb)) gross weight produced from 1970.[8]
YS-11A-600
Combi version of -500.[9]
YS-11E

Customer variants

  • YS-11-101: TOA Domestic Airlines
  • YS-11-102: All Nippon Airways
  • YS-11-103: Japan Air Self Defense Force
  • YS-11-104: Japan Civil Aviation Bureau
  • YS-11-105: Japan Air Self Defense Force
  • YS-11-106: Japan Domestic Airlines
  • YS-11-107: Filipinas Orient Airways
  • YS-11-108: Japan Domestic Airlines
  • YS-11-109: Japan Domestic Airlines
  • YS-11-110: Japan Civil Aviation Bureau
  • YS-11-111: All Nippon Airways
  • YS-11-113: Japan Maritime Self Defense Force
  • YS-11-114: TOA Airways
  • YS-11-115: Aeronautic College
  • YS-11-116: Filipinas Orient Airways
  • YS-11-117: Hawaiian Airways
  • YS-11-118: Japan Civil Aviation Bureau
  • YS-11-120: LANSA
  • YS-11-121: Filipinas Orient Airways
  • YS-11-124: Japan Domestic Airlines
  • YS-11-125: Cruzeiro do Sul
  • YS-11-128: Aerolineas Argentinas
  • YS-11-129: TOA Airways
  • YS-11A-201: NAMC
  • YS-11A-202: Cruzeiro do Sul
  • YS-11A-205: Piedmont Airlines
  • YS-11A-206: Japan Maritime Self Defense Force
  • YS-11A-207: Japam Maritine Safety Agency
  • YS-11A-208: All Nippon Airways
  • YS-11A-209: Southwest Air Lines
  • YS-11A-211: VASP
  • YS-11A-212: VASP
  • YS-11A-213: All Nippon Airways
  • YS-11A-214: Southwest Air Lines
  • YS-11A-217: Japan Domestic Airlines
  • YS-11A-218: Japan Air Self Defense Force
  • YS-11A-219: China Airlines
  • YS-11A-220: Olympic Airways
  • YS-11A-222: TOA Airways
  • YS-11A-223: All Nippon Airways
  • YS-11A-227: Japan Domestic Airlines / TOA Airways
  • YS-11A-301: Korean Air Lines
  • YS-11A-305: Japan Air Self Defense Force
  • YS-11A-306: Transair
  • YS-11A-307: Japan Domestic Airlines
  • YS-11A-309: Aerotransportes Litoral Argentino (later Austral)
  • YS-11A-310: Korean Air Lines
  • YS-11A-313: TOA Airways
  • YS-11A-314: Air Afrique
  • YS-11A-321: Air Gabon
  • YS-11A-402: Japan Air Self Defense Force
  • YS-11A-404: Japan Maritime Self Defense Force
  • YS-11A-500: Piedmont Airlines
  • YS-11A-523: Philippine Civil Aeronautics Administration
  • YS-11A-621: Trans Gabon
  • YS-11A-623: Pelita Air Service
  • YS-11A-624: Japan Maritime Self Defense Force
  • YS-11A-626: Reeve Aleutian Airways

Operators

An Asian Spirit YS-11 from the Philippines.

As of July 2011, Transair Cargo, Air Link International Airways, Aero JBR, Aerodan and ALCON Servicios Aereos each operate one YS-11 for a total of five aircraft in commercial service.[10]

All Nippon Airways
YS-11 at Baguio City, Philippines

Former and present operators of the NAMC YS-11:

Incidents

There have been over twenty hull loss accidents involving YS-11 aircraft.

  • 20 October 1969, All Nippon Airways Flight 104 overran the runway at Miyazaki Airport, Japan. All four crew and 49 passengers survived.[12]
  • 11 December 1969, a Korean Air flight from Gangneung to Seoul was hijacked and flown to Sǒndǒk Airfield near Wonsan.[13] The aircraft was damaged on landing and written off.[14] The aircraft, its crew, and passengers are still held in North Korean territory.[15]
  • 3 July 1971, Toa Domestic Airlines Flight 533 flew into Yokotsu Mountain while on approach to Hakodate Airport, Japan. All four crew and 64 passengers were killed, the worst loss of life in an accident involving the YS-11.[18]
  • 7 November 1971, A VASP YS-11 was destroyed by fire after a candle was lit inside when the aircraft was being guarded overnight after being bogged down at Aragarças Airport, Brazil. Both guards were killed.[19]
  • 12 April 1972, a VASP flight between São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro crashed 50 kilometres (31 mi) north of Rio de Janeiro. All four crew and 21 passengers were killed.[20]
  • 21 October 1972, an Olympic Airlines YS-11 en route from Corfu (Kerkyra) to Athens crashed into the sea in Voula, whilst attempting an approach to Ellinikon International Airport, Athens, in a heavy storm. One crew member (the co-pilot) and 36 passengers were killed, while the captain, the two stewardesses and 16 passengers survived.[22]
  • 28 May 1975, TOA Domestic Airlines Flight 621 was damaged beyond repair in a landing accident at Osaka International Airport when a tyre burst and the aircraft departed the runway.[26]
  • 23 November 1976, an Olympic Airlines YS-11 flew into mountain Metaxas near the village of Servia in Kozani, Greece, in low clouds and almost zero visibility. All four crew and 46 passengers were killed.[27]
  • 10 January 1988, TOA Domestic Airlines Flight 670 overran the runway at Miho-Yonago Airport, Yonago, Japan after a rejected take-off and ended up in the sea. Aircraft had not been de-iced prior to take-off.[32]
  • 15 March 1989, a Mid Pacific Air YS-11 undershot the runway at Purdue University Airport, Lafayette, Indiana due to loss of pitch control caused by icing on the tail. The aircraft was on a positionig flight, both crew members were killed.[33]
  • 2 January 2008, Asian Spirit Flight 321 suffered an undercarriage collapse on landing at Masbate Airport, Philippines.[39]
  • 28 September 2009, Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force YS-11M-A serial number 9044 overran the runway upon landing at Ozuki Air Field and was substantially damaged.[40]

Specifications (YS-11A-200)

A JAC NAMC YS-11

Data from [41]

General characteristics

Performance

See also

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists
  • List of airliners

References

  1. ^ Endres 1996, p. 22.
  2. ^ Taylor 1966, p. 107.
  3. ^ a b c Endres 1996, p. 23.
  4. ^ Odagiri, Hiroyuki (1996). Technology and Industrial Development in Japan. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 225. ISBN 0-19-828802-6. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Endres 1996, p. 24.
  6. ^ Endres 1996, pp. 26–27.
  7. ^ Farewell to the wings of YS-11 Yomiuri Online (Yomiuri Shimbun)
  8. ^ Endres 1996, pp. 24, 26.
  9. ^ Endres 1996, p. 26.
  10. ^ Flight International 2011 World Airliner Census, p.22; retrieved 31 August 2011
  11. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19661113-0. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  12. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19691020-0. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  13. ^ "KAL기피랍사건", Doosan Encyclopedia, 2010, http://www.encyber.com/search_w/ctdetail.php?masterno=756923&contentno=756923, retrieved 2010-07-07 
  14. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19691211-0. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  15. ^ Kim Tae Hong, "141 Days of Hell, What about 40 Years?" NK Daily (7 August 2009)[1]
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  17. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=197010401-0. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
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  19. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19711107-0. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  20. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19720412-0. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  21. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19721018-1. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  22. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19721021-0. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  23. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19731023-1. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  24. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19740305-0. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  25. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19741106-1. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
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  27. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19761123-2. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  28. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19770429-1. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  29. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19770717-0. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  30. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19830311-0. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  31. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19870113-0. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  32. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19880110-1. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  33. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19890915-0. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  34. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19920306-0. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
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  38. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20050911-0. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  39. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20080102-0. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  40. ^ "RECENT ACCIDENTS / INCIDENTS WORLDWIDE September 2009". Jacdec. http://www.jacdec.de/news/months/09_09.htm. Retrieved 12 November 2009. 
  41. ^ Green, William, The Observers Book of Aircraft, Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd, 1970. ISBN 0-7232-0087-4
  • Endres, Günter. "NAMC YS-11: The Japanese Commuter". Air International (July 1996): pp. 22–27. ISSN 0306-5634. 
  • Taylor, John W. R. (1966). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1966–67. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company. 

External links


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