Wind power in the United Kingdom

Wind power in the United Kingdom passed the milestone of 2 GW installed capacity on 9 February 2007 with the opening of the Braes O'Doune wind farm, near Stirling. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6344215.stm BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | UK wind power reaches milestone ] ] The UK became the 7th country in the world to reach this capacity. The world leader in wind power is Germany with 20.6 GW installed.

Currently, approximately 1.5% of UK electricity is generated by wind power (with a total of around 4.5% of UK electricity coming from all renewable sources [ [http://www.bwea.com/media/news/070918.html BWEA News - BWEA response to John Hutton's speech ] ] ). This is expected to rise dramatically in coming years, as a result of UK Energy Policy strongly supporting new renewable energy generating capacity. In the short to medium term, the bulk of this new capacity is expected to be provided by onshore and offshore wind power.

Plans for a massive expansion of a wind energy programme in the UK are to be unveiled by the Government. They will include the building of 7000 wind turbines. [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/main.jhtml?xml=/earth/2008/06/25/eawindfarms125.xml UK to expand wind energy programme - Telegraph ] ] .

Through the mechanism of Renewables Obligation Certificates, British electricity suppliers are now required by law to provide a proportion of their sales from renewable sources such as wind power or pay a penalty fee. The ROCs are the principal form of support for UK wind power, providing around half of the revenue from wind generation [ [http://www.countryguardian.net/ROC%20Etherington%202006%201.htm Wind power subsidy in the UK by Dr John Etherington ] ] . Wind energy is also exempt from the climate change levy which is paid by fossil-fuel and nuclear generators.

Governments targets anticipate a capacity utilisation factor (CF) of 30%, implying that 2GW of installed capacity will provide an average of 600MW to the national grid. A study by the Renewable Energy Foundation found that in practice only a few Scottish wind farms achieved this level, while turbines in lowland England were much less efficient, some operating at less than 10% of capacity [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2006/12/09/nwind09.xml Wind farms 'are failing to generate the predicted amount of electricity' - Telegraph ] ] . The foundation argued that too much subsidy had encouraged wind development on poor sites. Offshore Wind farms however generally have a higher capacity rating for which the 30% figure can be considered a more conservative estimate.

Offshore wind farms

The UK has been estimated to have over a third of Europe's total offshore wind resource, which is equivalent to three times the electricity needs of the nation at current rates of electricity consumption.

The first developments in UK offshore wind power came about through the now discontinued Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), leading to two wind farms, Blyth Offshore and Gunfleet sands. [ [http://www.bwea.com/offshore/info.html BWEA - Offshore Wind Introduction ] ] The NFFO was introduced as part of the Electricity Act 1989 and obliged UK electricity supply companies to secure specified amounts of electricity from non-fossil sources, [ [http://test.netgates.co.uk/nre/nffo.html] Dead link|date=March 2008] which provided the initial spur for the commercial development of renewable energy in the UK.

The UK will require 7,500 offshore turbines by 2020 to meet EU targets.Cite web
url=http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/britain-will-need-12500-wind-farms-to-satisfy-eu-targets-773145.html
title=Britain will need 12,500 wind farms to satisfy EU targets
publisher=The Independent
first=Michael
last=McCarthy
date=2008-01-24
accessdate=2008-10-07
]

Round 1

In 1998 the British Wind Energy Association (BWEA) began discussions with the government to draw up formal procedures for negotiating with the Crown Estate, the owner of almost all the UK coastline out to distance of convert|12|nmi|km|1. The result was a set of guidelines published in 1999, and a huge increase in the number of applications submitted. Eighteen of the applications were granted permission to proceed in April 2001, in what has become known as round one of UK offshore wind development.

The first of the round one projects completed, and the first large scale offshore wind farm in the UK, North Hoyle, was commissioned in December 2003. The second, Scroby Sands, was completed one year later in December 2004, followed by the 90 MW Kentish Flats in 2005. The fourth, Barrow Offshore, with 30 turbines, finished construction in July 2006. Seven of the remaining projects have received consent from the planning authorities, while the remaining four are still awaiting consent, including the Shell Flat site off the coast of Lancashire.

Round 2

Lessons learnt from round one, particularly the difficulty in getting planning consent for offshore wind farms, together with the increasing pressure to reduce CO2 emissions, prompted the department of trade and industry (DTI) to develop a strategic framework for the offshore wind industry. The result, known as Round 2, was announced in December 2003 with 15 projects with a combined capacity of 7.2 GW. By far the largest of these are the 1 GW London Array and the 1.2 GW Triton Knoll. [ [http://www.bwea.com/offshore/round-2map.html BWEA - Round 2 map ] ]

List of built and proposed offshore wind farms

Onshore wind farms

The first windfarms in the UK were built onshore, and they currently generate more power than the offshore farms. A March 2006 report by the British Wind Energy Association forecast that onshore windfarms will be able to supply 6,000 MW peak, or on average nearly 5% of the national electricity requirement, by 2010. [ [http://www.bwea.com/media/news/060327.html BWEA News - Onshore wind powering ahead - new research from BWEA ] ] Despite this potential, gaining planning permission for onshore wind farms is proving difficult, with many schemes stalled in the planning system, and a high rate of refusal. [ [http://www.bwea.com/media/news/070302.html BWEA News - Decision makers must heed Stern warning on climate change ] ]

In the year to 31 March 2005, onshore wind farms, according to Ofgem, produced 1,734 GW·h (an average of 198 MW) but this is expected to rise to 2,500 GW·h (an average of 285 MW) in the following year, so there is considerable scope for further growth (16,600 MW peak capacity had been installed in Germany by 2004. [ [http://ec.europa.eu/energy/res/sectors/wind_energy_en.htm Energy - New and Renewable Energies - Wind Energy ] ]

According to DTI figures onshore wind farms in the UK generated 769 GW·h in 2005, while offshore farms generated 204 GW·h. [http://www.dtistats.net/energystats/dukes06.pdf] This compares to a total electricity consumption of 407,265 GW·h for the same year, meaning that the combined on and offshore contribution to UK electricity generation was less than 0.25%. In 2007 the planning permission problem was exacerbated by a shortage of spare parts for certain models of generator, which put some turbines out of action for over six months, triggering clauses in planning consents requiring removal of the non-functional turbines. [Robinson, Sarah [http://www.whitehaven-news.co.uk/2.1819/2.2837/1.61725 Firm told to repair turbine] , Whitehaven News (2008-03-27) accessed 2008-03-28]

List of built and proposed onshore wind farms

ee also

*British Wind Energy Association
*Baywind Energy Co-operative
*Good Energy
*Friends of the Earth
*Ecotricity
*Renewable energy in Scotland
*Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom
*Energy policy of the United Kingdom
*Green electricity in the United Kingdom
*Renewable energy in the European Union
*Wind power
*Wind power in Scotland, List of power stations in Scotland#Wind power
*Wind turbines (UK domestic)
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Npower_(UK) npower UK]

References

External links

* [http://www.offshorewindfarms.co.uk/Default.aspx COWRIE] Collaborative offshore wind research into the environment
* [http://www.ref.org.uk/images/pdfs/UK_Wind_Phase_1_web.pdf UK wind farm performance 2005]
* [http://www.therenewableenergycentre.co.uk/wind_power/ The Renewable Energy Centre] Wind Power in the UK.
* [http://www.se-alliance.org.uk The Sustainable Energy Alliance] UK renewable energy supporters organisation
* [http://www.globalpolicy.org/socecon/envronmt/climate/2007/1011sea.htm A Sea Change: The Wind Farm Revolution]
* [http://www.bwea.com/pdf/offshore/movingup.pdf UK Offshore Wind: Moving Up a Gear]
* [http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/story?id=52749 The Crown Estate Invests in 25 GW of Offshore Wind Power]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/7474592.stm UK plans big wind power expansion]
* [http://www.bwea.com/energy/briefing-sheets.html British Wind Energy Association (BWEA) Briefing Sheets]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nuclear power in the United Kingdom — United Kingdom energy related articles Government energy policy Energy use and conservation Nuclear power Solar power Wind power Energy efficiency in …   Wikipedia

  • Geothermal power in the United Kingdom — The potential for exploiting geothermal energy in the United Kingdom on a commercial basis was initially examined by the Department of Energy in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis. Several regions of the country were identified, but interest in… …   Wikipedia

  • Wind power in the European Union — The market for European wind power capacity grew in 2006, according to statistics from the European Wind Energy Association. 7,588 MW of wind power capacity, worth some €9 billion, was installed in the European Union (EU) in 2006, an increase of… …   Wikipedia

  • Maritime history of the United Kingdom — The Maritime history of the United Kingdom involves events including shipping, ports, navigation, and seamen, as well as marine sciences, exploration, trade, and maritime themes in the arts from the creation of the kingdom of Great Britain[1] as… …   Wikipedia

  • Topic outline of the United Kingdom — For an alphabetical index of this subject, see the List of United Kingdom related topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK, or Britain, [See British Isles (terminology) for… …   Wikipedia

  • Energy policy of the United Kingdom — For energy use in practice, see Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom The current Energy Policy of the United Kingdom is set out in the Energy White Paper of May 2007, building on previous work including the 2003 Energy White Paper… …   Wikipedia

  • Economic history of the United Kingdom — The economic history of the United Kingdom deals with the history of the economy of the United Kingdom from the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain on May 1st, 1707,[1] with the political union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of… …   Wikipedia

  • Coal mining in the United Kingdom — Coalfields of the United Kingdom in the 19th century. Coal mining in the United Kingdom probably dates to Roman times and took place in many different parts of the country. Britain s coalfields are associated with Northumbria and Durham, North… …   Wikipedia

  • Corporate litigation in the United Kingdom — is that part of UK company law which gives investors the right to sue the directors of a company, or vindicate another wrong to the company, particularly where the board of directors does not wish to act itself. Contents 1 History 1.1 The rule in …   Wikipedia

  • George VI of the United Kingdom — Infobox British Royalty|majesty name =George VI title =King of Great Britain, Ireland and the British dominions beyond the Seas; Emperor of India caption =Formal portrait, circa 1940–46. reign =11 December 1936 – 6 February 1952 Emperor of India …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.