* The Oxford Parliament, led by
Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, leads to the acceptance by King Henry III of Englandof the Provisions of Oxford.
September- Battle of Pelagonia: The Empire of Nicaeadefeats the Principality of Achaea, ensuring the eventual reconquest of Constantinoplein 1261.
December 4- Kings Louis IX of Franceand Henry III of Englandagree to the Treaty of Paris, in which Henry renounces his claims to French-controlled territory on continental Europe(including Normandy) in exchange for Louis withdrawing his support for English rebels.
* The famous
frescoes of the Boyana Churchin Bulgariaare completed (the church and its murals are now a UNESCO World Heritage Site).
* The German cities of
Lübeck, Wismar, and Rostockenter into a pact to defend against pirates of the Baltic Sea, laying the groundwork for the Hanseatic League.
Nogai Khanleads the second Mongol Golden Hordeattack against Lithuaniaand Poland.
August 11- While conducting a siege against the Song Dynastycity known as Fishing Townin the province of Chongqing, China, the Mongol Khagan, Mongke Khan, dies in the nearby hills. Persian, Chinese, and Mongol records have different accounts of how he died, including succumbing to an arrow wound received by a Chinese archer in the siege, dysentery, and even a choleraepidemic. His death sparks a succession crisis in the Mongol Empire, while his brothers Ariq Bökeand Kublai soon convene their own kuriltaito elect themselves as the next Khan of Khans, opening the path to a 4- year-long civil war from 1260to 1264. In the end, Ariq Böke surrenders to Kublai.
* While engaged in a war with the Mongols, the Song Chinese official Li Zengbo writes in his "Kozhai Zagao, Xugaohou" that the city of
Qingzhouis manufacturing one to two thousand strong iron-cased gunpowder bomb shells a month, dispatching to Xiangyangand Yingzhou about ten to twenty thousand such bombs at a time.
Lannathai, a kingdom in the north of Thailand, is founded by King Mengrai.
Goryeokingdom in Koreasurrenders to invading Mongol forces.
* The Chinese era "Kaiqing" begins and ends in the Northern
Song Dynastyof China.
* The Japanese
Shōkaera ends, and the Shōgenera begins.
Pietro Cavallini, Italian painter (d. 1330)
Demetre II of Georgia(d. 1289)
John II of Jerusalem(d. 1285)
Richard Og de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster(d. 1326)
Infanta Branca of Portugal, daughter of King Afonso III of Portugaland Urraca of Castile
May 29- King Christopher I of Denmark(b. 1219)
October 7- Ezzelino da Romano III, Italian ruler
November 18- Adam Marsh, English scholar and theologian
Gojong of Goryeo
Möngke Khanof the Mongol Empire
Matthew Paris, English chronicler
Thomas II of Savoy
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