Artemisia (genus)

Taxobox
name = "Artemisia"


|thumb|right|"Artemisia abrotanum" (Southernwood)
image_width = 220px
image_caption = "Artemisia abronatum"
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
ordo = Asterales
familia = Asteraceae
tribus = Anthemideae
genus = "Artemisia"
genus_authority = L., 1753
type_species = "Artemisia vulgaris" L.
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = See text

"Artemisia" is a large, diverse genus of plants with between 200-400 species belonging to the daisy family Asteraceae. It comprises hardy herbs and shrubs known for their volatile oils. They grow in temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere, usually in dry or semi-dry habitats. The fern-like leaves of many species are covered with white hairs. Some botanists split the genus into several genera, but DNA analysis (Watson "et al". 2002) does not support the maintenance of the genera "Crossostephium", "Filifolium", "Neopallasia", "Seriphidium", and "Sphaeromeria"; three other segregate genera "Stilnolepis", "Elachanthemum", and "Kaschgaria" are maintained by this evidence.

Common names used for several species include wormwood, mugwort, sagebrush and sagewort, while a few species have unique names, notably Tarragon ("A. dracunculus") and Southernwood ("A. abrotanum"). Occasionally some of the species are called sages, causing confusion with the "Salvia" sages in the family Lamiaceae.

"Artemisia" species are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species. See List of Lepidoptera that feed on Artemisia.

Cultivation and uses

The aromatic leaves of many species of "Artemisia" are medicinal, and some are used for flavouring. Most species have an extremely bitter taste. "A. dracunculus" (Tarragon) is widely used as a herb, particularly important in French cuisine.

"Artemisia absinthium" (Absinth Wormwood) was used to repel fleas and moths, and in brewing (wormwood beer, wormwood wine). The aperitif "vermouth" (derived from the German word "Wermut", "wormwood") is a wine flavored with aromatic herbs, but originally with wormwood. The highly potent spirit absinthe, also contains wormwood. Wormwood has been used medicinally as a tonic, stomachic, febrifuge and anthelmintic.

"Artemisia arborescens" (Tree Wormwood, or "Sheeba" in Arabic) is a very bitter herb indigenous to the Middle East that is used in tea, usually with mint. It may have some hallucinogenic properties.

Within such religious practicies as Wicca, both Wormwood and Mugwort are believed to have multiple effects on the psychic abilities of the practitioner. Because of the power believed to be inherent in certain herbs of the genus "Artemisia", many believers cultivate the plants in a "moon garden".

The beliefs surrounding this genus are founded upon the strong association between the herbs of the genus "Artemisia" and the moon goddess Artemis, who is believed to hold these powers.

It is also said that the genus Artemisia (which includes over 400 plants) may be named after an ancient botanist. Artemisia was the wife and sister of the Greek/Persian King Mausolus from the name of whose tomb we get the word mausoleum. Artemisia, who ruled for three years after the king's death, was a botanist and medical researcher, and died in 350 B.C. [ [http://www.ghorganics.com/Wormwood.html Etymology] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9009683/Artemisia-II Etymology] ] .

The bitterness of the plant led to its use by wet-nurses for weaning infants from the breast, as in this speech by Shakespeare from "Romeo and Juliet" Act I, Scene 3:

:Nurse: ...::And she [Juliet] was wean'd, – I never shall forget it, –::Of all the days of the year, upon that day: ::For I had then laid wormwood to my dug, ::...

A few species are grown as ornamental plants, the fine-textured ones used for clipped bordering. All grow best in free-draining sandy soil, unfertilized, and in full sun.

Artemisinin (from Chinese wormwood, Artemisia annua) is the active ingredient in the anti-malarial combination therapy 'Coartem', produced by Novartis and the WHO.

Artemisia in popular culture

Artemisia has been mentioned and used in popular culture for centuries. As few examples are listed below.
*Shakespeare often refers to wormwood in Hamlet.
*Wormwood ("Apsinthos" in the Greek text) is the "name of the star" in the Book of Revelation (8:11) ("kai to onoma tou asteros legetai ho Apsinthos") that John the Evangelist envisions as cast by the angel and falling into the waters, making them undrinkably bitter. Outside the Book of Revelation, there are up to eight further references in the Bible, showing that wormwood was a common herb of the era and that its awful taste was known, as a drinkable preparation applied for specific reasons.
*"Wormwood" is a junior devil in "The Screwtape Letters", a novel by C. S. Lewis on human temptation. "Miss Wormwood" is the name of Calvin's teacher in "Calvin and Hobbes", a former daily comic strip by Bill Watterson. This character is named after the "Screwtape Letters" character.
*In Russian culture, the fact that "Artemisia" species are commonly used in medicine, and their bitter taste is associated with medicinal effects, has caused wormwood to be seen as a symbol for a "bitter truth" that must be accepted by a deluded (often self-deluded) person. This symbol has acquired a particular poignancy in modern Russian poetry, which often deals with the loss of illusory beliefs in various ideologies.
*Fort Collins, Colorado based New Belgium brewery produced a Spring Ale called "Springboard" containing Wormwood, Lycium. and Schisandra.

elected species

* "Artemisia abrotanum" L. – Southernwood, Southern Wormwood, Abrotanum, Lemon Plant
* "Artemisia absinthium" L. – Grand Wormwood
* "Artemisia adamsii" Besser
* "Artemisia afra" – African Wormwood, African Sagebrush
* "Artemisia alaskana" Rydb. – Alaska Wormwood
* "Artemisia alcockii" Pamp.
* "Artemisia aleutica" Hultén – Aleutian Wormwood
* "Artemisia amoena" Poljakov
* "Artemisia annua" L. – Annual Wormwood, Sweet Sagewort, Sweet Annie
* "Artemisia araxina" Takht.
* "Artemisia arborescens" - Tree Wormwood
* "Artemisia arbuscula" Nutt. – Little Sagebrush, Low Sagebrush, Black Sage
* "Artemisia arctica" Less. – Boreal Sagebrush
* "Artemisia arctisibirica" Korobkov
* "Artemisia arenaria" DC.
* "Artemisia arenicola" Krasch. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia argentea" (Madeira wormwood ?)
* "Artemisia argyi" H.Lév. & Vaniot
* "Artemisia argyrophylla" Ledeb.
* "Artemisia armeniaca" Lam.
* "Artemisia aschurbajewii" C.G.Aro
* "Artemisia australis" Less. – Oahu Wormwood
* "Artemisia austriaca" Jacq.
* "Artemisia avarica" Minat.
* "Artemisia badhysi" Krasch. & Lincz. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia balchanorum" Krasch.
* "Artemisia baldshuanica" Krasch. & Zaprjag.
* "Artemisia bargusinensis" Spreng.
* "Artemisia bejdemaniae" Leonova
* "Artemisia biennis" Willd. – Biennial Sagewort, Biennial Wormwood
* "Artemisia bigelovii" Gray – Bigelow Sage, Bigelow Sagebrush
* "Artemisia borealis" Pall.
* "Artemisia borotalensis" Poljakov
* "Artemisia bottnica" Lundstr. ex Kindb.
* "Artemisia caespitosa" Ledeb.
* "Artemisia californica" Less. – Coastal Sagebrush, California Sagebrush
* "Artemisia camelorum" Krasch.
* "Artemisia campestris" L. – Field Wormwood
* "Artemisia cana" Pursh – Silver Sagebrush
* "Artemisia canadensis" – Canada Wormwood
* "Artemisia capillaris" Thunb. – Capillary Wormwood, Yerba Lenna Yesca
* "Artemisia carruthii" Wood ex Carruth. – Carruth Sagewort, Carruth's Sagebrush
* "Artemisia caucasica" Willd.
* "Artemisia chamaemelifolia" Vill.
* "Artemisia cina" O. Berg & C. F. Schmidt – Santonica, Levant Wormseed
* "Artemisia ciniformis" Krasch. & Popov ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia commutata" Besser
* "Artemisia compacta" Fisch. ex DC.
* "Artemisia cuspidata" Krasch.
* "Artemisia czukavinae" Filatova
* "Artemisia daghestanica" Krasch. & Poretzky
* "Artemisia demissa" Krasch.
* "Artemisia depauperata" Krasch.
* "Artemisia deserti" Krasch.
* "Artemisia desertorum" Spreng.
* "Artemisia diffusa" Krasch. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia dimoana" Popov
* "Artemisia dolosa" Krasch.
* "Artemisia douglasiana" Bess. – Douglas' Mugwort, Douglas' Sagewort
* "Artemisia dracunculus" L. – Tarragon
* "Artemisia dubia" Wall.
* "Artemisia dubjanskyana" Krasch. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia dumosa" Poljakov
* "Artemisia elongata" Filatova & Ladygina
* "Artemisia eremophila" Krasch. & Butkov ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia eriantha" Ten.
* "Artemisia feddei" H.Lév. & Vaniot
* "Artemisia fedtschenkoana" Krasch.
* "Artemisia ferganensis" Krasch. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia filifolia" Torr. – Sand Sagebrush, Sand Sagebush, Silvery Wormwood
* "Artemisia flava" Jurtzev
* "Artemisia franserioides" Greene – Ragweed Sagebrush
* "Artemisia freyniana" (Pamp.) Krasch.
* "Artemisia frigida" Willd. – Fringed Sagebrush, Fringed Sagewort, Prairie Sagewort
* "Artemisia fulvella" Filatova & Ladygina
* "Artemisia furcata" Bieb. – Forked Wormwood
* "Artemisia galinae" Ikonn.
* "Artemisia glabella" Kar. & Kir.
* "Artemisia glacialis" – Glacier Wormwood, Alpine Mugwort
* "Artemisia glanduligera" Krasch. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia glauca" Pall. ex Willd.
* "Artemisia glaucina" Krasch. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia globosa" Krasch.
* "Artemisia globularia" Cham. ex Bess. – Purple Wormwood
* "Artemisia glomerata" Ledeb. – Cudweed Sagewort, Pacific Alpine Wormwood
* "Artemisia gmelinii" Webb ex Stechmann – Gmelin's Wormwood
* "Artemisia gnaphalodes" Nutt.
* "Artemisia gorjaevii" Poljakov
* "Artemisia gracilescens" Krasch. & Iljin
* "Artemisia gurganica" (Krasch.) Filatova
* "Artemisia gypsacea" Krasch., Popov & Lincz. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia halodendron" Turcz. ex Besser
* "Artemisia halophila" Krasch.
* "Artemisia heptapotamica" Poljakov
* "Artemisia hippolyti" Butkov
* "Artemisia hololeuca" M.Bieb. ex Besser
* "Artemisia hulteniana" Vorosch.
* "Artemisia incana" (L.) Druce
* "Artemisia insulana" Krasch.
* "Artemisia insularis" Kitam.
* "Artemisia integrifolia" L.
* "Artemisia issykkulensis" Poljakov
* "Artemisia jacutica" Drobow
* "Artemisia japonica" Thunb.
* "Artemisia juncea" Kar. & Kir.
* "Artemisia karatavica" Krasch. & Abolin ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia karavajevii" Leonova
* "Artemisia kaschgarica" Krasch.
* "Artemisia kauaiensis" (Skottsberg) Skottsberg – Kauai Wormwood
* "Artemisia keiskeana" Miq.
* "Artemisia kelleri" Krasch.
* "Artemisia kemrudica" Krasch.
* "Artemisia knorringiana" Krasch.
* "Artemisia kochiiformis" Krasch. & Lincz. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia koidzumii" Nakai
* "Artemisia kopetdaghensis" Krasch. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia korovinii" Poljakov
* "Artemisia korshinskyi" Krasch. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia krushiana" Bess. – Krush's Wormwood
* "Artemisia kulbadica" Boiss. & Buhse
* "Artemisia kuschakewiczii" C.G.A.Winkl.
* "Artemisia laciniata" Willd. – Siberian Wormwood
* "Artemisia laciniatiformis" Kom.
* "Artemisia lagocephala" (Besser) DC.
* "Artemisia lagopus" Fisch. ex Besser
* "Artemisia latifolia" Ledeb.
* "Artemisia ledebouriana" Besser
* "Artemisia lehmanniana" Bunge
* "Artemisia leontopodioides" Fisch. ex Besser
* "Artemisia lessingiana" Besser
* "Artemisia leucodes" Schrenk
* "Artemisia leucophylla" (Turcz. ex Besser) Pamp.
* "Artemisia leucotricha" Krasch. ex Ladygina
* "Artemisia lindleyana" Bess. – Columbia River Wormwood
* "Artemisia lipskyi" Poljakov
* "Artemisia littoricola" Kitam.
* "Artemisia longifolia" Nutt. – Longleaf Sagebrush, Longleaf Wormwood
* "Artemisia ludoviciana" Nutt. – Gray Sagewort, Prairie Sage, White Sagebrush
* "Artemisia macilenta" (Maxim.) Krasch.
* "Artemisia macrantha" Ledeb.
* "Artemisia macrobotrys" Ledeb. – Yukon Wormwood
* "Artemisia macrocephala" Jacq. ex Besser
* "Artemisia macrorhiza" Turcz.
* "Artemisia maracandica" Bunge
* "Artemisia maritima" L. – Sea Wormwood
* "Artemisia marschalliana" Spreng.
* "Artemisia martjanovii" Krasch. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia mauiensis" (Gray) Skottsberg – Maui Wormwood
* "Artemisia maximovicziana" Krasch. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia medioxima" Krasch. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia messerschmidtiana" Besser
* "Artemisia michauxiana" Bess. – Michaux Sagebrush, Michaux's Wormwood
* " Artemisia Minor Jacquem. ex Besser
* "Artemisia mogoltavica" Poljakov
* "Artemisia mongolica" (Besser) Fisch. ex Nakai
* "Artemisia mongolorum" Krasch.
* "Artemisia montana" (Nakai) Pamp.
* "Artemisia mucronulata" Poljakov
* "Artemisia multisecta" Leonova
* "Artemisia namanganica" Poljakov
* "Artemisia nesiotica" Raven – Island Sagebrush
* "Artemisia nigricans" Filatova & Ladygina
* "Artemisia norvegica" Fries – Norwegian Mugwort
* "Artemisia nova" A. Nels. – Black Sagebrush
* "Artemisia obscura" Pamp.
* "Artemisia obtusiloba" Ledeb.
* "Artemisia oelandica" (Besser) Krasch.
* "Artemisia olchonensis" Leonova
* "Artemisia oliveriana" J. Gay ex Besser
* "Artemisia opulenta" Pamp.
* "Artemisia packardiae" J. Grimes & Ertter – Packard's Wormwood, Succor Creek Sagebrush
* "Artemisia pallasiana" Fisch. ex Besser
* "Artemisia palmeri" Gray – San Diego Sagewort
* "Artemisia palustris" L.
* "Artemisia pannosa" Krasch.
* "Artemisia papposa" Blake & Cronq. – Owyhee Sage, Owyhee Sagebrush
* "Artemisia parryi" Gray – Parry's Wormwood
* "Artemisia pattersonii" Gray – Patterson's Wormwood
* "Artemisia pectinata" Pall.
* "Artemisia pedatifida" Nutt. – Birdfoot Sagebrush
* "Artemisia pedemontana" Balb.
* "Artemisia persica" Boiss.
* "Artemisia pewzowii" C.G.A.Winkl.
* "Artemisia phaeolepis" Krasch.
* "Artemisia polysticha" Poljakov
* "Artemisia pontica" L. – Roman Wormwood
* "Artemisia porrecta" Krasch. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia porteri" Cronq. – Porter's Wormwood
* "Artemisia prasina" Krasch. ex Poljak.
* "Artemisia princeps" Pamp. – Japanese Mugwort, Yomogi
* "Artemisia proceriformis" Krasch.
* "Artemisia prolixa" Krasch. ex Poljak.
* "Artemisia punctigera" Krasch. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia purshiana" Besser
* "Artemisia pycnocephala" (Less.) DC. – Beach Wormwood
* "Artemisia pycnorhiza" Ledeb.
* "Artemisia pygmaea" Gray – Pygmy Sagebrush
* "Artemisia quinqueloba" Trautv.
* "Artemisia remotiloba" Krasch. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia rhodantha" Rupr.
* "Artemisia rigida" (Nutt.) Gray – Scabland Sagebrush
* "Artemisia rothrockii" Gray – Timberline Sagebrush
* "Artemisia rubripes" Nakai
* "Artemisia rupestris" L. – Rock Wormwood, Alpine Yarrow
* "Artemisia rutifolia" Stephan ex Spreng.
* "Artemisia saissanica" (Krasch.) Filatova
* "Artemisia saitoana" Kitam.
* "Artemisia salsoloides" Willd.
* "Artemisia samoiedorum" Pamp.
* "Artemisia santolina" Schrenk
* "Artemisia santolinifolia" Turcz. ex Besser
* "Artemisia santonica" L.
* "Artemisia saposhnikovii" Krasch. ex Poljak.
* "Artemisia schischkinii" Krasch.
* "Artemisia schrenkiana" Ledeb.
* "Artemisia scoparia" Waldst. & Kit. – Redstem Wormwood
* "Artemisia scopiformis" Ledeb.
* "Artemisia scopulorum" Gray – Alpine Sagebrush, Dwarf Sagebrush
* "Artemisia scotina" Nevski
* "Artemisia senjavinensis" Bess. – Arctic Wormwood
* "Artemisia selengensis" Turcz. ex Besser
* "Artemisia semiarida" (Krasch. & Lavrenko) Filatova
* "Artemisia senjavinensis" Besser
* "Artemisia sericea" Weber ex Stechm.
* "Artemisia serotina" Bunge
* "Artemisia serrata" Nutt. – Sawtooth Wormwood
* "Artemisia sieversiana" Willd.
* "Artemisia skorniakowii" C.G.A.Winkl.
* "Artemisia sogdiana" Bunge
* "Artemisia songarica" Schrenk
* "Artemisia spicigera" K.Koch
* "Artemisia splendens" Willd.
* "Artemisia stelleriana" Bess. – Hoary Mugwort
* "Artemisia stenocephala" Krasch. ex Poljak.
* "Artemisia stenophylla" Kitam.
* "Artemisia stolonifera" (Maxim.) Kom.
* "Artemisia subarctica" Krasch.
* "Artemisia subchrysolepis" Filatova
* "Artemisia sublessingiana" Krasch. ex Poljakov
* "Artemisia subsalsa" Filatova
* "Artemisia subviscosa" Turcz. ex Besser
* "Artemisia succulenta" Ledeb.
* "Artemisia suksdorfii" Piper – Coastal Wormwood
* "Artemisia sylvatica" Maxim.
* "Artemisia szowitziana" (Besser) Grossh.
* "Artemisia tanacetifolia" L.
* "Artemisia taurica" Willd.
* "Artemisia tenuisecta" Nevski
* "Artemisia terrae-albae" Krasch.
* "Artemisia tianschanica" Krasch. ex Poljak.
* "Artemisia tilesii" Ledeb. – Tilesius' Wormwood
* "Artemisia tomentella" Trautv.
* "Artemisia tournefortiana" Rchb.
* "Artemisia transbaicalensis" Leonova
* "Artemisia transiliensis" Poljakov
* "Artemisia trautvetteriana" Besser
* "Artemisia tridentata" Nutt. – Big Sagebrush, Blue Sage, Black Sage, Basin Sagebrush
* "Artemisia triniana" Besser
* "Artemisia tripartita" Rydb. – Threetip Sagebrush
* "Artemisia turanica" Krasch.
* "Artemisia turcomanica" Gand.
* "Artemisia umbelliformis" Lam. – Alps Wormwood
* "Artemisia unalaskensis" Rydb.
* "Artemisia vachanica" Krasch. ex Poljak.
* "Artemisia valida" Krasch. ex Poljak.
* "Artemisia verlotiorum" Lamotte – Chinese Wormwood
* "Artemisia viridis" Willd.
* "Artemisia vulgaris" L. – Mugwort

Notes

References and external links

*cite journal | quotes=no|author=Watson, L. E. et al.|year=2002|title= Molecular phylogeny of subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae), including Artemisia and its allied and segregate genera|journal= BioMed Central Evolutionary Biology|volume= 2|issue= 17 Available [http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/2/17 online] .
* [http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/splist.pl?997 Germplasm Resources Information Network: "Artemisia"]
* [http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/cgi-bin/nph-readbtree.pl/feout?FAMILY_XREF=&GENUS_XREF=Artemisia&SPECIES_XREF=&TAXON_NAME_XREF=&RANK=species Flora Europaea: "Artemisia"]
*Flora of China: [http://www.efloras.org/browse.aspx?flora_id=3&start_taxon_id=102682 "Artemisia" species list] and [http://www.efloras.org/browse.aspx?flora_id=3&start_taxon_id=130166 "Seriphidium" species list]
*Flora of Pakistan: [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=102682 "Artemisia"] and [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=130166 "Seriphidium" species list]


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