- European Green Party
European Green Party
Europäische Grüne Partei
Parti Vert européen
Partito Verde Europeo
Partido Verde europeo
Europese Groene Partij
Il-Partit tal-Ħodor Ewropew
Ευρωπαϊκό Πράσινο Κόμμα (Evropaïkó Prásino Kómma)
Europejska Partia Zielonych
Európai Zöld Párt
Partido Verde Europeu
De Europæiske Grønne
Европейската зелена партия (Evropeyskata zelena partiya)
Páirtí Glas na hEorpa
Evropská strana zelených
Partidul Verde European
Secretary-General Jacqueline Cremers Spokesperson Monica Frassoni and Philippe Lamberts Founded February 21, 2004 Headquarters Rue Wiertzstraat 31, 1050 Brussels, Belgium Ideology Green politics International affiliation Global Greens European Parliament Group European Greens–European Free Alliance Official colours Green and yellow Political foundation Green European Foundation Website www.europeangreens.eu Politics of the European Union
- 1 History
- 2 Ideology and issues
- 3 Representation
- 4 Organization
- 5 Elected representatives of Member Parties
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes and references
- 8 External links
Before the foundation of the European Green Party in 2004 the Green Parties of Europe were organized differently, in a loose coordination between 1979 and 1993 and in a federation between 1993 and 2004.
1979 to 1993
In 1979 the Coordination of European Green and Radical Parties (CEGRP) was set up to coordinate the participation of Green and Radical parties in the 1979 European Parliament election. There were considerable differences between the Green and Radical groups and the parties were unable to form a common pan-European electoral platform. Although some parties polled well, no Green entered the European Parliament.
In the 1984 election the Greens participated again. They held a congress in the spring of 1984 in Liège and set up a restructured European Green Coordination (EGC), with a secretariat provided by the Dutch Political Party of Radicals. They also issued a Joint Declaration of the European Green Parties. Furthermore, overall the member parties had grown stronger. Eleven MEPs of member parties were elected to the European Parliament. They formed the Green Alternative European Link (GRAEL) in the European Parliament. The group was too small to be recognized by the Parliament for funds and committees and therefore it joined the Rainbow Group, which also encompassed regionalists, the Danish People's Movement against the European Community and some radicals and socialists. The European Greens formed a loose confederal triangular structure with the autonomous GRAEL in parliament, the weak EGC as a supra-national coordinating body and the member parties. The position of the European Greens was also weakened by the principle of rotation which some member parties (Germany and the Netherlands) used, with their MEPs being replaced by another after serving half their term. This rotation technique originated with the German Greens to prevent their members being co-opted by the informal negotiation system within the Bundestag, but it served them badly within the European Parliament. For the Dutch parties the choice for rotation was a compromise between three parties which had only two seats in parliament: one seat was kept by the top candidate while the second seat rotated between the second and the third candidate. This way each party would have a representative in the EP. Finally there still was considerable diversity in the opinions of the Greens, especially between pro-European and Eurosceptic tendencies. These factors weakened the position of the Greens in Parliament.
In the 1989 election the Green parties won 26 seats. Because of political conflicts with the continuing Rainbow Group, the European Greens formed a separate parliamentary group, The Green Group in the European Parliament. During this period the Greens became more entrenched in parliament.
1993 to 2004
In June 1993 the European Federation of Green Parties was formed by the members of the EGC in Kirkkonummi, Finland. The organization became more structured, it now had a triennial Congress, a Council and a Federation Committee (executive). It strengthened its ties with the Green Group in the European parliament.
In the 1994 election Green parties won a total of 20 seats. They were joined by a member of the Danish Socialist People's Party and one member of both the Italian South Tyrolean People's Party and La Rete. Again the Greens formed a separate group from Rainbow Group, now renamed the European Radical Alliance.
In the 1999 election the Greens performed particularly well winning 38 seats. They formed a combined group with the European Free Alliance, which represented regionalist parties and independence movements, which previously participated in the European Radical Alliance. The relationship between the Greens and these parties was different from before, as the Greens were stronger both numerically and politically.
The European Green Party was founded at the Fourth Congress of the European Federation of Green Parties on February 20–22, 2004 in Rome, a party convention with over 1,000 delegates. Thirty-two Green parties from all over Europe joined this new pan-European party. The foundation of the new party was finalised with the signing of the treaty constituting the party in the Capitol of Rome. As such the Greens were the first to form a political party at European level, the other European federations followed suit between 2004 and 2006.
In the 2004 European Parliament election the member parties won 35 Seats. In the 2009 European Parliament election, even though the European Parliament was reduced in size, the EGP member parties won 46 seats, the best result of the Green Parties in 30 years.
Ideology and issues
The European Greens have always been committed to basic tenets of Green politics, such as environmental responsibility, individual freedom, inclusive democracy, diversity, social justice, gender equality, global sustainable development and non-violence.
However, its relationship to the European Union and its institutions has changed dramatically and is still the subject of a lively debate. In the 1970s and 1980s the European Greens were generally skeptical of European political and economic integration, which was seen as contrary to environmental and social interests. In its 1984 program, the European Greens advocated the formation of an alternative Europe, which would be neutral and decentralized. In 1989, some member parties adopted a more parliamentary course and became more supportive of European integration. The program advocates the democratization of Europe's institutions. In their 1994 program, the Greens abandoned their principled opposition of European integration and began to propose pragmatic alternatives for the European Union's policies and institutions. The 1999 and 2004 programs also reflect this.
In the area of Internet politics, the European Greens–European Free Alliance parliamentary group became famous for the strong support of a proposed free information infrastructure, especially in their work on the directive against software patents in 2003.
In this table one can see the results of the Greens for the six direct elections to the European Parliament, in terms of seats and votes. It also shows how many European Commissioners the European Greens have, who led the parliamentary group. It also lists how the Green parliamentary group and supra-national organizations was named and what European parliamentary group they joined.
Year MEPs MEPs % Votes % EC Leaders EP Subgroup EP group Organization 1979 0 0 2.4% 0 none none none Coordination of European Green and Radical Parties 1984 11 2.5% 4.2% 0 Alexander Langer and Maria Amelia Santos Green Alternative European Link Rainbow Group European Green Coordination 1989 25 4.8% 7.4% 0 Alexander Langer and Maria Amelia Santos Green Group in the European Parliament European Green Coordination 1994 21 3.7% 7.4% 0 Alexander Langer and Claudia Roth Green Group in the European Parliament European Federation of Green Parties 1999 38 6.1% 7.7% 1 Heidi Hautala and Paul Lannoye European Greens European Greens–European Free Alliance European Federation of Green Parties 2004 35 4.8% 7.3% 0 Daniel Cohn-Bendit and Monica Frassoni European Greens European Greens–European Free Alliance European Green Party 2009 46 6.3% 7.3% 0 Daniel Cohn-Bendit and Rebecca Harms European Greens European Greens–European Free Alliance European Green Party
The European Green Party is constituted out of political parties from European countries (although not necessarily from European Union member states). Parties can also become observer. Since 2004 individual membership of the European Green Party is also possible, these do not enjoin special rights however.
The most important bodies of the EGP are the Congress, the Council and the Committee.
- The Congress consists out of 400 representatives of member parties and Green MEPs. These are allotted proportionally on basis of their votes in the most recent European or national election. Each party has at least four members. The congress has the last word on general policy of the EGP and its guiding principles.
- The Council consists out of representatives of the MEPs and the member parties, small parties have one representative, larger ones two. The council is responsible for political affairs between congresses and it decides over organizational matters, such as the election of committee, the application of members and observers and the statutes of the EGP.
- The Committee consists out of nine members, including two spokespersons (one man and one woman), a secretary-general and a treasurer. They are responsible for daily political affairs, execution of the council's decisions and the activities of the secretariat-general.
All of these bodies decide with a two-thirds majority.
The European Greens are organized in several regional networks. These are organized around seas, creating somewhat of a bioregional structure: such as the Green Islands Network ("a network for Green Parties in Britain, Ireland and associated islands"), the Baltic Sea Greens, the Green Mediterranean Network, Green Adriatic Network and the North Sea Greens
Country or Region Name (original language) Name (in English) Status MEPs Albania Partia e Gjelber Green Party member n/a Austria Die Grünen The Greens member 2 Flemish Community of Belgium Groen! Green! member 1 French Community of Belgium Ecolo Ecolo member 2 Bulgaria Зелена партия Green Party member (suspended) 0 Cyprus Κίνημα Οικολόγων Περιβαλλοντιστών Ecological and Environmental Movement member 0 Czech Republic Strana zelených Green Party member 0 Estonia Eestimaa Rohelised Estonian Greens member 0 Finland Vihreät Green League member 2 England and Wales Green Party of England and Wales Green Party of England and Wales member 2 France Europe Écologie–Les Verts The Greens member 13 Georgia საქართველოს მწვანეთა პარტია Georgia Greens member n/a Germany Bündnis 90/Die Grünen Alliance '90/The Greens member 14 Greece Οικολόγοι Πράσινοι Ecologists Greens member 1 Hungary Zöld Demokraták Green Democrats member 0 Ireland Green Party/Comhaontas Glas Green Alliance member 0 Italy Federazione dei Verdi Federation of Greens member 0 Latvia Latvijas Zaļā Partija Latvian Green Party member 0 Luxembourg Déi Gréng The Greens member 1 Malta Alternattiva Demokratika Democratic Alternative member 0 Moldova Partidul Ecologist din Moldova "Aliante Verde" Ecologist Party of Moldova Green Alliance member 0 Netherlands De Groenen The Greens member 0 Netherlands GroenLinks GreenLeft member 3 Northern Ireland Green Party in Northern Ireland Green Party in Northern Ireland member 0 Norway Miljøpartiet De Grønne Environmental Party The Greens member n/a Poland Zieloni 2004 Greens 2004 member 0 Portugal Os Verdes The Greens member 0 Romania Partidul Verde Green Party member 0 Russia Зелёная Альтернатива Green Alternative member n/a Scotland Scottish Green Party Scottish Green Party member 0 Slovakia Strana zelených Green Party member 0 Slovenia Stranka mladih Slovenije Youth Party of Slovenia member 0 Spain EQUO EQUO membership in process 0 Spain Los Verdes The Greens member 0 Spain Iniciativa per Catalunya Verds Initiative for Catalonia Greens member 1 Sweden Miljöpartiet de Gröna Environmental Party The Greens member 2 Switzerland Grüne / Les Verts / La Verda / Verdi The Greens member n/a Ukraine Партія Зелених України (Partija Zelenych Ukrajiny) Green Party of Ukraine member n/a Andorra Els Verds d'Andorra Greens of Andorra observer n/a Azerbaijan Azərbaycan Yaşıllar Partiyası Green Party of Azerbaijan observer n/a Belarus Biełaruskaja Partyja "Zialonyja" Belarusian Party "The Greens" observer n/a Bulgaria Зелените Bulgarian Greens observer 0 Croatia Zelena lista Green List of Croatia observer n/a Denmark Socialistisk Folkeparti Socialist People's Party observer 2 Hungary Lehet Más a Politika Politics Can Be Different observer 0 Serbia Zeleni Greens observer n/a Turkey Yeşiller Greens observer n/a Europe Federation of Young European Greens Federation of Young European Greens observer n/a Europe European Network of Green Seniors European Network of Green Seniors observer n/a sources
De Grønne from Denmark were expelled from the EGP in 2008. The reason was that De Grønne intended to cooperate with the People's Movement against the EU in the upcoming elections which sits in the European United Left–Nordic Green Left parliamentary group instead of the European Greens–European Free Alliance-group.
The most important organization linked to the EGP is the Federation of Young European Greens, which is a similar federation of Green youth organizations.
The EGP fosters a European Network of Green Seniors and a European Green Gender Observatory.
Formally the European Greens–European Free Alliance in the European Parliament is also an independent organization with official ties to the EGP.
Elected representatives of Member Parties
Organisation Institution Number of seats European Union European Commission European Union European Council
(Heads of Government)
European Union Council of Ministers
(Participation in Government)
European Union European Parliament Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
- Conservation movement
- Conservation ethic
- Environmental movement
- Earth Science
- Global warming
- List of environmental organizations
- Natural environment
Notes and references
- ^ history of the European Green Party at europeangreens.org
- ^ 7 for the German Greens, 1 for the Dutch Political Party of Radicals, 1 for the Dutch Pacifist Socialist Party, an ally of the PPR, 1 for Ecolo and 1 for Agalev
- ^ Hines, Eric (2003). "The European Parliament And The Europeanization Of Green Parties" (PDF). University of Iowa. Archived from the original on 2008-05-28. http://web.archive.org/web/20080528194305/http://myweb.uiowa.edu/ehhines/culturaldyamicshines.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-01.
- ^ 7 for the German Greens, 8 for French Greens, 2 for the Dutch GroenLinks, 2 for Ecolo and 1 for Agalev, 1 for the Spanish IP, 2 for the Italian Rainbow Greens and 2 for the Italian Federation of Greens
- ^ 12 for the German Greens, 1 for the Dutch GreenLeft, 1 for Ecolo and 1 for Agalev, 1 for the Luxembourgish Dei Greng IP, 2 for the Italian Federation of Greens and 2 for the Green Party
- ^ 7 for the German Greens, 4 for the Dutch GreenLeft, 3 for Ecolo and 2 for Agalev, 1 for the Luxembourgish Dei Greng, 2 for the Italian Federation of Greens, 2 for the Green Party, 9 for Les Verts, 2 for the Austrian Greens, 2 for the Finnish Green League, 2 for the Swedish Green Party and 2 for the Green Party of England and Wales
- ^ charter of the European Green Party at europeangreens.org
- ^ Michaele Schreyer for the German Greens
- ^ includes 6 independent MEPs elected for the Europe Écologie group
- ^ statutes of the European Green party at europeangreens.org
- ^ Bulgarian Green Party/Bulgarian Greens - Bulgaria on EuropeanGreens.org
- ^ Member Parties
- ^ Observer Parties
- ^ new item on the site of the Danish Greens
Pan-European political organisations Political parties
at European levelEU-recognisedEuropean People's Party · Party of European Socialists · European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party · Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists · European Green Party · Party of the European Left · European Democratic Party · European Free Alliance · European Alliance for Freedom · EUDemocrats · European Christian Political MovementDefunct
of national parties
Green parties by country Africa Americas Asia-Pacific Europe
(EGP · FYEG)Albania · Andorra · Austria · Belarus · Belgium (Flanders and Brussels) · Belgium (Wallonia and Brussels) · Bosnia and Herzegovina · Bulgaria (The Greens) · Bulgaria (Green Party) · Croatia · Cyprus · Czech Republic · Denmark (the Greens) · Denmark (Socialist People's Party) · England and Wales (Wales) · Estonia · Finland · France · Georgia · Germany · Greece · Hungary (LMP) · Hungary (ZD) · Iceland · Ireland · Italy · Kosovo · Latvia · Luxembourg · Malta · Moldova · Montenegro · Netherlands (The Greens) · Netherlands (GreenLeft) · Northern Ireland · Norway · Poland · Portugal · Romania (Ecologist Party) · Romania (Green Party) · Russia (Green Russia) · Russia (Alternative) · Russia (Ecological) · Scotland · Serbia · Slovakia · Slovenia · Spain · Spain (Catalonia) · Sweden · Switzerland · Turkey · UkraineItalic links indicate observers or non-members of the Global Greens.
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