Pavarana

Pavarana is a Buddhist holy day celebrated on the full moon of the eleventh lunar month. It marks the end of the month of Vassa, sometimes called "Buddhist Lent." This day marks the end of the rainy season in some Asian countries like Thailand, where Theravada Buddhism is practiced. On this day, each monk (Pali: "bhikkhu") must come before the community of monks ("Sangha") and atone for an offense he may have committed during the Vassa.

Most Mahayana Buddhists do not observe Vassa.

Origins

In India, where Buddhism began, there is a three-month-long rainy season. According to the Vinaya (Mahavagga, Fourth Khandhaka, section I), in the time of the Buddha, once during this rainy season, a group of normally wandering monks sought shelter by co-habitating in a residence. In order to minimize potential inter-personal strife while co-habitating, the monks agreed to remain silent for the entire three months and agreed upon a non-verbal means for sharing alms.

After this rains retreat, when the Buddha learned of the monks' silence, he described such a measure as "foolish." Instead, the Buddha instituted the Pavarana Ceremony as a means for dealing with potential conflict and breaches of disciplinary rules (Patimokkha) during the vassa season. The Buddha said:

:'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the Bhikkhus, when they have finished their Vassa residence, hold Pavâranâ with each other in these three ways: by what [offence] has been seen, or by what has been heard, or by what is suspected. Hence it will result that you live in accord with each other, that you atone for the offences (you have committed), and that you keep the rules of discipline before your eyes.

:'And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to hold Pavâranâ in this way:

:'Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following ñatti [motion] before the Samgha: "Let the Samgha, reverend Sirs, hear me. To-day is the Pavâranâ day. If the Samgha is ready, let the Samgha hold Pavâranâ."

:'Then let the senior Bhikkhu adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say: "I pronounce my Pavâranâ, friends, before the Samgha, by what has been seen, or by what has been heard, or by what is suspected; may you speak to me, Sirs, out of compassion towards me; if I see (an offence), I will atone for it. And for the second time, &c. And for the third time I pronounce my Pavâranâ (&c., down to) if I see (an offence), I will atone for it."

:'Then let (each) younger Bhikkhu adjust his upper robe . . . . (&c.)' [Rhys Davids & Oldenberg (1881), pp. 329-30.]

See also

*Uposatha
*Vassa
*Vinaya

Notes

Bibliography

*Rhys Davids,T.W. & Hermann Oldenberg (trans.) ( [1881] ). "Vinaya Texts (Part I)". Oxford:Clarendon Press. Available on-line at http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe13/sbe1313.htm. The chapter on Pavarana Day, "Fourth Khandhaka (The Parâvanâ Ceremony)," is available at http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe13/sbe1315.htm.


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Uposatha — The Uposatha is the Buddhist sabbath day, in existence from the Buddha s time (500 B.C.E.), and still being kept today in Theravada Buddhists countries. [For examples of published Pali English dictionaries that define Uposatha as Sabbath, see… …   Wikipedia

  • Vassa — Bouddha redescendant du ciel Tavatimsa à l’issue de sa septième vassa (Birmanie, XIXe siècle Vassa ou retraite de la saison des pluies, de vasso (pali) ou varṣaḥ varsha (sanskrit) « pluie », est une période de trois mois lunaires… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Vassa — (von Pāli vasso, Sanskrit varṣaḥ, beides etwa: Regen; Birmanisch: ဝါဆို, Khmer: វស្សា oder ព្រះវស្សា; Lao: ພັນສາ pʰán săː, manchmal ວັດສາ wāt săː; Thai: พรรษา …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Religious festival — A religious festival is a time of special importance marked by adherents to that religion. Religious festivals are commonly celebrated on recurring cycles in a calendar year or lunar calendar. This means that, because ancient calendars were not… …   Wikipedia

  • Bhikkhuni — A Bhikkhuni (IAST|Bhikṣuṇī (Sanskrit) , IAST|Bhikkhuṇī (Pāli) or 比丘尼(Chinese characters), th. ภิกษุณี, IPA2|pʰiksuniː) is a fully ordained female Buddhist monastic. Male monastics are called Bhikkhus. Both Bhikkunis and Bhikkhus live by the… …   Wikipedia

  • Cultural elements of Buddhism — Part of a series on Buddhism Outline · Portal History Timeline · Councils …   Wikipedia

  • Vajiravudh College — An all boys Thai boarding school, Vajiravudh College was established by Phra Mongkut Klao Chaoyuhua King Rama VI who is also known as King Vajiravudh. The school was originally named the Royal Pages College (in Thai:Ma had lek luang). Normally… …   Wikipedia

  • International Congress on Buddhist Women's Role in the Sangha — The International Congress on Buddhist Women s Role in the Sangha: Bhikshuni Vinaya and Ordination Lineages, took place on July 18 20, 2007, was an historic event. [ [http://www.congress on buddhist women.org/index.php?id=2 Program in details] ]… …   Wikipedia

  • Uposatha — (Pali; Sanskrit: Upavasatha; Thai: Wan Phra) ist ein buddhistischer Feiertag, ein Tag der inneren Einkehr, der Erneuerung der Dhamma Praxis. Der Uposatha Tag nimmt eine bedeutende Stellung im Theravada Buddhismus ein, im Mahayana Buddhismus haben …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Uposatha — L’uposatha est une journée durant laquelle les bouddhistes theravada réaffirment leur détermination de suivre le dharma, enseignement du Bouddha. Il y a quatre uposathas par mois, théoriquement les premier, huit, quinze et vingt deux du mois… …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.