Infobox Scottish island |
meaning of name=Old Norse for 'wolf island' or 'Ulfr's island'
highest elevation=Beinn Chreagach 313 m
main settlement=Ulva House (once Ormaig)
Argyll and Bute
references=General Register Office for Scotland (28 Nov 2003) [http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/statistics/publications-and-data/occpapers/occasional-paper-10.html "Occasional Paper No 10: Statistics for Inhabited Islands"] Retrieved 9 July 2007.] [ [http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/ Ordnance Survey] ] MacKenzie, Donald W. R. (16 May 2000) "As It Was/Sin Mar a Bha: A Ulva Boyhood" Birlinn Ltd ISBN 978-1841580425] Haswell-Smith, Hamish. (2004) "The Scottish Islands". Edinburgh. Canongate. Pages 102-5]
There are several ruined settlements on the island, the most famous of which being Ormaig. It is currently owned by the Howard family from northern England.cite book|title=Clan MacQuarrie - a history|author=Munro, R.W.|coauthors=Macquarrie , Alan.|publisher=Bruce McQuarrie|location=Auburn, Massachusetts|chapterurl=http://albanach.org/macquarrie/ch6.html|chapter=Distress and Dispersal|url=http://albanach.org/macquarrie/book.html|year=1996] Howard, J. & Jones, A., "The Isle of Ulva: A Visitor's Guide", published by Ulva Estate, (2004)] Some of the inhabitants are Gaelic speakers. The traditional name for someone from Ulva is an "Ulbhach" (plural "Ulbhaich").
Ulva is approximately oval in shape with an indented coastline. It is aligned east-west, being 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) long, and 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) wide. Viewed on a large scale, Ulva and its neighbouring island
Gometraappear to be a peninsula of the Isle of Mull, as they are separated from one another by narrow straits. Caolas Ulbha (the Sound of Ulva) at the east of the island is a narrow channel a few hundred metres across to Ulva Ferryon Mull. To its west, it is separated from Gometra by Gometra Harbour. To the south are Mull's headlands of Ardmeanachand the Ross of Mull. To the north, Loch Tuath (Loch-a-Tuath) separates it from another headland of Mull, and to the south east is Loch na Keal (Loch nan Ceall), and the island of Eorsa. There are two main bays on the south coast, Port a' Bhàta, and Tràigh Bhàn. On the north coast, there is the horseshoe bay of Lòn Bhearnuis (Bearnus lagoon), Soriby Bay and a few minor inlets.
The highest point of Ulva is Beinn Chreagach (rocky mountain), which reaches 313 metres (1,026 ft). It has a neighbour in Beinn Eoligarry whose summit is 306 metres (1,003 ft) above sea level. There is also the smaller hill of A' Chrannag in the south east at 118 metres (387 ft) high. The island has a central ridge, with the highest ground running along its lateral axis - this ridge is somewhat broken by Gleann Glas and some other valleys. The south east peninsula tends to be lower lying, with a small plain along the south coast, consisting of raised beaches.
The climate is moderated by the
Parish and region
Ulva was part of
Argyllpre-1974, and Strathclyde Regionafter that. It is now part of Argyll and Bute.
The island is in the parish of Kilninian ("Cill Ninein"), which also includes Gometra, Staffa, Little Colonsay and part of the west of Mull. It was united with Kilmore on Mull, and the minister has traditionally preached in Kilninian and Kilmore on alternate Sundays. For more details, see the church section.
Gometra is a
tidal islandand connected to Ulva by a bridge. Little Colonsayand Inchkenneth(with Samalan Island) are to Ulva's south west and south east respectively. Further to the west are the Treshnish Isles, including the distinctive Bac Mòr, and beyond them, the larger islands of Colland Tiree, with Gunnabetween them. To the south west are the islands of Staffa, of Fingal's Cavefame and Erisgeir. Much further to the south west is the island of Iona.
There are a number of islets and rocks to the south and the east of Ulva, notably Eilean na Creiche (listed as "Eilean na Craoibhe", on the island's guide's map.) between Little Colonsay and Ulva, and also Garbh Eilean ("rough island"), Eilean Bàn ("white/fair island"), Eilean an Rìgh ("island of the king"), Eilean na h-Uamh ("island of the cave"), Trealbhan, Sgeir Dhubh, Sgeir Dhubh Bheag, Sgaigean, Bogha Mòr and Eilean Reilean. There are three main islets in the Sound of Ulva: Eilean Garbh ("rough island"), Eilean a' Bhuic ("island of the buck") and Eilean a' Chaolais ("island of the kyle/straits"), as well as the smaller island of Sgeir Ruadh. At the south of the island near Mull is Sgeir a' Charraig, and there is Sgeir Dubhail off Rubha nan Gall (north coast), to the south east near Cùl a' Gheata are Sgeir nan Leac, Sgeir Bhioramuill, and Bogha MhicGuaire ("MacQuarrie's rock").OS Landranger Sheet 48, "Iona & West Mull, Ulva"] Off Port a' Bhàta are Geasgill Beag & Geasgill Mòr, between Ulva and Inchkenneth. To the south west is Sgeir na Sgeireadh, and Màisgeir [ Màisgeir is sometimes written as "Mâisgeir", although there is no
circumflexin Gaelic.] due south of Gometra. Off Baligortan is Eilean a' Choire.
Ulva's interior is
moorland, while the spectacular geological formations of the south coast, have been somewhat overshadowed by those of its neighbour Staffa. Nonetheless, they are still renowned in their own right. Around 60 million years ago, the region was volcanically active, with Ben More on Mull being the remnant of a volcano, and it was in this period that the famous rock formations of Staffaand the basaltic columns of "The Castles" on Ulva came into being. [ cite web|url=http://www.ulva.mull.com/geology.htm|title=Geology|accessdate=2007-11-05|work=The Isle of Ulva-A world apart] The lava flows are known as the "Staffa Magma Type member" and can also be seen on Mull at Carsaig, Ardtum, and near Tobermoryon its east coast. They are particularly rich in silica. [cite web|url=http://www.scottishgeology.com/outandabout/classic_sites/locations/mull_staffa.html|title=Mull-Staffa|accessdate=2007-11-05|work=Scottish Geology Website|publisher=Hunterian Museum] These were formed when the cooling surface of the mass of hot lava cracked in a hexagonal pattern in a similar way to drying mud cracking as it shrinks, and these cracks gradually extended down into the mass of lava as it cooled and shrank to form the columns which were subsequently exposed by erosion. [http://giantcrystals.strahlen.org/europe/basalt.htm "Formation of basalt columns/pseudocrystals"] giantcrystals.strahlen.org. Retrieved 3 November 2007.]
Much more recently, Ulva was subjected to glaciation, which dug out the
fjords/sea lochs on its north and south east sides - Loch Tuath (meaning simply "north loch") and Loch na Keal, as well as softening some of its sharper edges.
The Hebridean coastline has been subject to significant post-glacial changes in sea level and the area is rising up at about 2 millimetres per annum as isostatic equilibrium is regained. The relative drop in sea-level has left the highest raised sea cave in the
British Isleson Ulva at A' Chrannag. [ [http://www.mull.zynet.co.uk/nature/geology_mull_advanced.htm "The Geology of Mull"] mull.zynet.co.uk. Retrieved 5 April 2007.] At some point, Ulva was probably a west pointing headland of Mull, connected to Gometraand Eilean Dioghlum off the latter's west coast.
The derivation of "Ulva" is not certain, but is probably from the
Old Norsefor "wolf isle". Samuel Johnsondeduced that it was probably not Gaelic in origin:
"The name is supposed to be a depravation of some other; for the Earse language does not afford it any etymology.".Johnson, Samuel (1775) "A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland". London. Chapman & Dodd. (1924 edition).]
The English name "Ulva" is from the Scottish Gaelic, "Ulbha", but this may have been corruption of
Old Norse. It is debatable whether the Norse root "Ulfr" refers to an individual's name, or to the animal itself (possibly because of the shape of the island). The island's official website and guide book claims - :"A scout, sent ashore from the longboat is alleged to have reported, "Ullamhdha", Viking for "Nobody home"..However "ullamhdha" is not Norse, but appears to be the Scottish Gaelic for "ready for it". Munro and MacQuarrie (1996) state that the scout said "ullamh dha" in Gaelic, meaning the island "was ready for occupation". [cite book|title=Clan MacQuarrie - a history|author=Munro, R.W.|coauthors=Macquarrie, Alan.|publisher=Bruce McQuarrie|location=Auburn, Massachusetts|chapterurl=http://albanach.org/macquarrie/ch1.html|chapter=The Isle of Ulva|url=http://albanach.org/macquarrie/book.html|year=1996]
The "Old Statistical Account of Scotland" mentions an alternative
folk etymology, namely that Ulva comes from "ullamh-àth" (pronounced 'ooliv ah') meaning 'ready ford' in Gaelic, that could refer either to the tidal stretch with Gometra, or the Sound of Ulva over which cattle were sometimes swum. [Sinclair, Sir John of Ulbster "First Statistical Account of Scotland" (1791-2). General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.]
Ulva's human history goes back thousands of years. Its standing stones have been dated to 1500 BC, and a shell midden in Livingston's Cave dates to c. 5650 BC; it includes remains of flint and a human infant, as well as fauna more appropriate to the
Ice Age, such as lemmingand Arctic Fox("Alopex lagopus"). [http://www.ulva.mull.com/history.htm "The Isle of Ulva: History"] . "The Isle of Ulva-A world apart." Retrieved on 2007-11-03.] The cave was excavated between 1987 and 1990, by archaeologists from the University of Edinburgh.
There are a number of dolmens and standing stones on the island, including some west of Cragaig, and one north east of Ormaig , as well as "dùn"s such as Dùn Bhioramuill on the south east slope of A' Chrannag near Cùl a' Gheata above the cliffs, and Dùn Iosagain on the south west slope of Beinn Eolasary.
Ulva was anciently part of the border zone of the kingdom of
Dál Riata,Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) " Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland". London. HarperCollins.] and during this period the old Gaelic language first came to be spoken here. Presumably the area formed part of the Pictishlands, but they left little evidence behind. This region was amongst the first in northern Scotland to become Christianised. This is commemorated in some of the local place names which contain the word "Cill" or "Ceall", which is frequently anglicised as "Kil-" e.g. "Loch na Keal" is "Loch nan Ceall", meaning "loch of the culdeecells", and Cille Mhic Eoghainn, which means literally "Monk's cell of the son of Ewan/MacEwan", or less literally "MacEwan's Church".
Senchus fer n-Alban" lists three main kin groups in Dál Riata in Scotland, with a fourth being added later. [The Senchus is translated in Bannerman, "Studies", pp. 47–49; previously published in "Celtica", vols. 7 (1966) – 9 (1971); earlier translations in Anderson, "ESSH", vol. 1, pp. cl–cliii and Skene, "Chronicles of the Picts and Scots".] The Cenél Loairn controlled parts of northern Argyllaround the Firth of Lorne, most probably centred on Lorne but perhaps including the Isle of Mull, Morvernand Ardnamurchan, supposedly the descendants of Loarn mac Eirc. [Broun, ""Dál Riata", notes that the Senchus treats the Cenél Loairn differently. In fact, it lists the three (actually four) thirds of the Cenél Loairn as the Cenél Shalaig (or Cenél Fergusa Shalaig), Cenél Cathbath, Cenél nEchdach and Cenél Muiredaig. Even the compiler of the Senchus doubts whether their eponymous founders Fergus Shalaig, Cathbad, Eochaid and Muiredach were all sons of Loarn mac Eirc.] The chief place of the kingdom appears to have been at Dun Ollaigh, near Oban. The chief religious site may have been on Lismore, later the seat of the High Medieval bishop of Argyll.
Columba(Colm Cille) visited Ulva in 563.
Norse period and Middle Ages
Ulva later became part of the Norse
Kingdom of the Isles. Rubha nan Gall, ("point of the foreigners"}on the north coast of the island may refer to the Norse.
Gometra and Inchkenneth nearby both have connections to Iona so it is not likely that Ulva had as well. Ulva came under the
Diocese of Sodor and Man, and then the Diocese of Argyll.
Ulva came into the possession of Clan MacQuarrie (an Anglicised version of the surname MacGuaire [cite web|url=http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/gaidhlig/faclair/sbg/lorg.php?facal=MacQuarrie&seorsa=Beurla&tairg=Lorg&eis_saor=on|title=Stòr-dàta Briathrachais Gàidhlig|language=Scottish Gaelic|accessdate=2007-05-11] ) family around a thousand years ago, and they controlled it until the mid-19th century. The name "MacGuaire" is also anglicised as McGuire in
Ireland. The English version has many variants, for examples, a sixteenth century clan chief was Donn-slèibhe MacGuaire, possibly the ancestor of the Livingstone (MacDhùn-lèibhe) family. MacKenzie mentions that his name was anglicised in the following widely differing versions - "Dunslavie McVoirich" (either "MacMhuirich" (which becomes "Currie" or "MacPherson") or "Mac Mhurchaidh" (Son of Murdo)), "Dulleis MacKwiddy", "Dwnsleif MacKcurra" and "Dwnsleyf MaKwra". "Dunslav" was recorded as a forename in Ulva in 1693 as well [Currie, Jo (Jun 1998) "Mull Family Names: For Ancestor Hunters" Brown & Whittaker ISBN-10: 0952842882 ]
The Ulva Brooch was found in a pool of water in a cave in 1998. Its exact date of origin is unknown, but it is reckoned to be 16th or 17th century. The original is now in a museum in
Dunoon, and a replica can be seen in Sheila's Cottage on the island. It is an engraved woman's brooch, for keeping a shawl tied together, and is believed to have been left in the cave after someone sheltered there.
In 1722, the inhabitants of Ulva were sent to a court in
Inveraray, because they had taken oil from a stranded whale.
During the second Jacobite uprising, Clan MacQuarrie fought at Culloden on
Charles Edward Stuart's side.
The Rev. John Walker lamented the lack of commercial fishing, which he thought could provide the islanders with an additional income and food source. He noted the presence of
herring, cod, and lingin the surrounding waters, but said, that there was
:" [N] o net or Long Line on the island to catch them [fish] and none of the inhabitants were acquainted with any kind of fishing, but with the Rod from Sea Rocks". [Walker, Rev. John (1771) "Report on the Hebrides of 1764 and 1771". Edinburgh. ed. McKay, Margaret M. (1980 edition).]
Lachlan Macquarie, was born on Ulva 31 January 1762. cite web|url=http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A020162b.htm|title=Macquarie, Lachlan (1762 - 1824)|last=McLachlan|first=N.D.|work=Australian Dictionary of Biography, Online Edition|publisher=Australian National University|accessdate=2007-11-05|issn=1833-7538] He is sometimes referred to as "Father of Australia".Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) "Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland". London. HarperCollins.] He left when he was 14, and was Governor of New South Walesfrom 1809-21, the longest tenure of any Australian governor. However, after his long sojourn in India, Australiaand elsewhere, Lachlan Macquarie returned to his home turf - his mausoleummay still be seen at Grulineon Loch na Keal, on the Isle of Mull, within sight of his home island. The mausoleum is possibly the only site in Scotland maintained by the National Trust of "Australia".
His father, who had the same name, was a cousin of the sixteenth and last chieftain of the clan. According to local tradition, he was either a miller or a carpenter. There is some argument as to where exactly he was born - Ormaig is generally stated, because he appears to have come from that branch of the clan. It has even been suggested that he was born on the near section of Mull - at either
Oskamullor Lagganulva, but local tradition says he was born at Cùl a' Gheata, which is quarter of a mile south of Ulva House.
In 1787, Macquarie came back to Mull and Ulva, in order to try and recruit men for the British army. Few Ulbhachs had any interest, and he deemed them "ungrateful":
:"I was equally unsuccessful in the place of my Nativity, and ancient Possessions of my Ancestors, – among my own Clan and Namesakes, the Macquaries of Ulva; where every fair and Lawful Means were used by their old Chief and Master, my Relation the Laird of Macquarie, and myself; but, such is the aversion of these People to become Soldiers or to go abroad, that notwithstanding all the entreaties of their old Chief and Master, not one of his ungrateful Clan, (to whom he had been, in the days of his Prosperity, a most kind and Generous Master,) would enlist or follow me and his own Son Murdoch Macquarie, (a lad about Sixteen years of age) who voluntarily offered to follow my Fortunes, and push his own in India – as a Volunteer. — I was not much surprised, tho' at the same time I confess I was exceedingly displeased, at the ungrateful conduct [sic] of these People, who had treated their old chief exactly in the same manner, when he got his Commission in the Army in Decr. 1777 and hoped to get his whole Quota of Men among his own Clan; but in this, he was cruelly disappointed, very few indeed, having followed him to the American War: – it would appear he had lost his Power and influence over them, at the same moment he had lost the Estate of his Ancestors. Finding I had no success in the Recruiting way in Mull I determined upon setting out for the Low Country without loss of time to Recruit there". [cite web|url=http://www.lib.mq.edu.au/digital/lema/1787/1787dec.html#dec15|title=Journal No. 1: 15 December 1787 – 24 March 1792|accessdate=2007-11-05|publisher=Macquarie University|work=Lachlan and Elizabeth Macquarie Archive|first=Lachlan|last=Macquarie]
Nonetheless, Macquarie came to be known as "Father of Australia" for some very simple reasons. He instituted penal reforms, improved relations with the natives, and set Australia on the road from being a remote British prison, to a modern state. Arguably this is what cost him his job.
Boswell and Johnson
Dr Johnson and Boswell visited The MacQuarrie on Ulva in October 1773, the year after
Sir Joseph Banksbrought Staffato the English-speaking world's attention. Perhaps aware that Banks considered that the columnar basalt cliff formations on Ulva called "The Castles" rivalled Staffa's [MacNab, Peter (1993) "Mull and Iona: Highways and Byways". Edinburgh. Luath Press.] Johnson wrote:
When the islanders were reproached with their ignorance or insensibility of the wonders of Staffa, they had not much to reply. They had indeed considered it little, because they had always seen it; and none but philosophers, nor they always, are struck with wonder otherwise than by novelty. [Johnson, Samuel (1775) "A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland". London. Chapman & Dodd. (1924 edition).]
Both men left separate accounts of the visit, Johnson in "
A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland" (18 January 1775) and Boswell in "Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides with Samuel Johnson, LL.D" (1785). They arrived on Saturday, 16 October, and left the following day. Johnson wrote:
We resolved not to embarrass a family, in a time of so much sorrow, if any other expedient could he found; and as the Island of Ulva was over-against us, it was determined that we should pass the strait and have recourse to the
Laird, who, like the other gentlemen of the Islands, was known to Col. We expected to find a ferry-boat, but when at last we came to the water, the boat was gone.
We were now again at a stop. It was the sixteenth of October, a time when it is not convenient to sleep in the Hebrides without a cover, and there was no house within our reach, but that which we had already declined.
We were in hopes to get to Sir Allan Maclean's at
Inchkenneth,to-night; but the eight miles, of which our road was said to consist,were so very long, that we did not reach the opposite coast of Mulltill seven at night, though we had set out about eleven in theforenoon; and when we did arrive there, we found the wind strongagainst us. Col determined that we should pass the night atM'Quarrie's, in the island of Ulva, which lies between Mull andInchkenneth; and a servant was sent forward to the ferry, to securethe boat for us: but the boat was gone to the Ulva side, and the windwas so high that the people could not hear him call; and the night sodark that they could not see a signal. We should have been in a verybad situation, had there not fortunately been lying in the littlesound of Ulva an Irish vessel, the "Bonnetta", of Londonderry, CaptainM'Lure, master. He himself was at M'Quarrie's; but his men obliginglycame with their long-boat, and ferried us over.(Boswell)
Boswell was not impressed with Macquarrie's house, but appears to have enjoyed the company:
M'Quarrie's house was mean; but we were agreeably surprised with theappearance of the master, whom we found to be intelligent, polite, andmuch a man of the world. Though his clan is not numerous, he is a veryancient chief, and has a burial place at Icolmkill [Iona] . He told us, hisfamily had possessed Ulva for nine hundred years; but I was distressedto hear that it was soon to be sold for the payment of his debts.
Captain M'Lure, whom we found here, was of Scotch extraction, andproperly a M'Leod, being descended of some of the M'Leods who wentwith Sir Normand [sic] of Bernera to the
battle of Worcester, and after thedefeat of the royalists, fled to Ireland, and, to conceal themselves,took a different name. He told me, there was a great number of themabout Londonderry; some of good property. I said, they should nowresume their real name. The Laird of M'Leod should go over, andassemble them, and make them all drink the large horn full, and fromthat time they should be M'Leods. The captain informed us, he hadnamed his ship the "Bonnetta", out of gratitude to Providence; for once,when he was sailing to America with a good number of passengers, theship in which he then sailed was becalmed for five weeks, and duringall that time, numbers of the fish bonnetta swam close to her, andwere caught for food; he resolved therefore, that the ship he shouldnext get, should be called the Bonnetta.(Boswell)
Johnson too admired the antiquity of the family, but did not care for the landscape too much:
To Ulva we came in the dark, and left it before noon the next day. A very exact description therefore will not be expected. We were told, that it is an Island of no great extent, rough and barren, inhabited by the Macquarrys; a clan not powerful nor numerous, but of antiquity, which most other families are content to reverence [...] Of the ancestors of Macquarry, who thus lies hid in his unfrequented Island, I have found memorials in all places where they could be expected.
Great though the age of the Macquarries may have been, it appears at this point that they were considering selling it, and that the house was in a state of disrepair, despite the hospitality:
Talking of the sale of an estate of an ancient family, which was said to have been purchased much under its value by the confidential lawyer of that family, and it being mentioned that the sale would probably be set aside by a suit in equity, Dr Johnson said, 'I am very willing that this sale should be set aside, but I doubt much whether the suit will be successful; for the argument for avoiding the sale is founded on vague and indeterminate principles, as that the price was too low, and that there was a great degree of confidence placed by the seller in the person who became the purchaser. Now, how low should a price be? or what degree of confidence should there be to make a bargain be set aside? a bargain, which is a wager of skill between man and man. If, indeed, any fraud can be proved, that will do.'
When Dr Johnson and I were by ourselves at night, I observed of our host, "aspectum generosum habet." "Et generosum animum," he added. For fear of being overheard in the small Highland houses, I often talked to him in such Latin as I could speak, and with as much of the English accent as I could assume, so as not to be understood, in case our conversation should be too loud for the space.
We had each an elegant bed in the same room; and here it was that a circumstance occurred, as to which he has been strangely misunderstood. From his description of his chamber, it has erroneously been supposed, that his bed being too short for him, his feet, during the night, were in the mire; whereas he has only said, that when he undressed, he felt his feet in the mire: that is, the clay-floor of the room, on which he stood before he went into bed, was wet, in consequence of the windows being broken, which let in the rain.(Boswell)
Johnson heard later on that the island had been sold to Capt. Dugald Campbell of Achnaba, and wrote to him:
Every eye must look with pain on a Campbell turning the MacQuarries at will out of their "sedes avitae", their hereditary island. [Johnson, Samuel (1777) Letter to Capt. Dugald Campbell]
"Mercheta Mulierum" was an ancient custom persisting in the island, a relique of the
Inquiring after the reliques of former manners, I found that in Ulva, and, I think, no where else, is continued the payment of the Mercheta Mulierum; a fine in old times due to the Laird at the marriage of a virgin. The original of this claim, as of our tenure of
Borough English, is variously delivered. It is pleasant to find ancient customs in old families. This payment, like others, was, for want of money, made anciently in the produce of the land. Macquarry was used to demand a sheep, for which he now takes a crown, by that inattention to the uncertain proportion between the value and the denomination of money, which has brought much disorder into Europe. A sheep has always the same power of supplying human wants, but a crown will bring at one time more, at another less. (Johnson)
Boswell says "I suppose, Ulva is the only place where this custom remains.", and Sir
William Blackstonesays in his Commentaries, that "he cannot find that ever this custom [Borough English] prevailed in England".
Walter Scott claims that "mercheta mulierum" persisted at the time of his visit.
By the early 19th century,
potatoes were a major staple of the island, and Ulva actually exported them.Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) "Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland". London. HarperCollins.]
The main remnants of Clan MacQuarrie's chiefs fell at the battles of
Maldaand Waterloo. Their mother Marie was given a medal by King George IVwith the slogan "Màthair nan Gaisgich" - "mother of heroes" on it.
Until the mid-nineteenth century its main industry was
kelpcollection and export. At the turn of the nineteenth century, the kelp industry supported a large amount of the population. It was seasonal work, with collection taking place in the months of May, June and July, when it was considered possible to dry it outdoors. The dried kelp would usually then be burnt, and the ash used to produce various products, including fertiliser and iodine. The ruined kiln on the south shore may have been used for this. Between 1817 and 1828, no less than 256 tonnes of kelp were collected in Ulva. Kelpers collected on average, a wage of two shillings a week, and a stone of wheat.
cott, Hogg and other visitors
John Keatswas one of many famous visitors to Ulva in the 19th century]
Boswell and Johnson were not the only famous non-Highland visitors to the island.
Walter Scottand James Hoggalso visited the islands some decades later. In 1810 Scott discussed the prospect of a visit, which he describes as a "jaunt":
Among all my hopes & fears the uppermost thought is that you will be down this year. I have a prospect of a nice jaunt to the Hebrides with a light sloop & eight men belonging to Staffa, MacDonald, who would be delighted to receive you at Ulva — The ladies could remain at Oban if they were afraid of the Sea. But you must wipe your minds eye pull up the breeches of your resolution and set forth as soon as possible for we must get to the Hebrides early in July unless we mean to encounter long nights & tempestuous weather [Scott, Walter (1810) "Letter to George Ellis"]
Scott was struck by the contrast between Ulva and the nearby island of Inchkenneth:
"... a most beautiful islet of the most verdant green, while all the neighbouring shore of Greban, as well as the large islands of Colinsay and Ulva, are as black as heath can make them. But Ulva has a good anchorage, and Inchkenneth is surrounded by shoals."
By the time, Scott visited the "mean" house of Boswell's journal was gone, and replaced by one from a design by
Robert Adam. This in turn has been destroyed, and the current Ulva House is on its site.
Hogg wrote some graffiti on the wall of Ulva Inn, now lost due to its burning down in 1880:
:"I've roamed around the creeks and headlands of Mull,:"Their fields are uncultured and cussedly weedy,:"Their hard lands are bare and their havens dull,:"Their folks may be brave, but they're cussedly greedy."
Naturally, the locals were slightly upset by this, and the Minister of Ulva, Rev. MacLeod wrote the following reply, with a sly pun referring to Jesus' "
Discourse on holiness" from the Sermon on the Mount:
:"Ho! Shepherd of Ettrick,:"Why sorely complain,:"Though the boatman be greedy for grog?:"The beauties of Staffa,:"by this we proclaim,:"Are like pearls cast away on a Hogg"
Many other visitors to neighbouring Staffa stayed at Ulva Inn, this included Keats, Mendelssohn, and
The famous Scottish missionary and explorer of Africa,
David Livingstonerecounted how his ancestors had originally come from Ulva.
:"Our great-grandfather fell at the
battle of Culloden, fighting for the old line of kings; and our grandfather was a small farmer in Ulva, where my father was born."
Livingstone recounted how Ulva had a great store of folklore, and legends, which his grandfather told them:
"Our grandfather was intimately acquainted with all the traditionary legends which that great writer [Walter Scott] has since made use of in the "
Tales of a Grandfather" and other works. As a boy I remember listening to him with delight, for his memory was stored with a never-ending stock of stories, many of which were wonderfully like those I have since heard while sitting by the African evening fires. Our grandmother, too, used to sing Gaelic songs, some of which, as she believed, had been composed by captive islanders languishing hopelessly among the Turks [i.e. Moroccan pirates] .
"Grandfather could give particulars of the lives of his ancestors for six generations of the family before him; and the only point of the tradition I feel proud of is this: One of these poor hardy islanders was renowned in the district for great wisdom and prudence; and it is related that, when he was on his death-bed, he called all his children around him and said,
:"Now, in my lifetime, I have searched most carefully through all the traditions I could find of our family, and I never could discover that there was a dishonest man among our forefathers. If, therefore, any of you or any of your children should take to dishonest ways, it will not be because it runs in our blood: it does not belong to you. I leave this precept with you: Be honest."
Livingstone also recorded the
religion of the yellow stick, which is more connected with the Small Isles.
If, therefore, in the following pages I fall into any errors, I hope they will be dealt with as honest mistakes, and not as indicating that I have forgotten our ancient motto. This event took place at a time when the Highlanders, according to Macaulay, were much like the Cape Caffres ["kaffirs"] , and any one, it was said, could escape punishment for cattle-stealing by presenting a share of the plunder to his chieftain. Our ancestors were
Roman Catholics; they were made Protestantsby the laird coming round with a man having a yellow staff, which would seem to have attracted more attention than his teaching, for the new religion went long afterward, perhaps it does so still, by the name of “the religion of the yellow stick”.
Like many Gaels in the 19th century, Livingstone's grandfather was forced to emigrate to the Lowlands for work:
"Finding his farm in Ulva insufficient to support a numerous family, my grandfather removed to
BlantyreWorks, a large cotton manufactory on the beautiful Clyde, above Glasgow; and his sons, having had the best education the Hebrides afforded, were gladly received as clerks by the proprietors, Monteith and Co. He himself, highly esteemed for his unflinching honesty, was employed in the conveyance of large sums of money from Glasgow to the works, and in old age was, according to the custom of that company, pensioned off, so as to spend his declining years in ease and comfort."
Andrew Ross says David Livingstone was the second son of Neil Livingston (known as "Niall Beag", wee Neil, or "Niall MacDhun-lèibhe"), who was born on Ulva in 1788, who was in turn the son of another Neil. He also claims that the family stories do not quite fit, and that it is unlikely that he was a descendant of a Culloden combatant. A Mull legend also says that Neil (grandfather) may have been driven from his house by redcoats in the middle of a snowstorm. However, there is no evidence for this.Ross, Andrew. (2006) "David Livingstone: Mission and Empire". Continuum International Publishing Group. Pages 1-3 ISBN 1852855657] He also notes that Neil's church on Ulva had given the following letter of recommendation of their parishioner, something no doubt David was proud of.
:"The bearer, Neil Livingstone, a married man in Ulva, part of the parish of Kilninian, has always maintained an unblemished moral character, and is known for a man of piety and religion. He has a family of four songs, the youngest of which is three years, and three daughters, of which the youngest is six years of age. As he proposes to offer his services at some of the cotton-spinning manufactories, he and his wife Mary Morrison, and their family of children is hereby recommended for suitable encouragement.
::"Given at Ulva, this eighth day of January, 1792, by
:::"Arch. McArthur, Minister:::"Lach. Mclean, Elder:::"R.S. Stewart JP, Elder"
The Clearances come to Ulva
Mr Francis William Clark bought the island and began a brutal clearance of two thirds of the inhabitants within a few years. Sometimes those who were to be evicted were given no warning, and had the thatch of their houses set on fire by the factor. The Clark family owned the island well into the 20th century. FW Clark also bought, and cleared, the islands of
Gometraand Little Colonsay.
In 1837, there were sixteen villages/townships, with shoe makers, wrights, boat builders, merchants, carpenters, tailors, weavers and black smiths. In 1841, the population of Ulva and
Gometrawas 859, but by 1848 this had plummetted to 150 thanks to a combination of the Highland potato famineand Clark's evictions. By 1889, the population of the two islands had fallen further to 83, with 53 on Ulva by itself.
MacKenzie records at Aird Glas, near Ardalum, the now abandoned row of houses was nicknamed "Starvation Terrace":
:"...Where the old and feeble folk cleared from their crofts were placed by Clark, to exist as best they could on shellfish & seaweed till they died."
He thinks however, that the plan may not have been to starve them, but to create fishing stations of the type which Walker lamented the lack of. This is certainly what was attempted in
Sutherland. Opinions on Clark, still remain divided. The island's guidebook claims:
:"Clark's high hopes for this thriving community were shattered when the kelp market collapsed, and he was left with a great surplus of tenants. His greatest concern would have been for the people and their livelihoods."
One of Clark's neighbours did not think much of his concern, and is reported to have shouted "Francis William Clark, there's a smell of your name all over Scotland".
:"In an era in which large-scale evictions were commonplace — those of Torloisg and Glengorm for example — this Francis William Clark gained a notoreity that matched or exceeded that of the [other] evicting landlords of his time. 'Notorious', 'ruthless', 'cruel', 'callous' are some of the epithets attached to his name."
MacKenzie further notes, that unlike in
Sutherland, where the Clearances are most remembered, there was no factor or middle man to provide a buffer between the tenants and the landlord, like the notorious Patrick Sellar, and that Clark did a lot of the evicting himself. In evidence to the Napier Commission, Alexander Fletcher recounted that Clark moved people from one piece of land to a small one, repeatedly "then to nothing at all, and when they would not clear off altogether, some of them had the roofs taken off their huts."Fletcher, Alexander, evidence to Napier Commission, quoted in "Scots Magazine", September 1984 issue, by MacIntyre, Lorn.]
Fletcher also claimed that Clark bullied the sick and the elderly:"In another case, there was a very sick woman... Notwithstanding the critical condition of the woman, he [F. W. Clark] had the roof taken down to a small bit over the woman's bed." Another recorded that a woman fetching water at a well was so terrified of him, that she "ran away, and left her kettle at the well, which Mr Clark took hold of and smashed to pieces."
F. W. Clark was still alive at the time of the reports to the Napier Commission, and never made any attempt to refute these accusations. His son, of the same name, disagreed vocally with his father's behaviour and said, "he would rather have a "cailleach" (old woman) to light his pipe in every ruined house than all the sheep... of Ulva".
Here is a list of some of the cleared townships, and their current state.
(Notes: All information from MacKenzie (2000).")
Name/location 1841 census State in 1918-21 Ormaig 52 Ruins Cragaig 57 1 family Now a camping bothy Cill MhicEòghainn (Kilvikewan) 32 Ruins Eolasary 32 Ruins Glac na Gallan 35 Ruins Baile Ghartan (Ballygarten) 32 Ruins Bearnus (Berniss) 25 1 family Culinis(h) 52 Ruins Abas (Aboss) 33 Ruins Soriby 29 Ruins Fearann Ard-àirigh (Ferinardry) 54 Ruins Ardalum (Ardellum) 46 2 families Sàilean Ruadh (Salen) ? 1 family (at Croit Phàraig) Caolas (Sound of Ulva) 23 1 family Uamh (Cave) & Sound Islands at least one family 1 family (Ulva House)
Meanwhile, Clark had a memorial built to himself, and his family on top of the
Iron Agefort at Dùn Bhioramuill. A huge marbleslab to F. W. Clark was "accidentally" lost in the mire, on its way to be placed here. Some say this was deliberate, but according to local folklore, this was due to the "weight of evil on it". The other parts of the memorial may still be seen.
20th century and present day
The Scottish Field" (September, 1918), there is a description by Angus Henderson of how the cattle were driven to "mainland" Mull.
:"The handsome herds of Ulva were 'floated' across the ferry on their way to the
Obansales... The cattle are driven into the water, and forced to swim to a small island, there they are allowed to rest for a few minutes and then they are made to complete their swim to Mull. Men in boats guide thm to the right landing places."
During the 20th century, the population of Ulva, continued to fall. In 1981 it dropped to 13, the lowest point in recorded history. By 1991 however, it had risen to 30, mostly due to incomers working on the island.
The Clarks owned the island for the best part of a century, selling it in 1945, to Edith, Lady Congleton. Her family, the Howards have owned it ever since, with her daughter Jean Howard owning it, and her grandson James Howard as estate manager. Under the Howards, the population has fluctuated, rather than the continuous fall under the Clarks.
In 1950, Queen Elizabeth and the Royal Yacht, Britannia visited..
In 2000, D. W. R. MacKenzie wrote "As It Was/Sin Mar a Bha: A Ulva Boyhood", which is a combination of autobiography and a potted history of the island. His father was a Kirk minister, who moved there from
Rothesay, where he had been in charge of the Gaelic church there. MacKenzie describes as a child, his early impressions of the island in the 1920s, and how the minister's children slowly began to recognise the landscape of eviction:
:"We saw ruins of houses ("tobhtaichean") roofless and windowless, and near them neglected green patches that had obviously been cultivated at one time. We saw overgrown ridges and furrows that once had been the
lazybeds ("feannagan") on which former inhabitants had grown their potatoes and cereals. When returned home from our explorations, to recount our discoveries, we learned, over the years, that the Ulva of 1827, when the church and the manse were built was very different from the Ulva we came to know a hundred years later."
Ulva is known for its wildlife, which as is usual for many Scottish islands, includes many varieties of sea birds. A number of
raptors breed on the island including Buzzards, Golden Eagles and Sea Eagles. Game birds include Snipe, grouse, Pheasant, and Woodcock. White-tailed Eagles, which were reintroduced in the nearby Island of Rùmhave migrated to Mull, where they now have a stronghold - they can occasionally be seen on Ulva, but are not known to nest there. Ravens also breed here. Puffin, Black-legged Kittiwakes, Shag, Common and Arctic Tern, Gannets, Eider Ducks, Oystercatchers, Curlews, Redshanks, Red-breasted Mergansers and gulls nest on the island and the surrounding waters provide a livelihood for numerous seabirds.Haswell-Smith, Hamish [http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/magazine.cfm?id=1220702004 "Where the wild things are"] (23 October 2004) Edinburgh. "The Scotsman". Retrieved 3 November 2007.] Occasional visitors (usually not breeding) include - House Martins, Leach's Storm Petrel, Corncrakes (which are rare in the British Isles), Peregrine Falcons and Spotted Fly Catchers.
Land mammals that can be found on the island, include
Red Deer, Rabbits, and Mountain Hares. Stoats and Hedgehogs are occasionally sighted on the island as well. In 1986 the island's Otters were studied by experts from the University of Leeds- in the six weeks that they were there, they sighted the otters every evening. In regard to canids, there are no foxes on the island, although it has been suggested that the name "Ulva" - wolfisle - meant that wolves lived on the island in the Norse period.
There is only one known kind of
reptileon the island, the pseudo-snake slow worm, but no true snakes have been reported. The name "Ormaig", however, is probably a corruption of the Norse"Ormrsvi", which means "bay of the worm" - this may refer to a snake. Cetaceans that can be seen in the surrounding waters include Minke Whales, porpoises, dolphins, and Pilot Whales. [ [http://www.whaledolphintrust.co.uk/silurian/2005_04_17_archive.html "On board "Silurian"."] (2005) Hebridean Whale and Dolphin Trust. Retrieved 17 November 2007.] [ [http://www.ulva.mull.com/wildlife.htm "The Isle of Ulva:Wildlife] www.ulva.mull.com. Retrieved 17 November 2007.] Whales occasionally get beached on the island, more recent examples including 1966 (pilot), 1987 (pilot) and 1991 (two Sperm Whales). Grey Seals and Basking Sharkalso frequent the area.
Ulva is also home to two extremely rare insects: the
Scotch Burnet Moth, which can also be found on Mull, but nowhere else, and a dragonfly, " Orthetrum coesilesceus".
More than 500 species of plant have been recorded on Ulva.
Bracken is particularly abundant on the island, with heather growing in some other parts. Wild flowers that grow here include
bluebells, orchids, Sundews ("Drosera") and " Dianthus" ("pinks").
Much of the island is treeless, but there are substantial stands in some places, especially near the island's small reservoir.
However, in the areas where trees grow, there is a surprising diversity. There are at least 43 varieties and/or species of
broadleaftrees on the island, and over a dozen types of conifer. Amongst the coniferous trees are Silver and Nobel Firs, Juniper, European and Japanese Larch, Sitka Spruce, and Scots Pine. The broadleafs include Laburnum, Wych Elm, three types of oak, four kinds of cherrytree, Alder, Sycamore, Sweet Chestnut, Walnutand various other fruit trees. Despite Ulva's unwarranted reputation for barrenness, it can be seen that it is a treasure trove of plant life, both introduced and native.
Media and the arts
A piper named MacArthur set up a famous piping school here. He himself was trained by the great MacCrimmon dynasty of
Skye, whose piping skills were legendary in Gaeldom. The MacArthurs themselves were said to be amongst the greatest bagpipers to come out of Scotland. Allen writes:
"The MacCrimmons and the MacArthurs were said to have been the finest pipers and exponents of the "
piobaireachd" and history relates great rivalry between the families for supremacy. Both the MacCrimmons and the MacArthurs had colleges for piping students; the former on the farm of Boreraig, eight miles south west of Dunvegan Castleon Skye, the latter at Ulva near Mull. For the MacCrimmon pupils seven years study was necessary in their apprenticeship. The pupils had a solitary designated area of open space in which to practice the scales and tunes on the chanter, the Small Pipes and "Piob Mhòr" before being allowed to perform for their Master Tutor. The college at Ulva had four rooms; one for cattle, one for guests to stay, one for practice and one specifically for the use of students. In both cases the countryside was preferred for practice as was, and still is, deemed correct for the "Piob Mhòr"." [cite web|url=http://www.nefa.net/archive/songmusicdance/pipes/peace.htm|title=Bagpipes in Peacetime|work=The North East Folklore Archive|publisher= AberdeenshireCouncil|first=Greg Dawson|last=Allen|accessdate=2007-11-06]
Lord Ullin's Daughter
The most famous commemoration of Ulva in literature is
Thomas Campbell's poem, " Lord Ullin's Daughter", written after the writer had visited the region. The opening two stanzas are as follows:
:A CHIEFTAIN to the Highlands bound ::Cries, "Boatman, do not tarry! :And I'll give thee a silver pound ::To row us o'er the ferry!" :"Now who be ye would cross Lochgyle,::This dark and stormy water?" :"O I'm the chief of Ulva's isle, ::And this, Lord Ullin's daughter.
After his visit, Walter Scott used Ulva as material for various works, for example, in his 1815 poem, "Lord of the Isles" (Canto 4):"And Ulva dark, and Colonsay,"::"And all the group of islets gay":"That guard famed Staffa round." [Scott, Walter (1815)"The Lord of the Isles".]
The "Colonsay" referred to here, is probably nearby Little Colonsay rather than
Colonsayitself. In " Tales of a Grandfather", Scott tells the story of "Alan-a-Sop" (an anglicisation of the Gaelic for "Alan of the straw", so called because he was born "on a heap of straw") who was born the illegitimate son of the MacLean of Duartin the 16th century. In his youth, Alan-a-Sop was treated badly by his stepfather, one Maclean of Torloisk. He grew up to be a pirate and eventually took a bloody revenge on Torloisk with the help of MacQuarrie of Ulva. [ [http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/m/macquar2.html "MacQuarrie"] ElectricScotland.com. Retrieved 10 November 2007]
"Moladh Ulbha" (In Praise of Ulva) is a song written by the Ulbhach, Colin Fletcher (Cailean Mac an Fhleisdeir). It was transcribed by the Rev. MacKenzie. This is the first verse.
:Mi 'nam shuidhe 'n seo leam fhèin:Smaoinich mi gun innsinn sgeul:Na Làithean sona bh'agam fhèin:Nuair bha mi òg an Ulbha
:(Trans.: "Me sitting here by myself:"I thought I'd tell a story,:"The happy days I had myself:"When I was young in Ulva")
The Rev. Donald MacKenzie (Dòmhnall MacCoinnich), father of the author of "As It Was", was a noted Gaelic-language author in his own right. He was born in
Lewis, and his ancestors were from Harris, but he spent a number of years in Ulva itself, from June 1918 onwards. He was formerly minister in Rothesay. Amongst his achievements was a large number of translations of the poems of Robert Burns.Thomson, Derick (ed). (1994) "MacKenzie, Donald W." in "The Companion to Gaelic Scotland" Gairm Publications (Glasgow). ISBN-10: 0631155783] He was the last minister on the island.
John MacCormick (
Scottish Gaelic: Iain MacCormaig; 1870-1947), the author of the first full length Scottish Gaelicnovel, "Dùn Aluinn" (1912) was an occasional visitor to the island. He wrote a number of short stories, non-fiction and a novella. He came from Mull, and was a distant relative of the politician of the same name and Neil MacCormick
English children's writer,
Beatrix Potter(1866-1943) also visited Ulva from time to time. She was a relative of the Clark family, and " The Tale of Mr. Tod" (1912) is dedicated to F.W. Clark (III - grandson of the man who bought the island). The dedication says rather cryptically: "FOR FRANCIS WILLIAM OF ULVA — SOMEDAY!" [Potter, Beatrix, " The Tale of Mr. Tod", Frederick Warne, London, 1912] Curiously, although the main characters of the book are a fox("tod") and a badger("brock"), neither species can be found on Ulva.
Infrastructure and economy
None of the island's roads are tarmacked or numbered, due to the low population, and there are no less than six fords on the length of the southern road. There is however a bridge to Gometra, which can also be reached dry-shod at low tide. Like certain other islands, e.g.
Sark, there are no cars, but quad bikes and tractors are used.cite web|url=http://www.ulva.mull.com|title=General Information|work=The Isle of Ulva- A world apart|accessdate=2007-11-06]
The island had a population of sixteen people at the time of the 2001 census.
ferrysails from Ulva to the hamlet of Ulva Ferryon Mull, on request. Ulva Primary School is in fact on Mull at Ulva Ferry. [cite web|url=http://www.argyll-bute.gov.uk/content/education/schoolprofiles/ulvaprimary?s=2063545&a=0|title=Ulva Primary School|publisher= Argyll and Butecouncil|work=School Profiles|accessdate=2007-11-06] There are ruined school buildings still to be seen at Glac na Gallan and Fearann Àrd-àirigh.
Ulva's main industry now is tourism. Other industries on the island include
sheepand cattlefarming, and fish farming( salmonat Soriby Bay). There is also a small sawmill.There is no hotel on the island, but there is a locked bothy at Cragaig which can rented and camping is also possible. At Ardalum, there is a former shooting lodge, which is now now a self-catering unit, and was also workers' accommodation for a while.
There is a licensed restaurant/tea room on the island, "The Boathouse", where locally harvested
oysters are sold.
Sadly, many of the most interesting structures of Ulva are in ruins, such as the former water mill between Ormaig and Cragaig, and if not in ruins, they have been incorporated into other buildings, e.g. Bracadale Steadings, which includes bits of the old Ulva House which Boswell and Johnson stayed in.
In the early 19th century, and unflattering report stated:"No district was more deficient in the means of religious instruction than Ulva" and that "Divine service was little frequented in winter."
A small church was built at Ardalum between 1827 and 1828. It cost £1,500 and was designed by
Thomas Telford. It was restored in 1921. the original church did not have a proper floor, and its floor boards were laid on top of the earth.
The Certificate of Complete of the Ulva Church and Manse is dated 14th March, 1828, and it was conveyed by Charles MacQuarie. There was a budget of £1,500 pounds for the construction and the actual cost came to £1,495 14/1.
It is still used, partly as a community centre, and with a wing for worship. It is claimed that in 1847 ("Statistical Account"), everyone on the island attended services in it including one Roman Catholic and one atheist. Dr Johnson was probably speaking of the old church at Cille Mhic Eòghainn when he said: "Ulva was not neglected by the piety of ardent times: it has still to show what was once a church." Ulva Church is dedicated to St Eòghann of Ardstraw, possibly the same person.
The last resident minister, Rev. MacKenzie left in 1929.
"Sheila's Cottage" is a thatched but-and-ben, which was restored in the 1990s. It is named for Sheila MacFadyen (Sile NicPhaidein), who lived in the cottage between the turn of the twentieth century and the early 1950s. Sheila was originally a milkmaid at Ulva House, but she spent her later years, after her son predeceased her, garnering a scanty living by gathering and selling
winkles for sale locally. One room, the "but" was for livestock, and the other, the "ben" was her living space, where all activities took place.
The cottage contaisn a box bed, dresser, and a life size model of Sheila herself.
The Inn at Ulva was popular with visitors to Staffa. However, although it called itself a "
temperanceinn", its keeper was charged three times with breach of licence. It burnt down in 1880 - the buildings were thatched, and the guest book, which contained many famous signatures was destroyed with it. It reopened, but was finally closed in 1905.
More than one building has gone by the name "Ulva House", and the current one was designed by
Leslie Grahame-Thomsonin the early 1950s. There is a dovecotand a pig sty on its gable end.
There are several ruined
kilns on the island for various different purposes. At Baligartan, there is the remains of a kiln for drying grain, and on the south shore, in a gully (GR173378), there is another, which was probably used in the island's old kelpindustry.
It may be presumed that much of the island's folklore disappeared with the island's population. The story of "Allan-a-Sop", adapted by Scott would have formed part.
Bradley's Cave (G 439398) is named for an Irish itinerant who used to visit in the nineteenth century. Bradley, or O' Brolligan (as his name is sometimes recorded) was a retired sailor, who took to the roads as a
pedlar, and when on Ulva, he was said to live in this cave. Though there is little evidence of his existence, during the 20th Century, buttons and a coindated 1873 were found in here.
Cairistiona's Rock [The island's guidebook records this as "Charistiona's Rock" - however this is the name in the
vocativecase, and probably results from a botched translation attempt.] near Ormaig has a more gruesome story attached to it. Cairistiona accused, probably falsely, her sister of stealing a large hunk of cheese, and tried to extract a confession from her, by lowering her off a cliff with a plaid tied round her neck. The plaid slipped, and ended up strangling her sister, which she had never intended to do. Wracked with remorse, she confessed to the accident, but this was not enough for the islanders, who decided to drown her, by throwing her in a sack and laying her on the rock, which still bears her name.
* Bannerman, John, "Studies in the History of Dalriada". Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh, 1974. ISBN 0-7011-2040-1
* Broun, Dauvit, "Dál Riata" in Lynch (2001).
* Haswell-Smith, Hamish. (2004) "The Scottish Islands". Edinburgh. Canongate. Pages 102-5 (Ulva and Gometra)
* Howard, J. & Jones, A., "The Isle of Ulva: A Visitor's Guide", published by Ulva Estate, (2004) - "Please note, some of the material in this must be treated with caution, notably the reference to "Ullamhdha"
* Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins. Articles: "Ulva" & "MacQuarrie, Lachlan"
* Johnson, Samuel (1775) "A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland". London. Chapman & Dodd. (1924 edition).
* Livingston, David LL.D., D.C.L., "Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa Including a Sketch of Sixteen Years' Residence in the Interior of Africa, and a Journey from the Cape of Good Hope to Loanda on the West Coast; Thence Across the Continent, Down the River Zambesi, to the Eastern Ocean."
* MacKenzie, Donald W. R. "As It Was/Sin Mar a Bha: A Ulva Boyhood" Birlinn Ltd (16 May 2000) ISBN-13: 978-1841580425
* "Report of Her Majesty's Commissioners of Inquiry Into the Condition of the Crofters and Cottars in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland" (
* [http://www.ulva.mull.com/ The Isle of Ulva "A world apart"]
* [http://www.scotlandmag.com/magazine/issue31/12007701.html "Now who be ye, would cross Loch Gyle?" (Ulva) John Hannavy visits Ulva, a tiny island off the west coast of Mull Published in Scotland Magazine Issue 31 on 16/02/2007]
* [http://www.mullmagic.com/ulva.html Mullmagic.com "Isle of Ulva"]
* [http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/magazine.cfm?id=1220702004 "Where the wild things are" By Hamish Haswell-Smith]
* [http://www.le.ac.uk/archaeology/rug/image_collection/hier/bi/si/r4.html Images of archaeological sites in Mull and Ulva, Clive Ruggles,
University of Leicester.]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Ulva — Basaltkliff auf Ulva, in der Nähe von Dùn Bhioramuill Gewässer Atlantischer Ozean … Deutsch Wikipedia
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ulva — s.f. [lat. scient. Ulva, dal lat. class. ulva alga ]. (bot.) [nome delle specie di alghe cloroficee appartenenti al genere Ulva ] ▶◀ Ⓖ (pop.) lattuga di mare … Enciclopedia Italiana
ulva — s. f. [Botânica] Gênero de algas clorofíceas da família das ulváceas, comestíveis, semelhantes a folhas de alface. = ALFACE DO MAR ‣ Etimologia: latim ulva, ae … Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa
Ulva — Ul va, n. [L., sedge.] (Bot.) A genus of thin papery bright green seaweeds including the kinds called sea lettuce. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Ulva  — Ulva (Ulwa), Insel aus der Gruppe der südlichen Hebriden … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Ulva  — Ulva (U. L.), Pflanzengattung aus der Familie der Ulvaceae Ulveae; Arten: U. latissima mit oft schuhlangem, rundlichem, meist durchlöchertem, zartem, hellgrünem Wedel, im Mittel u. anderen Meeren; U. lactuca, mit kleinerem, umgekehrt eiförmigem,… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Ulva — L., Algengattung aus der Familie der Ulvazeen unter den Grünalgen, charakterisiert durch einen häutig blattartigen, am Grunde festgewachsenen Thallus, in mehreren Arten an den europäischen Meeresküsten vertreten. U. lactuca L. (Meerlattich), mit… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
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