Infobox German Location
image_photo = Bamberg-Rathaus1-Asio.jpg
image_caption = Altes Rathaus (city hall) in Bamberg.
type = Town
Wappen = Wappen Bamberg.jpg
lat_deg = 49 |lat_min = 53 |lat_sec = 30
lon_deg = 10 |lon_min = 53 |lon_sec = 30
Bundesland = Bavaria
Regierungsbezirk = Upper Franconia
Landkreis = Urban district
Höhe = 230 - 386
Fläche = 54.58
Einwohner = 70063
Stand = 2006-06-01
PLZ = 96001–96052
Vorwahl = 0951
Kfz = BA
Website = [http://www.stadt.bamberg.de/ www.stadt.bamberg.de]
Bürgermeister = Andreas Starke
Bürgermeistertitel = Lord Mayor
Partei = SPDInfobox World Heritage Site
Name = Town of Bamberg
State Party = GER
Type = Cultural
Criteria = ii, iv
ID = 624
Region = Europe and North America
Year = 1993
Session = 17th
Bamberg is a town in
Bavaria, Germany. It is located in Upper Franconiaon the river Regnitz, close to its confluence with the river Main. Bamberg is one of the few cities in Germany that was not destroyed by World War II bombings. Bamberg is home to nearly 7,000 foreign nationals, including over 4,100 members of the United States Armyand their dependents. The name "Bamberg" supposed to have its origin in the House of Babenberg.
During the post-Roman centuries of Germanic migration and settlement, the region afterwards included in the
Diocese of Bambergwas inhabited for the most part by Slavs. The town, first mentioned in 902, grew up by the castle (Babenberch) which gave its name to the Babenbergfamily. On their extinction it passed to the Saxon house. The area was Christianized chiefly by the monks of the Benedictine Abbey of Fulda, and the land was under the spiritual authority of the Diocese of Würzburg.
In 1007, Henry II, King of the Romans, made Bamberg a family inheritance, the seat of a separate
diocese. The emperor's purpose in this was to make the Diocese of Würzburg less unwieldy in size and to give Christianity a firmer footing in the districts of Franconia, east of Bamberg. In 1008, after long negotiations with the Bishops of Würzburg and Eichstätt, who were to cede portions of their dioceses, the boundaries of the new diocese were defined, and Pope John XVIIIgranted the papal confirmation in the same year. Henry II ordered the building of a new cathedral, which was consecrated May 6, 1012. The church was enriched with gifts from the Roman pope, and Henry II had it dedicated in honor of him. In 1017 Henry II also founded on Mount St. Michael, near Bamberg, a Benedictineabbey for the training of the clergy. The emperor and his wife Cunigunde gave large temporal possessions to the new diocese, and it received many privileges out of which grew the secular power of the bishop. Pope Benedict VIII during his visit to Bamberg (1020) placed the diocese in direct dependence on the Holy See. For a short time Bamberg was the centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Henry and Cunigunde were both buried in the cathedral.
From the middle of the 13th century onward the
bishops were princes of the Empire and ruled Bamberg, overseeing the construction of monumental buildings. In 1248 and 1260 the see obtained large portions of the estates of the Counts of Meran, partly through purchase and partly through the appropriation of extinguished fiefs. The old Bishopric of Bambergwas composed of an unbroken territory extending from Schlüsselfeldin a northeasterly direction to the Franconian Forest, and possessed in addition estates in the Duchies of Carinthia and Salzburg, in the Nordgau(the present Upper Palatinate), in Thuringia, and on the Danube. By the changes resulting from the Reformation, the territory of this see was reduced nearly one half in extent.
witch trialsof the 17th century claimed hundreds of victims, as they did in England, in Bamberg and reached a climax between 1626 and 1631 under the rule of Prince-BishopJohann Georg II. Fuchs von Dornheim. The famous Drudenhaus (witch prison), built in 1627, is no longer standing today; however, detailed accounts of some cases, like that of Johannes Junius, remain. [cite web |url=http://history.hanover.edu/texts/bamberg.html |title=The Witch Persecution at Bamberg |accessdate=2007-08-26 |quote=On Wednesday, June 28, 1628, was examined without torture Johannes Junius, Burgomaster at Bamberg, on the charge of witch-craft: how and in what fashion he had fallen into that vice. Is fifty-five years old, and was born at Niederwaysich in the Wetterau. Says he is wholly innocent, knows nothing of the crime has never in his life renounced God: says that he is wronged hefore God and the world, would like to hear of a single human being who has seen him at such gatherings [as the witch-sabbaths] .|publisher= Hanover College]
In 1647, the
University of Bambergwas founded as "Academia Bambergensis". Bambrzy(Ger. "Posen Bambergers") – German Poles are descendants of settlers from the area near Bamberg, who settled in villages around Posen in the years 1719 –1753. In 1759, the possessions and jurisdictions of the diocese situated in Austriawere sold to that State. When the secularization of church lands took place (1802) the diocese covered 3,305 km² and had a population of 207,000. Bamberg thus lost its independence in 1802, becoming part of Bavaria in 1803.
Bamberg was first connected to the German rail system in 1844, which has been an important part of its infrastructure ever since. After a communist uprising took control over Bavaria in the years following
World War I, the state government fled to Bamberg and stayed there for almost two years before the Bavarian capital of Munichwas retaken by " Freikorps" units (see Weimar Republic). The first republican constitution of Bavaria was passed in Bamberg, becoming known as the [http://www.verfassungen.de/de/by/bayern19-index.htm "Bamberger Verfassung"] (Bamberg Constitution). In 1973, the town celebrated the 1000th anniversary of its founding.
Bamberg is known for "
Rauchbier" (or "smoked beer" in English). The most famous is "Schlenkerla's" " Aecht Schlenkerla Rauchbier" from the "Heller" brewery; it can be enjoyed at the Schlenkerla tavern on the Dominikaner Strasse in the Old Town.
Bamberg is currently (2005) home to nine traditional breweries ("Brauerei Fässla", "Brauerei Greifenklau", "Brauerei Heller-Trum" ("Schlenkerla"), "Brauerei Kaiserdom", "Keesmann Bräu", "Klosterbräu", "Mahrs Bräu", "Maisel Bräu" and "Brauerei Spezial") and one modern
brewpub("Ambräusianum") [ [http://www.ratebeer.com/Place/germany/bamberg/ambr%C3%A4usianum/5908.htm Ambräusianum, Bamberg ] ] —an unusually high number for a city of 70,000.
Bamberg is located in
Franconia, 63 km north of Nurembergby railway and 101 km east of Würzburg, also by rail. It is situated on the Regnitz river, 3 km before it flows into the Mainriver.
Its geography is shaped by the Regnitz and by the foothills of the
Steigerwald, part of the German uplands. From northeast to southwest, the town is divided into first the Regnitz plain, then one large and several small islands formed by two arms of the Regnitz ("Inselstadt"), and finally the part of town on the hills, the "Hill Town" ("Bergstadt").
Bamberg extends over seven hills, each crowned by a beautiful church. This has led to Bamberg being called the "Franconian Rome"—although a running joke among Bamberg's tour guides is to refer to Rome instead as the "Italian Bamberg".
The Old Town of Bamberg is listed as a
UNESCOWorld Heritage, primarily because of its authentic medieval appearance. The city established a documentation centre in 2005 to support World Heritage activities. Some of the main sights are:
* Cathedral (1237), with the tombs of emperor Henry II and
Pope Clement II
* "Alte Hofhaltung", residence of the bishops in the 16th and 17th centuries
* "Neue Residenz", residence of the bishops after the 17th century
* Old Town Hall (1386), built in the middle of the Regnitz River, accessible by two bridges
* "Klein-Venedig" ("Little Venice"), a colony of picturesque fishermen's houses from the 19th century along one side of the river Regnitz.
* Michaelsberg Monastery, build in 12th century on one of Bambergs "Seven Hills"
* Altenburg, castle, former residence of the bishops
cathedralis a late Romanesque building with four grand towers. It was founded in 1004 by the emperor Henry II, finished in 1012 and consecrated on May 6, 1012. It was later partially destroyed by fire in 1081. The new cathedral, built by St. Otto of Bamberg, was consecrated in 1111 and in the 13th century received its present late-Romanesque form.
The cathedral is 94 m long, 28 m broad, 26 m high, and the four towers are each about 81 m high. Of its many historic works of art may be mentioned the magnificent marble tomb of the founder and his wife considered the masterpiece of the sculptor
Tilman Riemenschneider, and carved between 1499 and 1513. Another treasure of the cathedral is an equestrian statueknown as the Bamberg Horseman( _de. Der Bamberger Reiter). This statue, possibly belonging to the emperor Conrad III, most likely dates to approximately 1200. The statue also serves as a symbol of the city.
The "Neue Residenz" (New Palace) (1698-1704) was initially occupied by the prince-bishops, and from 1864 to 1867 by the deposed King
Otto of Greece. The magnificent "Rosengarten" (Rose Garden) offers excellent views of the city.The Altenburg is located at the highest of Bamberg's seven hills. It was mentioned for the first time in 902 BCE.Fact|date=April 2007 Between 1251 and 1553 it was the residence of Bamberg's bishops. Destroyed in 1553 by Albert Alcibiades, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, it was used, after scanty repairs, only as a prison, and increasingly decayed.
In 1801 doctor A. F. Marcus bought the castle and completely repaired it. His friend, the famous German writer
E.T.A. Hoffmann, who was very impressed by the building, lived there for a while. The next owner, Anton von Greifenstein, founded in 1818 an association to save the castle. This society still maintains the whole property today. The Altenburg serves as a high-class restaurant and has a beautiful view.
Other sightsOther noteworthy churches are the "Jakobskirche", an 11th-century Romanesque
basilica; the "St. Martinskirche"; the "Marienkirche" or "Obere Pfarrkirche" (1320-1387), which has now been restored to its original pure Gothic style. The "Michaelskirche", 12th-century Romanesque (restored), on the Michaelsberg, was formerly the church of a Benedictine monasterysecularized in 1803 and now contains the "Bürgerspital", or almshouse, and the museumand municipal art collections.
Of the bridges connecting the sections of the lower town, a very interesting one is the "Obere Brücke", completed in 1455. Halfway across this, on an island, is the "Rathaus" or City Hall (rebuilt 1744-1756). The royal lyceum, formerly a Jesuit college, contains notable collections and the royal library of over 300,000 volumes. The picturesque Old Palace ("Alte Hofhaltung") was built in 1591 on the site of an old residence of the counts of
Babenberg. Noteworthy among the monuments of the town is the Maximilian fountain (1880), with statues of Maximilian I of Bavaria, the emperor Henry II and his wife, Conrad III and St Otto, bishop of Bamberg.
The University of Bamberg, named
Otto-Friedrich University, offers higher education in the areas of social science, business studiesand the humanities, and is attended by more than 9300 students.Bamberg is also home to eight secondary schools called Gymnasien:
* TheresianumThere are also numerous other institutes for primary, secondary, technical, vocational and adult education.
InterCityExpressmain line #28 ( Munich- Nuremberg- Leipzig- Berlin- Hamburg) runs through Bamberg. To Munich the train journey takes about two hours. To Berlin it takes about four hours as of 2007; but construction of a new, shorter and faster connection through the Thuringian mountains has been underway for some years.
East-west connections are poorer. Bamberg is connected to other towns in eastern Upper Franconia such as
Bayreuth, Coburg, and Kronach, with usually at least an hourly regional service. Connections to the west are hourly regional trains to Würzburg, which is fully connected to the ICE network. Tourists arriving at Frankfurt International Airportwill have to change trains in Würzburg to get to Bamberg or take a detour via Nuremberg.
*Motorways: Bamberg is not near any of the major (i.e. single-digit)
Autobahns. But it is nevertheless well connected to the network: the A70 from Schweinfurt(connecting to the A7 there) to Bayreuth (connecting to the A9) runs along the northern edge of the town. The A73 on the eastern side of town connects Bamberg to Nuremberg (connecting to the A9) and will, once construction is completed, extend further north into Thuringia, ending at Suhl(Anticipated completion date is 2008).
*Water transport: The
Rhine-Main-Danube Canalbegins near Bamberg. With its completion in 1992, uninterrupted water transport was made possible between the North Sea and the Black Sea.
*Local transport: Local transport within Bamberg relies exclusively on buses. More than 20 lines connect the outlying quarters and some villages in the vicinity to the Central Bus Station. In addition, there are several "Night Lines" (the last of these, though, tend to run around midnight) and some
Park and Ridelines from parking lots on the periphery to the town centre.
A short-lived tram system existed in the 1920s.
Bamberg is an
independent city. Its town council ("Stadtrat") and its Lord Mayor ("Oberbürgermeister") are elected every six years, though not in the same year. Thus, the last municipal election for the town council was in 2008, for the Lord Mayor in 2006.
As of March 2008, the 44 member-town-council comprises 15 CSU councillors, 10 SPD councillors, 7 Green councillors, 5 councillors of the Bamberger Bürger-Block and 3 of the Freie Wähler (Free Voters), both local political movements. These five parties achieved the number of councillors necessary to form a
caucus. In addition, there are 2 councillors of the Bamberger Realisten and one of the FDP and the far-right Republicans (Germany), making them ineligible for caucus status. This is the result of the municipal elections of 2 March 2008.
Lord Mayors since 1945
Bedford, United Kingdom
Prague, Czech Republic
Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg(1907-1944), German officer - July 20 Plotattempt to assassinate German dictator Adolf Hitler
Conrad III of Germany, king of Germany
E.T.A. Hoffmann, author and composer
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, philosopher
* Ida Noddack-Tacke, chemist and physicist she discovered element 75
Karl Friedrich Gottlob Wetzel, writer and illustrator Fränkischen Merkur
Paul Maar, writer and illustrator
Pope Clement II, bishop of Bamberg from 1040 to 1046
Willy Messerschmitt(1898–1978), aircraft designer Flugzeugbau Messerschmitt GmbH
Bamberg Symphony Orchestra
*Catholic - See article at [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02242c.htm Bamberg]
* [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=188&letter=B JewishEncyclopedia]
* [http://www.bamberg.de Official website] de icon, en icon
* [http://www.bamberg.info Bamberg info for visitors] de icon, en icon, fr icon, it icon, ru icon, zh icon, es icon
* [http://www.schlenkerla.de Schlenkerla Brewery website] de icon, en icon
* [http://www.bamberg-plus.de Bamberg travel information] de icon
* [http://www.bamberger-bier.de Bamberger-Bier.de] - everything you have to know about Bambergs brewing tradition de icon, en icon
* [http://www.BambergBeerGuide.com Bamberg beer guide] en icon
* [http://www.bamberg.army.mil/sites/local US Army garrison Bamberg] en icon
* [http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=624&l=en Description on the UNESCO World Heritage website] en icon
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