Red Book (audio CD standard)


Red Book (audio CD standard)

Infobox media
name = Compact Disc Digital Audio



caption = The closely spaced tracks on the readable surface of a Compact Disc cause light to diffract into rainbow colors
type = Optical disc
encoding = 2 channels of PCM audio, each signed 16-bit values sampled at 44100 Hz
capacity = up to 700 MB
read = 780 nm wavelength semiconductor laser
write =
standard =
owner = Sony & Philips
use = Audio and data storage
extended from =
extended to =

Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). It is named after one of a set of color-bound books that contain the technical specifications for all CD and CD-ROM formats.

The first edition of the Red Book was released in 1980 by Philips and Sony;cite web
url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/6950933.stm
title=How the CD was developed
author=
publisher=BBC News
date=August 17, 2007
accessdate=2007-08-17
] it was adopted by the Digital Audio Disc Committee and ratified as IEC 60908. The standard is not freely available and must be licensed from Philips. At the time of writing, the cost per the relevant Philips order form [Document no. 28/10/04-3122 783 0027 2] is US$5,000. As of 2006, the IEC 60908 document is now known as IEC 60908 and is also available as a PDF download for $242. [ [http://webstore.ansi.org/ansidocstore/product.asp?sku=IEC+60908+Ed.+2.0+b%3A1999 IEC 60908 Ed. 2.0 b:1999 Audio recording - Compact disc digital audio system ] ]

Red Book Audio Specifications

The basic specifications state that
# Maximum playing time is 74 minutes (including pauses)
# Minimum duration for a track is 4 seconds
# Maximum number of tracks is 99
# Maximum number of index points (subdivisions of a track) is 99 with no maximum time limit
# International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) should be included

Technical details

The Red Book specifies the physical parameters and properties of the CD, the optical "stylus" parameters, deviations and error rate, modulation system (Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation, EFM) and error correction (Cross-interleaved Reed-Solomon coding, CIRC), and subcode channels and graphics.

It also specifies the form of digital audio encoding: 2-channel signed 16-bit PCM sampled at 44,100 Hz. This sample rate is adapted from that attained when recording digital audio on PAL videotape with a PCM adaptor, an earlier way of storing digital audio.

An audio CD can represent frequencies up to 22.05 kHz—the Nyquist frequency of the 44.1 kHz sample rate.

The bit rate is 1411.2 kbit/s:

44,100 samples per second × 16 bits per sample × 2 channels = 1,411,200 bit/s = 1,411.2 kbit/s.

As each sample is a signed 16-bit two's complement integer, sample values range from -32768 to +32767.

On the disc, the data is stored in sectors of 2352 bytes each, read at 75 sectors per second. Onto this the overhead of EFM, CIRC, L2 ECC, and so on, is added, but these are not typically exposed to the application reading the disc.

By comparison, the bit rate of a "1x" "data" CD is defined as 2048 bytes per sector × 75 sectors per second = 150 KiB/s, or approximately 9.2 million bytes per minute.

Copy prevention

Some major recording publishers have begun to sell CDs that violate the Red Book standard. Some do so for the purpose of copy prevention, using systems like Copy Control.

Some do so for extra features such as DualDisc, which includes both a CD-layer and a DVD-layer whereby the CD-layer is much thinner, 0.9 mm, than required by the Red Book, which stipulates a nominal 1.2 mm, but at least 1.1 mm. Philips and many other companies have warned them that including the Compact Disc Digital Audio logo on such non-conforming discs may constitute trademark infringement. Either in anticipation or in response, recent copy-protected CDs bear stickers and warnings that the CD is not standard and may not play in all CD players, and no longer display the long-familiar logo.

ee also

* Extended Copy Protection—source of the Sony DRM scandal
* DRM (computing)
* Four-channel compact disc digital audio

External links

* [http://www.ip.philips.com/services/?module=IpsLicenseProgram&command=View&id=15&part=2 Philips' Audio Standards licensing info]
* [http://webstore.iec.ch/webstore/webstore.nsf/artnum/023623 IEC 60908 publication info]

References


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