Protein isoform

A protein isoform is a version of a protein with only small differences to another isoform of the same protein. [http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/isoform] Different forms of a protein may be produced from different but related genes, or may arise from the same gene by alternative splicing. A large number of isoforms are caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms, small genetic differences between alleles of the same gene.

The discovery of isoforms explains the apparently small number of coding genes revealed in the human genome project: the ability to create categorically different proteins from the same gene increases the diversity of the proteome. Isoforms are readily described and discovered by microarray studies and cDNA libraries.

Glycoforms

A glycoform is an isoform where different forms of a glycoprotein have different polysaccharides attached to them, by either posttranslational or cotranslational modifications.

Examples

* Creatine kinase, the presence of which in the blood can be used as an aid in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, exists in 3 isoforms.
* Hyaluronan synthase, the enzyme responsible for the production of hyaluronan, has three isoforms in mammalian cells.

Links

* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=mesh&list_uids=68020033&dopt=Full MeSH entry protein isoforms]
* [http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary=isoforms Definitions Isoform]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Protein (disambiguation) — Protein is a class of biomolecules composed of amino acid chains.Protein may also refer to:Biochemistry* Antifreeze protein, class of polypeptides produced by certain fish, vertebrates, plants, fungi and bacteria * Conjugated protein, protein… …   Wikipedia

  • Protein kinase D1 — Protein kinase D1, also known as PRKD1, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: PRKD1 protein kinase D1| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene Cmd=ShowDetailView TermToSearch=5587| accessdate = ] PBB Summary section title …   Wikipedia

  • Isoform — beschreibt in der Chemie ein Molekül identischer Zusammensetzung, aber unterschiedlichen Aufbaus im Vergleich zu einem zweiten. In der Molekularbiologie spricht man dagegen von einer Isoform, wenn eine Version eines Gens, einer RNA oder eines… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Protein K (gene expression) — Protein K is a human protein found in the cell nucleus that binds to pre messenger RNA (mRNA) as a component of heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein particles. The simian homolog is known as protein H16 . Both proteins bind to single stranded DNA as… …   Wikipedia

  • Protein kinase Mζ — (also called PKMζ or PKMzeta) is the independent catalytic domain of protein kinase Cζ and, lacking an autoinhibitory regulatory domain of the full length PKCζ, is constitutively active. This constitutive or autonomous activity allows the kinase… …   Wikipedia

  • Protein phosphatase 2A — protein Name=protein phosphatase 2 (formerly 2A), catalytic subunit, alpha isoform caption= width= HGNCid=9299 Symbol=PPP2CA AltSymbols= EntrezGene=5515 OMIM=176915 RefSeq=NM 002715 UniProt=P67775 PDB= ECnumber=3.1.3.16 Chromosome=5 Arm=q Band=23 …   Wikipedia

  • Protein-Phosphatase 2B — Calcineurin Bändermodell des Heterodimer Aα+B1 (von oben/frontal) nach PDB  …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Protein Phosphatase 2B — Calcineurin Bändermodell des Heterodimer Aα+B1 (von oben/frontal) nach PDB  …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Protein 4.2 — Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.2, also known as EPB42, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: EPB42 erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.2| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene Cmd=ShowDetailView TermToSearch=2038|… …   Wikipedia

  • isoform — A protein having the same function and similar (or identical sequence), but the product of a different gene and (usually) tissue specific. Rather stronger in implication than homologous …   Dictionary of molecular biology


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.