Proboscis Monkey


Proboscis Monkey

Taxobox
name = Proboscis MonkeyMSW3 Groves|pages=168-169]
status = EN
trend = unknown
status_system = iucn3.1
status_ref =IUCN2006|assessors=Eudey "et al"|year=2000|id=14352|title=Nasalis larvatus|downloaded=5 May 2006 Listed as Endangered (EN A2c, C1+2a v2.3)]


regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Mammalia
ordo = Primates
familia = Cercopithecidae
subfamilia = Colobinae
genus = "Nasalis"
genus_authority = É. Geoffroy, 1812
species = "N. larvatus"
binomial = "Nasalis larvatus"
binomial_authority = Wurmb, 1787

The Proboscis Monkey ("Nasalis larvatus"), also known as the Monyet Belanda (in Malay), the Bangkatan (in Indonesian) or simply the Long-nosed Monkey, is a reddish-brown arboreal Old World monkey that is endemic to the south-east Asian island of Borneo. It belongs in the monotypic genus "Nasalis", although the Pig-tailed Langur traditionally also has been included in this genus - a treatment still preferred by some. [Bradon-Jones, D., A. A. Eudey, T. Geissmann, C. P. Groves, D. J. Melnick, J. C. Morales, M. Shekelle, and C. B. Stewart. 2004. "Asian primate classification." International Journal of Primatology. 23: 97-164.]

Appearance

A distinctive trait of this monkey is the male's large protruding nose, from which it takes its name. The nose is thought to be used in mating and is unique to the males of the species, reaching up to 7 inches in length. Besides attracting mates, the nose serves as a resonating chamber and works by amplifying their warning calls. When the animal becomes agitated its nose swells with blood, making warning calls louder and more intense. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/wildfacts/factfiles/319.shtml Proboscis monkey, long-nosed monkey] BBC]

Males are much larger than females, reaching 72 cm (28 inches) in length, with an up to 75 cm tail, and weighing up to 24 kg (53 pounds). Females are up to 60 cm long, weighing up to 12 kg (26 lb). This large sexual dimorphic difference is greater than in any other primate.

The Proboscis Monkey also has a large belly, as a result of its diet.Fact|date=January 2008 Its digestive system is divided into compartments, with bacteria that digest cellulose and neutralize toxins from certain leaves. This lets the monkey eat leaves and remain in the forest canopy. The contents of their stomach weigh about a quarter of their whole body. [ [http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/proboscis_monkey.htm Proboscis Monkey] blueplanetbiomes.org] A side-effect of this unique digestive system is that it is unable to digest ripe fruit, unlike most other simians.Fact|date=October 2007 The diet consists mainly of seeds, leaves, mangrove shoots and unripe fruit. [ [http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Nasalis_larvatus.html Nasalis larvatus] Animal Diversity Web]

Ecology

The Proboscis Monkey is endemic to Borneo's low elevation mangrove forests, swamps, and lowland riparian forests.cite journal | author = Meijaard, Erik & Vincent Nijman | title = Distribution and conservation of the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) in Kalimantan, Indonesia | journal = Biological Conservation | volume = 92 | issue = 1 | pages = 15–24 | month = January | year = 2000 | doi =10.1016/S0006-3207(99)00066-X | accessdate = 2008-01-10] It lives in small groups of 10 to 32 animals. Group membership is very flexible, and animals are known to move from group to group quite often.

The Proboscis Monkey lifestyle is both arboreal and amphibious, with its mangrove swamp and riverine environment containing forest, dry land, shallow water allowing wading, and deep water requiring swimming. Like other similar monkeys, the Proboscis Monkey climbs well. It is also a proficient swimmer, often swimming from island to island, and has been picked up by fishing boats in open ocean a mile from shore. While wading, the monkey uses an upright posture, with the females carrying infants on their hip. Troops have been filmed continuing to walk upright, in single file, along forest trails when they emerge on land, the only non-human mammal, with the exception of gibbons and giant pangolins, known to use this form of locomotion for any length of time.

tatus

Due to ongoing habitat loss and hunting in some areas, only about 7000 are known to still exist in the wild. In Sarawak, the population of this species has declined from 6500 in 1977 to only 1000 in 2006. The Proboscis Monkey is evaluated as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is listed on Appendix I of CITES.

Other names

While the official Indonesian name for this monkey is Bangkatan, an Indonesian nickname is 'monyet belanda', meaning 'Dutch monkey' or 'Orang Belanda', the Indonesian word for 'Dutchman', as Indonesians noticed the Dutch colonisers often also had a large belly and nose.

References

External links

* ARKive - [http://www.arkive.org/species/GES/mammals/Nasalis_larvatus/ images and movies of the Proboscis monkey "(Nasalis larvatus)"]
* [http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/links/nasalis Primate Info Net "Nasalis" Factsheets]
* [http://www.proboscismonkey.org/ Save the Proboscis Monkeys] Petition and weblog with info on the rare, endangered species.
* [http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/animals/mammals-animals/monkeys-and-lemurs/monkey_proboscis_captivity.html National Geographic video]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Proboscis monkey — Proboscis monkey[1] Conservation status …   Wikipedia

  • Proboscis monkey — Proboscis Pro*bos cis, n.; pl. {Proboscides}. [L. fr. Gr. ?; ? before + ? to feed, graze.] 1. (Zo[ o]l.) A hollow organ or tube attached to the head, or connected with the mouth, of various animals, and generally used in taking food or drink; a… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • proboscis monkey — ► NOUN ▪ a monkey native to the forests of Borneo, the male of which has a large dangling nose …   English terms dictionary

  • proboscis monkey — a reddish, arboreal monkey, Nasalis larvatus, of Borneo, the male of which has a long, flexible nose: an endangered species. [1785 95] * * * Species (Nasalis larvatus, family Cercopithecidae) of long tailed arboreal Old World monkey of swampy… …   Universalium

  • proboscis monkey — Kahau Ka*hau , n. [Native name, from its cry.] (Zo[ o]l.) A long nosed monkey ({Nasalis larvatus}, formerly {Semnopithecus nasalis}), native of Borneo. The general color of the body is bright chestnut, with the under parts, shoulders, and sides… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • proboscis monkey — didnosa statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas taksono rangas rūšis atitikmenys: lot. Nasalis larvatus angl. proboscis monkey vok. Nasenaffe rus. носач; обыкновенный носач pranc. long nez; nasique ryšiai: platesnis terminas – didnosos …   Žinduolių pavadinimų žodynas

  • proboscis monkey — noun Borneo monkey having a long bulbous nose • Syn: ↑Nasalis larvatus • Hypernyms: ↑Old World monkey, ↑catarrhine …   Useful english dictionary

  • proboscis monkey — noun Date: 1793 a large long tailed monkey (Nasalis larvatus) of Bornean forests that has a large nose which is long and pendulous in adult males …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • proboscis monkey — noun a monkey native to the forests of Borneo, the male of which has a large pendulous nose. [Nasalis larvatus.] …   English new terms dictionary

  • proboscis monkey — /prəˈbɒskəs mʌŋki/ (say pruh boskuhs mungkee) noun a powerfully built monkey, Nasalis larvatus, of Borneo, having a long, bulbous nose …   Australian English dictionary


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