Finnish exonyms

"Below is list of Finnish language exonyms for towns and cities in non-Finnish-speaking areas:"

Albania

*Tiranë Tirana

Azerbaijan (Azerbaidžan)

*Bakı Baku

Belgium (Belgia)

*Brussel-Bruxelles Bryssel, Brysseli

Bulgaria

*Sofija Sofia

China (Kiina)

*Beijing Peking
*Guangzhou Kanton
*Nanjing Nanking

Cuba (Kuuba)

*La Habana Havanna

Cyprus (Kypros)

*Ammochostos-Gazimağusa Famagusta
*Lefkosía-Lefkoşa Nikosia

Denmark (Tanska)

*København Kööpenhamina
*Jylland Jyllanti, Juutinmaa
*Sjælland Själlanti

Egypt (Egypti)

*Eskendereyya Aleksandria
*Al-Qahirah Kairo

Estonia (Viro)

"It should be noted that Estonian and Finnish are quite closely related and share many words that differ only slightly, such as "saar" (Estonian) and "saari" (Finnish) for "island". Many Estonian toponyms and even people's names are simply treated in Finnish as though they were Finnish words, creating an unlimited number of potentially existing exonyms, an exhaustive list of which would be impossible as well as pointless to compile. Below are some frequently encountered examples of these, as well as those where the difference is significant."
*Hiiumaa Hiidenmaa
*Kohtla-Järve Kohtla-Järvi
*Kuressaare Kuressaari
*Naissaar Naissaari
*Saaremaa Saarenmaa
*Tallinn Tallinna
*Reval Rääveli (historical)
*Tartu Tartto

Finland (Suomi)

Åland (Ahvenanmaa)

"Åland, while a part of Finland, is monolingually Swedish as per the Autonomy Act of Åland. Finnish names for places in Åland may therefore be considered exonyms."
*Mariehamn Maarianhamina [ [http://kaino.kotus.fi/www/verkkojulkaisut/ortnamn/ortnamn3.html Svenska Ortnamn i Finland] , The Research Institute for the Languages of Finland, see "Mariehamn"]
*Lumparn Lumpari [ [http://water.worldcitydb.com/lumpari_1978598.html Lumpari World Water Features Database | WorldCityDB.com ] ]
*Delet Teili
*Lappvesi


The following is a list of old Finnish exonyms for Åland place-names. Some of them, though not all, appear in the Finnish encyclopaedia "Pieni Tietosanakirja" from the late 1920s.

*Brändö Präntiö
**Korsö Koskenpää
*Eckerö Ekkerö
*Hammarland Hammarlanti
**Sålis Suolaksi
*Lemland Lemlanti [ [http://www.verbix.com/maps/showpoint.asp?lat=59.99997509&lon=20.00058508&zoom=11&title=Lemlanti&height=500 Verbix ] ]
*Lumparland Lumparlanti
*Kumlinge Kumlinki
*Kökar Köökari [ [http://www.toti.eu.com/nordic.municipalities/kunta.asp?id=246 Suomen kunnat: Kökar ] ]
**Karlby Kaarlenkylä

Elsewhere in Finland

*Bergö Susiluoto
*Korsnäs Korsnääsi, Ristitaipale [http://www.genealogia.fi/seurakunnat/srk?CMD=SRK&ID=228&TYPE=HTML&LANG=EN]
*Liljendal LiljentaaliThe Swedish names for the above are commonly (if not exclusively) used in modern-day Finnish. [ [http://kaino.kotus.fi/www/verkkojulkaisut/ortnamn/ortnamn2.html Svenska Ortnamn i Finland] , The Research Institute for the Languages of Finland, see "Korsnäs" and "Liljendal".] Korsnäs in Ostrobothnia should not be confused with other locations in Finland with the same name (see Korsnäs (disambiguation)).

Areas with both Finnish-, and Swedish-speaking inhabitants have endonymic place names in both languages. Due to changing demographics, some monolingually Swedish areas have historical Finnish names inherited from earlier Finnish-speaking inhabitants. For example, "Molpe", a village of Korsnäs is "Moikipää" in Finnish.

France (Ranska)

*Nice Nizza (pronounce like "Nitsa")
*Paris Pariisi

Germany (Saksa)

*Berlin Berliini
*Hamburg Hampuri
*Lübeck Lyypekki

Greece (Kreikka)

*Athina Ateena
*Kerkyra Korfu
*Kríti Kreeta
*Pereiás Pireus
*Spartí Sparta

Ancient transcriptions that do not reflect modern pronunciation are used in some cases, e.g. "Herakleion" ("Iraklion").

Holy See (Vatikaanivaltio)

*Civitas Vaticana Vatikaanivaltio

Indonesia

*Djakarta Jakarta

Iran

*Tehrān Teheran

Israel

*Yerushaláyim/Al-Quds Jerusalem

Italy (Italia)

*Roma Rooma
*Venezia Venetsia

Latvia

*Daugavpils Väinänlinna
*Riga Riika
*Valka Valga

Lithuania (Liettua)

*Vilnius Vilna

Luxembourg (Luxemburg)

*Luxembourg Luxemburg

Norway (Norja)

"For further names, see : Finnish exonyms for places in Norway"
*Alta Alattio
*Karasjok Kaarasjoki
*Kirkenes Kirkkoniemi
*Tromsø Tromssa
*Vardø Vuoreija
*Vadsø Vesisaari

The river Teno, "Tana" in Norwegian, defines a stretch of border between the states.

Poland (Puola)

*Kraków Krakova
*Warszawa Varsova

Portugal (Portugali)

*Lisboa Lissabon

Romania

*Bucureşti Bukarest

Russia (Venäjä)

"For Finnish town names in the Ingria region, see Finnish exonyms (Ingria)"

"Note that Finnish was formerly an official language in the Republic of Karelia and is still widely used there, and some places in what was Finnish territory until World War II have been given totally new Russian names; thus, Finnish names of Karelian places are not all strictly exonyms."

*Arkhangelsk Arkangeli
*Belomorsk Sorokka
*Gatchina Hatsina
*Ivangorod Iivananlinna
*Kamennogorsk Antrea
*Kandalaksha Kantalahti, Kannanlahti
*Kem (Vienan) Kemi
*Kingisepp Jaama
*Kondopoga Kontupohja
*Kostomuksha Kostamus
*Kovdor Koutero
*Kronstadt Kronstatti
*Lodeinoye Pole Lotinapelto
*Medvezhyegorsk Karhumäki
*Moskva Moskova
*Murmansk Muurmanski, (Muurmanni now archaic)
*Nikel Kolosjoki
*Olonets Aunus
*Onega Ääninen
*Pechenga Petsamo
*Pechory Petseri
*Peterhof Pietarhovi, Kuusoja
*Petrozavodsk Petroskoi, Äänislinna (during Finnish occupation 1941–1944 only)
*Povenets Poventsa
*Priozersk Käkisalmi
*Pskov Pihkova
*Pudozh Puutoinen
*Repino Kuokkala (Russian name after Ilya Repin)
*Sankt Peterburg Pietari
*Segezha Sekee
*Shlisselburg Pähkinälinna, Pähkinäsaari
*Sosnovyi Bor Uustia
*Svetogorsk Enso
*Svir Syväri
*Vyborg Viipuri
*Zemlyanoye Pummanki

audi Arabia (Saudi-Arabia)

*Makkah Mekka
*Riyadh Riad

erbia

*Beograd Belgrad

outh Africa (Etelä-Afrikka)

*Cape Town Kapkaupunki

pain (Espanja)

*Tenerife Teneriffa

weden (Ruotsi)

"For Finnish place names in Northern Sweden, see Finnish exonyms (Sweden)"
*Gällivare Jällivaara
*Haparanda Haaparanta
*Jokkmokk Jokimukka
*Kalix Kainuu
*Kiruna Kiiruna
*Luleå Luulaja
*Piteå Piitime
*Stockholm Tukholma
*Umeå Uumaja
*Uppsala Upsala
*Övertorneå Matarenki

witzerland (Sveitsi)

*Genève Geneve

yria (Syyria)

*Dimashq Damaskos
*Al-Ladhiqiyah Lattakia
*Halab Aleppo

Ukraine (Ukraina)

*Kharkiv Harkova
*Kiev Kiova
*Odesa Odessa

United Kingdom (Iso-Britannia)

*London Lontoo

ee also

*List of European exonyms

References


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