Ganga in Hinduism

In Hinduism, the river Ganga (Sanskrit and Hindi गंगा "IAST|Gaṅgā") or Ganges River (as called by westerners) is considered sacred. It is worshipped by Hindus, and personified as a goddess in Hinduism, who holds an important place in the Hindu religion. Hindus believe that bathing in the river on certain occasions causes the remission of sins and facilitates the attainment of salvation. Many people believe that this effect obtains from bathing in Ganga at any time. People travel from distant places to immerse the ashes of their kin in the waters of the Ganga; this immersion also is believed to be meritorious as the ashes are believed to go to heaven. Several places sacred to Hindus lie along the banks of the river Ganga, including Haridwar, Allahabad and Varanasi.



Descent to Earth

Several years later, a king named Sagara magically acquired sixty thousand sons. One day, King Sagara performed a ritual of worship for the good of the kingdom. One of the integral parts of the ritual was a horse, which was stolen by the jealous Indra. Sagara sent all his sons all over the earth to search for the horse. They found it in the nether-world (or Underworld) next to a meditating sage Kapila. Believing that the sage had stolen the horse, they hurled insults at him and caused his penance to be disturbed. The sage opened his eyes for the first time in several years, and looked at the sons of Sagara. With this glance, all sixty thousand were burnt to death.

The souls of the sons of Sagara wandered as ghosts since their final rites had not been performed. When Bhagiratha, one of the descendants of Sagara, son of Dilip, learnt of this fate, he vowed to bring Ganga down to Earth so that her waters could cleanse their souls and release them to heaven.

Bhagiratha prayed to Brahma that Ganga come down to Earth. Brahma agreed, and he ordered Ganga to go down to the Earth and then on to the nether regions so that the souls of Bhagiratha's ancestors would be able to go to heaven. The vain Ganga felt that this was insulting and decided to sweep the whole earth away as she fell from the heavens. Alarmed, Bhagiratha prayed to Shiva that he break up Ganga's descent.


Because of Bhagiratha's efforts Ganga descended on to earth and hence the river is also known as Bhagirathi, and the term "Bhagirath prayatna" is used to describe valiant efforts or difficult achievements.

Another name that Ganga is known by is Jahnavi. Story has it that once Ganga came down to earth, on her way to Bhagiratha, her rushing waters created turbulence and destroyed the fields and the sadhana of a sage called Jahnu. He was angered by this and drank up all of Ganga's waters. Upon this, the Gods prayed to Jahnu to release Ganga so that she could proceed on her mission. Pleased with their prayers, Jahnu released Ganga (her waters) from his ears. Hence the name "Jahnavi" (daughter of Jahnu) for Ganga.

It is sometime believed that the river will finally dry up at the end of Kali Yuga (the era of darkness, the current era) just as with the Sarasvati river, and this era will end. Next in (cyclic) order will be the Satya Yuga or the era of Truth.

Other Mythological Associations

According to the Hindu scriptures like Skanda Purana, the goddess Ganga is foster-mother to Karttikeya (Murugan), who was actually a son of Shiva and Parvati.

Parvati who created an image of Ganesha (the second son of Shiva and Parvati) out of her bodily impurities but which became endowed with life after immersion in the sacred waters of the Ganga. Therefore Ganesha is said to have two mothers--Pārvati and Gangā and hence called "Dvaimātura" and also "Gāngeya" (the son of Ganga). [Y. Krishan (IAST|Gaṇeśa:Unravelling an Enigma, p.6 ]

According to Brahma Vaivarta Purana 2.6.13-95 Vishnu has three wives, who constantly quarrel with each other, so that eventually, he keeps only Lakshmi, giving Ganga to Shiva and Saraswati to Brahma.

The Hindu epic, Mahābhārata tells that the Vasus, cursed by Vashishta had requested Ganga to be their mother. Ganga incarnated and became the wife of King Santanu on condition that at no stage shall he question her actions, or she would leave him.. As seven Vasus were born as their children, one after the other, Ganga drowned them in her own waters, freeing them from their punishment and the king made no opposition. Only when the eighth was born did the king finally oppose his wife, who therefore left him. So the eighth son, Dyaus incarnated, remained alive, imprisoned in mortal form, and later became known in his mortal incarnation as "Bhishma" (Devavrata), who is one of the most respected characters of the Mahābhārata.

Rig Veda

The Ganga is definitely mentioned in the Rig-Ved, the earliest and theoretically the holiest of the Hindu scriptures. The Ganga is mentioned in the nadistuti (Rig Veda 10.75), which lists the rivers from east to west. In RV 6.45.31, the word Ganga is also mentioned, but it is not clear if the reference is to the river.

RV 3.58.6 says that "your ancient home, your auspicious friendship, O Heroes, your wealth is on the banks of the Jahnavi (JahnAvyAm)". This verse could possibly refer to the Ganga. [Talageri, Shrikant. (2000) ; Talageri, S.: "Michael Witzel - An examination of his review of my book". --Griffith translates JahnAvyAm in this verse as "house of Jahnu", even though in similar verses he uses the "on the banks of a river" translation (see Talageri 2000)] In RV 1.116.18-19, the Jahnavi and the Gangetic dolphin occur in two adjacent verses. [Talageri, Shrikant. (2000) .; Talageri, S.: "Michael Witzel - An examination of his review of my book" 2001. ] [The Sanskrit term shimshumara refers to the Gangetic dolphin (the Sanskrit term for dolphin is shishula). Talageri 2000, 2001]


In the canons of Indian art, Ganga is visualized as voluptuous and beautiful, carrying an overflowing pot in her hand. The vessel conveys the idea of abundant life and fertility, which nourishes and sustains the universe.

The second distinguishing aspect of Ganga's iconography is her animal mount, which is often shown serving as a pedestal for her. This is the makara, a hybrid creature having the body of a crocodile and the tail of a fish. The makara in Hindu thought corresponds to the star sign of Capricorn in western astrology.

The makara is also the vehicle of the Vedic god of waters, Varuna, thus establishing firmly Goddess Ganga's Vedic roots.


External links

* [ The Life Of Ganga]
* [,%20touching%20it,%20and%20bathing%20in%20its%20waters,%20one%20rescues%20one’s%20ancestors%20to%20the%20seventh%20generation. Sacred Ganga]
* [ Ganga Arati Video] Quicktime streaming video of worship of the Ganges in Hardwar (15 minutes)
* [ Various Aspects Of Ganges]
* [ The Mystic Ganga]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hinduism and Islam — Hinduism and Islam, from the of arrival of the Arabs as far back as the eighth century AD, has had a checkered history. During the Muslim conquests, Islam gained many converts on the Indian sub continent primarily from Hinduism or Buddhism; the… …   Wikipedia

  • Ganga dynasty — Either of two distinct but remotely related Indian dynasties. The Western Gangas ruled in Mysore state from с AD 250 to 1004. They encouraged scholarly work, built some remarkable temples, and encouraged cross peninsular trade. The Eastern Gangas …   Universalium

  • Bali, Hinduism in —    Bali, an island in the Indian Ocean immediately east of Java, is today a part of the country of INDONESIA. Unlike the rest of predominantly Muslim Indonesia, however, Bali is overwhelming Hindu. Its unique history reaches back to the spread of …   Encyclopedia of Hinduism

  • Glossary of terms in Hinduism — The following is a glossary of terms and concepts in Hinduism. The list consists of concepts that are derived from both Hinduism and Hindu tradition, which are expressed as words in Sanskrit as well as other languages of India. The main purpose… …   Wikipedia

  • Glossary of Hinduism terms — An article related to Hinduism …   Wikipedia

  • Religion in Western Ganga kingdom — The Western Ganga Dynasty (350 1000 CE) (Kannada:ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಗಂಗ ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನ) were an important ruling dynasty of ancient Karnataka. They are known as Western Gangas to distinguish them from the Eastern Gangas who in later centuries ruled over modern… …   Wikipedia

  • Arundhati (Hinduism) — Arundhati (Sanskrit: अरुन्धती, IAST: Arundhatī) is the wife of the sage Vashishta, one of the seven sages (Saptarshi) who are identified with the Ursa Major. She is identified with the morning star and also with the star Alcor which forms a… …   Wikipedia

  • Ganges — (Ganga)    The Ganges or Ganga is India’s most sacred river. It is 1,557 miles long and sweeps a valley or basin 200 to 400 miles wide. Its scientific source is in glaciers on the southern slopes of the HIMALAYAS, some 10,300 feet above sea level …   Encyclopedia of Hinduism

  • Badrinath —    Badrinath is an important Hindu pilgrimage site located in a glacial area some 10,000 feet high in the central Himalayas, in the Chamoli District of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is sometimes said to be one of the four shrines that a… …   Encyclopedia of Hinduism

  • Bhishma —    Bhishma, “the terrible,” is one of the most impor tant characters in the great epic MAHABHARATA. He was the son of the river goddess Ganga (see GANGES) and the first son of the king Shantanu. In his old age, Shantanu wished to take another… …   Encyclopedia of Hinduism

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.