Particular point topology

In mathematics, the particular point topology (or included point topology) is a topology where sets are considered open if they are empty or contain a particular, arbitrarily chosen, point of the topological space. Formally, let X be any set and p ∈ X. The collection
 T = {S ⊆ X: p ∈ S or S = ∅}
of subsets of X is then the particular point topology on X. There are a variety of cases which are individually named:
 If X = {0,1} we call X the Sierpiński space. This case is somewhat special and is handled separately.
 If X is finite (with at least 3 points) we call the topology on X the finite particular point topology.
 If X is countably infinite we call the topology on X the countable particular point topology.
 If X is uncountable we call the topology on X the uncountable particular point topology.
A generalization of the particular point topology is the closed extension topology. In the case when X \ {p} has the discrete topology, the closed extension topology is the same as the particular point topology.
This topology is used to provide interesting examples and counterexamples.
Contents
Properties
 Closed sets have empty interior
 Given an open set every is a limit point of A. So the closure of any open set other than is X. No closed set other than X contains p so the interior of every closed set other than X is .
Connectedness Properties
 Path and locally connected but not arc connected
 f is a path for all x,y ∈ X. However since p is open, the preimage of p under a continuous injection from [0,1] would be an open single point of [0,1], which is a contradiction.
 Dispersion point, example of a set with
 p is a dispersion point for X. That is X\{p} is totally disconnected.
 Hyperconnected but not ultraconnected
 Every open set contains p hence X is hyperconnected. But if a and b are in X such that p, a, and b are three distinct points, then {a} and {b} are disjoint closed sets and thus X is not ultraconnected. Note that if X is the Sierpinski space then no such a and b exist and X is in fact ultraconnected.
Compactness Properties
 Closure of compact not compact
 The set {p} is compact. However its closure (the closure of a compact set) is the entire space X and if X is infinite this is not compact (since any set {t,p} is open). For similar reasons if X is uncountable then we have an example where the closure of a compact set is not a Lindelöf space.
 Pseudocompact but not weakly countably compact
 First there are no disjoint nonempty open sets (since all open sets contain 'p'). Hence every continuous function to the real line must be constant, and hence bounded, proving that X is a pseudocompact space. Any set not containing p does not have a limit point thus if X if infinite it is not weakly countably compact.
 Locally compact but not strongly locally compact. Both possibilities regarding global compactness.
 If x ∈ X then the set {x,p} is a compact neighborhood of x. However the closure of this neighborhood is all of X and hence X is not strongly locally compact.
 In terms of global compactness, X finite if and only if X is compact. The first implication is immediate, the reverse implication follows from noting that is an open cover with no finite subcover.
 Limit point but not an accumulation point
 A sequence {a_{i}} converges whenever such that for all but a finite number of the An accumulation point will be an b such that infinitely many of the a_{i} = b and note there may be any countable number of b's. Thus any countably infinite set of distinct points forming a sequence does not have an accumulation point but does have a limit point!
 Limit point but not a ωaccumulation point
 Let Y be any subset containing p. Then for any q is a limit point of Y but not a ωaccumulation point. Because this makes no use of properties of Y it leads to often cited counter examples.
 T_{0}
 X is T_{0} (since {x, p} is open for each x) but satisfies no higher separation axioms (because all open sets must contain p).
 Not regular
 Since every nonempty open set contains p, no closed set not containing p (such as X\{p}) can be separated by neighbourhoods from {p}, and thus X is not regular. Since complete regularity implies regularity, X is not completely regular.
 Not normal
 Since every nonempty open set contains p, no nonempty closed sets can be separated by neighbourhoods from each other, and thus X is not normal. Exception: the Sierpinski topology is normal, and even completely normal, since it contains no nontrivial separated sets.
 Separability
 {p} is dense and hence X is a separable space. However if X is uncountable then X\{p} is not separable. This is an example of a subspace of a separable space not being separable.
 Countability (first but not second)
 If X is uncountable then X is first countable but not second countable.
 Comparable ( Homeomorphic topology on the same set that is not comparable)
 Let with . Let and . That is t_{q} is the particular point topology on X with q being the distinguished point. Then (X,t_{p}) and (X,t_{q}) are homeomorphic incomparable topologies on the same set.
 Density (no nonempty subsets dense in themselves)
 Let S be a subset of X. If S contains p then S has no limit points (see limit point section). If S does not contain p then p is not a limit point of S. Hence S is not dense if S is nonempty.
 Not first category
 Any set containing p is dense in X. Hence X is not a union of nowhere dense subsets.
 Subspaces
 Every subspace of a set given the particular point topology that doesn't contain the particular point, inherits the discrete topology.
See also
 Sierpiński space
 Excluded point topology
 Alexandrov topology
 Finite topological space
 Onepoint compactification
References
 Steen, Lynn Arthur; Seebach, J. Arthur Jr. (1995) [1978], Counterexamples in Topology (Dover reprint of 1978 ed.), Berlin, New York: SpringerVerlag, ISBN 9780486687353, MR507446
Categories: Topological spaces
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