Similar in design to the bucket method is the fountain method, also known as a waterfall bong or "flood" (southern US colloquialism). A Fountain usually consists of a plastic bottle with a hole punched at the bottom and a removable bottle cap with a bowl in it, or an alternative to that is a
glass, which is usually a piece of round metal that fits on the bottle with a mesh inside. The bottle cap or glass is removed, the hole is covered by a finger, the vessel is filled with water, then while holding a flame to the bowl, the finger is removed. Gravity causes the water to flow out creating a vacuum inside the chamber and smoke begins to flow into the chamber; see the section on the bucket bong for a more detailed description of this process. When all the water has run out the user removes the bottle cap or glass, places their mouth over the opening at the top of the bottle, and inhales the contents. Alternatively, instead of letting the full volume of water drain out, a user can wait until the contents of the bowl have been reduced to ash, proceeding to stop the remaining flow of water, and clear the chamber in a similar fashion in which one would clear a water bong. The colloquial term "fountain" is used frequently in Europe and Australia, waterfall is the American translation. It may take two people to use the waterfall method effectively, one to hold and release the water and the other to prepare and ignite the cannabis.
A variation to the bucket method is the use of a 2-liter inside a 3-liter soda bottle, or a 16 ounce bottle within a 2 liter bottle. The top is cut off the 3-liter, and the bottom is removed from the 2-liter bottle. A metal bowl is screwed into the plastic cap, or a slide and bowl are affixed. use of this involves placing cannabis in the bowl, and igniting it as you pull the smaller bottle from the larger bottle, filled with water. As the bottle rises, a vacuum is created, and air is forced down through the bowl, creating thick smoke, which is captured in the smaller bottle above the water. To inhale the smoke, the user either unscrews the cap, removes the bowl, or uses an opening near the top that would have been somehow sealed, and inhale as pushing the bottle back into the water.
oda Bottle Gravity Bong
Another form of a gravity bong is known as the "third lung" or "parachute" or "bucket". This is made by taking a two liter soda bottle, emptying the contents, and then cutting the bottom of the bottle off. A large plastic bag (Bread bags work best as their shape is similar to a bottle) is then placed over the bottom of the bottle and held in place with a rubber band or tape. Then a pair of scissors is taken and pushed through the white top of the bottle, creating a small hole, just big enough for the bowl to be placed in. The plastic bag is pushed inside the bottle, and then the herb is put into the bowl. The cannabis is lit, while the bag inside of the bottle is grabbed and slowly pulled out. The smoke is drawn inside the bottle and is ready for smoking. A string can be attached to the bag for ease of use.
The preferred method of a 2 liter gravity bong is using an orange juice carton which provides a snug fit for the soda bottle. The user should fully open the top of the orange juice carton and then use scissors to cut off the top 4". A half inch hole should be drilled through the cap of the soda bottle. Using a pen he or she can roll tin foil around it and then remove the pen to create a tube. This tin foil tube should be attached to the cap where the hole has been drilled. It is important to create the "bowl" with tin foil as well. Do this by taking a small amount foil and poking small holes with a pin. This is then pushed into hole on the cap, and is where the cannabis is ignited. The tube runs down the center of the soda bottle and should be approximately 6" long. This is a key element because the smoke is pulled down the tube and percolates through the water which gives the cooling effect of a standard bong. The orange juice carton should be nearly filled with water. About an inch or two from the top will suffice. The cap needs to screwed on tightly when the cannabis is ignited. The user must slowly pull the soda bottle out of the carton. This creates suction that pulls the smoke down through tube and completely fills of the soda bottle with thick, chalky smoke. Before the bottle comes out of the water, the user must unscrew the cap and remove it all together. He or she puts their mouth on the top of the bottle, and quickly pushes the bottle back into the juice carton. This will create a rush of smoke that is forced into the lungs in a matter of seconds. Typically, the user will go into a coughing fit for 1 to 2 minutes. The effects of the cannabis set in shortly after the coughing is complete.
Optional bucket bong accessories include a bong water guard. A guard consists of a buoyant sphere, often a ping-pong ball, that is placed within the bottle before the hit is drawn. Slight modification of the bottle will keep the ball inside the bottle at all times. Instead of having the entire bottom of the bottle cut off, wedges of the bottom may be cut out. When flat, they will not allow the ball out, but when gently twisted the gap is large enough to allow pong ball access in and out of the bottle.
Another modification is a percolation tube that draws the smoke down into the water by connecting to the male slide piece. The bottle must be raised so that the mass of the volume of water inside the device above the water's surface can gravitationally pull the smoke through the percolation tube. If the tube is long or the device is not airtight, it will not work. This method (known widely as the "Blissett Bucket") produces a toke that is generally more potent and also decreases the damaging heating effect of the conventional gravity bong.Fact|date=February 2007
The earliest example of the above modification dates from 1996, and can be seen being demonstrated on video here: http://vids.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=vids.individual&videoid=1136014424 (old broken link now updated)
Another modification that is especially convenient, because of the lack of water, is a "jig," which is made from a socket, around 3/16 inches, and a soda bottle cap. A hole, slightly smaller than the bottom of the socket, is bored into the cap with a heated knife. The socket is then inserted through the top of the cap, and can be sealed with modeling clay or blutac, to ensure air tightness. The jig cap is then screwed onto an empty soda bottle with a hole burned or bored into the bottom, and smoked by pulling through the hole the bottom of the bottle.
Other vacuum methods
As with the waterfall method, the bucket method uses gravity to create a vacuum. Its claim for the title of "gravity bong" is supported mainly by the argument that it relies more on the force of gravity. The bucket method uses gravity's pull both to create a vacuum, and to control the air flow. When the bong is pulled using the bucket method, the air flow rate is directly proportional to gravity's force due to the difference between the water levels of the bottle and the surrounding bucket. Some argue that the bucket method in fact does not need gravity at all. All it needs is a device to create a vacuum; therefore it can also be referred to as an air displacement bong, or pressure flux bong. Gravity merely holds the water in place (making it resemble a liquid piston). If a solid piston is used instead of the "liquid" piston, the direction of gravity is irrelevant, much like in the piston operation of an internal combustion engine. Attaching a plastic bag to the end of interior plastic bottle of the bucket bong would serve as this solid piston, a bong commonly referred to as the "third lung".
If a gravity bong is constructed with potentially harmful materials such as inappropriate metals, or is constructed poorly using materials such as plastics, glues or other materials which are safe for their intended usage but not when heated, it is possible that the user may inhale noxious fumes that can be more dangerous to their health than the tobacco or cannabis smoke.
References and further reading
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