- Arba'ah Turim
Arba'ah Turim (ארבעה טורים), often called simply the "Tur", is an important Halakhic code, composed by Yaakov ben Asher (
Spain, 1270-c. 1340, also referred to as " Ba'al ha-Turim", "Author of the Tur"). The four-part structure of the "Tur" and its division into chapters ("simanim") were adopted by the later code Shulchan Aruch.
Meaning of the name
The title of the work in Hebrew means "four rows", in allusion to the jewels on the High Priest's
breastplate. Each of the four divisions of the work is a "Tur", so a particular passage may be cited as "Tur Orach Chayim, siman 22", meaning "Orach Chayim division, chapter 22". This was later misunderstood as meaning "Tur, Orach Chayim, chapter 22" (to distinguish it from the corresponding passage in the Shulchan Aruch), so that "Tur" came to be used as the title of the whole work. [Cf. the analogous back-formation"Chumash".]
Arrangement and contents
The "Arba'ah Turim", as the name implies, consists of four divisions ("Turim"); these are further organised by topic and section ("siman", pl. "simanim"). [The Shulchan Aruch contains a further division by paragraph ("sa'if", pl. "se'ifim"), which is incorporated into some editions of the Arba'ah Turim to enable point-by-point comparison.] :The four Turim are as follows::*
Orach Chayim- laws of prayer and synagogue, Sabbath, holidays:* Yoreh De'ah- miscellaneous ritualistic laws, such as shechitaand kashrut:* Even Ha'ezer- laws of marriage, divorce:* Choshen Mishpat- laws of finance, financial responsibility, damages (personal and financial) and legal procedure
In the "Arba'ah Turim", Rabbi Jacob traces the practical Jewish law from the
Torahtext and the dicta of the Talmudthrough the " Rishonim". He used the code of Rabbi Isaac Alfasias his starting point; these views are then compared to those of Maimonides, as well as to the Ashkenazitraditions contained in the Tosafist literature. Unlike Maimonides' " Mishneh Torah", the "Tur" is not limited to normative positions, but compares the various opinions on any disputed point. (In most instances of debate, Rabbi Jacob follows the opinion of his father, Rabbi Asher ben Jehiel, the "Rosh".) The "Arba'ah Turim" also differs from the "Mishneh Torah", in that, unlike Maimonides' work, it deals only with areas of Jewish law that are applicable in the Jewish exile.
The best-known commentary on the "Arba'ah Turim" is the "Beit Yosef" by Rabbi Joseph Caro: this goes beyond the normal functions of a commentary, in that it attempts to review all the relevant authorities and come to a final decision on every point, so as to constitute a comprehensive resource on Jewish law. Other commentaries are "Bayit Chadash" by Rabbi
Yoel Sirkis, "Darkhei Moshe" by Moses Isserles, "Beit Yisrael (Perishah u-Derishah)" by Joshua Falk, as well as works by a number of other " Acharonim". These often defend the views of ben Asher against Caro.
The "Tur" continues to play an important role in Halakha.
*Joseph Caro's "
Shulchan Aruch", the fundamental work of " Halakha", is a condensation of his "Beit Yosef" and follows the basic structure of the "Arba'ah Turim", including its division into four sections and chapters - "Tur's" structure down to the "siman" is retained in the "Shulchan Aruch".
*The views in the other commentaries are often relevant in ascertaining or explaining the Ashkenazi version of Jewish law, as codified by Moses Isserles in his "Mappah".
Students of the "Shulchan Aruch", particularly in Orthodox "
Semicha" programs, often study the "Tur" and the "Beit Yosef" concurrently with the "Shulchan Aruch" itself: in some editions the two works are printed together, with the "Tur" occupying one half of each page and the corresponding passage of the "Shulchan Aruch" occupying the other.
Shulchan Aruch HaRav
Kitzur Shulchan Aruch
* [http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/TalmudMap/Tur.html Arba'ah Turim] , Prof. Eliezer Segal
*cite web|url=http://www.faqs.org/faqs/judaism/FAQ/03-Torah-Halacha/section-39.html|title= Question 3.38: What is the Arba'ah Turim (The Tur, The Four Rows)?|publisher=faqs.org
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