List of regions in the human brain


List of regions in the human brain

Anatomical regions of the brain are listed vertically, following hierarchies that are standard in neuroanatomy. Functional, connective and developmental regions are listed horizontally in parentheses where appropriate.

Functional and connective regions defined as systems are categorized at "cerebrospinal systems".


=Hindbrain (Rhombencephalon)=

Myelencephalon

*medulla oblongata
**medullary pyramids
**Medullary cranial nerve nuclei
***Inferior salivatory nucleus
***Nucleus ambiguus
***Dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve
***Hypoglossal nucleus
***Solitary nucleus

Metencephalon

*pons
**Respiratory centres
***pneumotactic centre
***apneustic centre
**Pontine cranial nerve nuclei
*** "chief" or "pontine" nucleus of the trigeminal nerve sensory nucleus (V)
*** motor nucleus for the trigeminal nerve (V)
*** abducens nucleus (VI)
*** facial nerve nucleus (VII)
*** vestibulocochlear nuclei (vestibular nuclei and cochlear nuclei) (VIII)
***Superior salivatory nucleus
*paramedian pontine reticular formation

*cerebellum
**cerebellar vermis
**cerebellar hemispheres
***anterior lobe
***posterior lobe
***flocculonodular lobe
**cerebellar nuclei
***fastigial nucleus
***globose nucleus
***emboliform nucleus
***dentate nucleus


=Midbrain (mesencephalon)=

*tectum
**inferior colliculi
**superior colliculi
*mesencephalic duct (cerebral aqueduct, Aqueduct of Sylvius)
*cerebral peduncle
*midbrain tegmentum
**ventral tegmental area
**Red Nucleus
**crus cerebri
*pretectum


=Forebrain (prosencephalon)=

Diencephalon

epithalamus

*pineal body
*habenular nuclei
*stria medullares
*tenia thalami

third ventricle

thalamus

*anterior nuclear group
**anteroventral nucleus
**anterodorsal nucleus
**anteromedial nucleus
*medial nuclear group
**medial dorsal nucleus
**midline nuclear group
**paratenial nucleus
**reuniens nucleus
**rhomboidal nucleus
**intralaminar nuclear group
**centromedial nucleus
**parafascicular nucleus
**paracentral nucleus
**central lateral nucleus
**central medial nucleus
*lateral nuclear group
**lateral dorsal nucleus
**lateral posterior nucleus
**pulvinar
*ventral nuclear group
**ventral anterior nucleus
**ventral lateral nucleus
**ventral posterior nucleus
***Ventral posterior lateral nucleus
***Ventral posterior medial nucleus
*metathalamus
**medial geniculate body
**lateral geniculate body
*thalamic reticular nucleus

hypothalamus "(limbic system)" "(HPA axis)"

*Anterior
**Medial area
***Parts of preoptic area
****Medial preoptic nucleus
***Suprachiasmatic nucleus
***Paraventricular nucleus
***Supraoptic nucleus (mainly)
***Anterior hypothalamic nucleus
**Lateral area
***Parts of preoptic area
****Lateral preoptic nucleus
***Anterior part of Lateral nucleus
***Part of supraoptic nucleus
**Other nuclei of preoptic area
***median preoptic nucleus
***periventricular preoptic nucleus
*Tuberal
**Medial area
***Dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus
***Ventromedial nucleus
***Arcuate nucleus
**Lateral area
***Tuberal part of Lateral nucleus
***Lateral tuberal nuclei
*Posterior
**Medial area
***Mammillary nuclei (part of mammillary bodies)
***Posterior nucleus
**Lateral area
***Posterior part of Lateral nucleus
*optic chiasm
*subfornical organ
*periventricular nucleus
*infundibulum
*tuber cinereum
**tuberal nucleus
**tuberomamillary nucleus
*tuberal region
*mammillary bodies
*mammillary nucleus

subthalamus"(HPA axis)"

*thalamic nucleus
*zona incerta

pituitary gland "(HPA axis)"

*neurohypophysis
*intermediate pituitary
*adenohypophysis

Telencephalon "(cerebrum)" Cerebral hemispheres

red:frontal lobe
orange:parietal lobe
yellow:occipital lobe
green: temporal lobe
blue:cerebellum
black:brainstem

White matter

*Corona radiata
*Internal capsule
*External capsule
*Extreme capsule
*Arcuate fasciculus
*Uncinate fasciculus

ubcortical

*Amygdala "(limbic system)" "(limbic lobe)" "(paleopallium)"
**Central nucleus "(autonomic nervous system)"
**Medial nucleus "(accessory olfactory system)"
**Cortical and basomedial nuclei "(main olfactory system)"
**Lateral and basolateral nuclei "(frontotemporal cortical system)"
*base head "(limbic system)" "(limbic lobe)" "(archipallium)"
**Dentate gyrus
**"Cornu ammonis" (CA fields)
*Claustrum
*Basal ganglia
**Striatum"(archipallium)"
***Putamen
***Caudate nucleus
***Nucleus accumbens
**Globus pallidus (forms nucleus lentiformis with putamen)
**Subthalamic nucleus
**Substantia nigra


=Rhinencephalon "(paleopallium)"=

*Olfactory bulb
*Piriform cortex
*Anterior olfactory nucleus
*Olfactory tract
*Anterior commissure

Lateral ventricles

Cerebral cortex "(neopallium)"

*Frontal lobe
**Cortex
***Primary motor cortex (Precentral gyrus, M1)
**Brodmann area 4 "(Primary motor cortex)"
***Prefrontal cortex
***Supplementary motor cortex
***Premotor cortex
**Gyrus
***Superior frontal gyrus
***Middle frontal gyrus
***Inferior frontal gyrus
**Brodmann areas: 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 24, 25, 32, 33, 44, 45, 46, 47
*Temporal lobe
**Cortex
***Primary auditory cortex (A1)
***A2
***Inferior temporal cortex
***Posterior inferior temporal cortex
**Gyrus
***Superior temporal gyrus
***Middle temporal gyrus
***Inferior temporal gyrus
***Fusiform gyrus
***Parahippocampal gyrus
**Brodmann areas: 9, 20, 21, 22, 27, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 41, 42
*Parietal lobe
**Cortex
***Primary somatosensory cortex (S1)
***S2
***Posterior parietal cortex
**Gyrus
***Postcentral gyrus "(Primary somesthetic area)"
**Other
***Precuneus
**Brodmann areas 1, 2, 3 "(Primary somesthetic area)"; 5, 7, 23, 26, 29, 31, 39, 40
*Occipital lobe
**Cortex
***Primary visual cortex (V1)
***V2
**Gyrus
***Lateral occipital gyrus
**Other
***Cuneus
**Brodmann areas 17 "(V1, primary visual cortex)"; 18, 19
*Insular cortex
*Cingulate cortex
**Subgenual area 25
**Anterior cingulate
**Posterior cingulate
**Retrosplenial cortex
**Indusium griseum
**Brodmann areas 23, 24; 26, 29, 30 "(retrosplenial areas)"; 31, 32

Neural pathways

* arcuate fasciculus
* cerebral peduncle
* corpus callosum
* pyramidal or corticospinal tract

* Major dopamine pathways "dopamine system"
** mesocortical pathway
** mesolimbic pathway
** nigrostriatal pathway
** tuberoinfundibular pathway

* Serotonin Pathways "serotonin system"
**Raphe Nuclei


=Motor systems=

*motor system
**extrapyramidal system
**pyramidal tract
**alpha system
**gamma system

Nerves

*Spinal cord
*brain stem
**cranial nerves
***Cranial nerve, (0)
***Olfactory nerve, (I)
***Optic nerve (II)
***Oculomotor nerve (III)
***Trochlear nerve(IV)
***Trigeminal nerve (V)
***Abducens nerve (VI)
***Facial nerve (VII)
***Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
***Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
***Vagus nerve (X)
***Accessory nerve (XI)
***Hypoglossal nerve (XII)

Neuroendocrine systems

*HPA axis


=Vascular systems=

*venous systems
*circle of Willis (arterial system)
*blood-brain barrier
*blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier

Dural meningeal system

*brain-cerebrospinal fluid barrier
*meningeal coverings
**dura mater
**arachnoid mater
**pia mater
*epidural space
*subdural space
*arachnoid septum
*ventricular system
**cerebrospinal fluid
***subarachnoid space
****third ventricle
****fourth ventricle
****lateral ventricles
*****Anterior horn
*****Body of lateral ventricle
*****Inferior horn
*****Posterior horn
****superior cistern
****cistern of lamina terminalis
****chaismatic cistern
****interpeduncular cistern
****pontine cistern
****cisterna magna
***spinal subarachnoid space

Related topic

* Human brain

External links

* [http://brainmaps.org High-Resolution Cytoarchitectural Primate Brain Atlases]
* [http://braininfo.rprc.washington.edu/ View information on various brain regions: images, name in seven languages, location, etc.]


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