Occipital lobe

Brain: Occipital lobe
Lobes of the human brain (the occipital lobe is shown in red)
Gray727 occipital lobe.png
Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere. (cuneus and lingual gyrus are at left.)
Latin lobus occipitalis
Gray's subject #189 823
Part of cerebrum
Artery posterior cerebral artery
NeuroNames hier-122
MeSH Occipital+Lobe
NeuroLex ID birnlex_1136

The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex.[1] The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17, commonly called V1 (visual one). Human V1 is located on the medial side of the occipital lobe within the calcarine sulcus; the full extent of V1 often continues onto the posterior pole of the occipital lobe. V1 is often also called striate cortex because it can be identified by a large stripe of myelin, the Stria of Gennari. Visually driven regions outside V1 are called extrastriate cortex. There are many extrastriate regions, and these are specialized for different visual tasks, such as visuospatial processing, color discrimination and motion perception. The name derives from the overlying occipital bone, which is named from the Latin oc- + caput, "back of the head".

Contents

Anatomy

Animation. Occipital lobe (red) of left cerebral hemisphere.

The two occipital lobes are the smallest of four paired lobes in the human cerebral cortex. Located in the rearmost portion of the skull, the occipital lobes are part of the forebrain. The cortical lobes are not defined by any internal structural features, but rather by the bones of the skull that overlie them. Thus, the occipital lobe is defined as the part of the cerebral cortex that lies underneath the occipital bone. (See the human brain article for more information.)

The lobes rest on the tentorium cerebelli, a process of dura mater that separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum. They are structurally isolated in their respective cerebral hemispheres by the separation of the cerebral fissure. At the front edge of the occipital are several lateral occipital gyri, which are separated by lateral occipital sulcus.

The occipital aspects along the inside face of each hemisphere are divided by the calcarine sulcus. Above the medial, Y-shaped sulcus lies the cuneus, and the area below the sulcus is the lingual gyrus.

Function

Significant functional aspects of the occipital lobe is that it contains the primary visual cortex and is the part of the brain where dreams come from.

Retinal sensors convey stimuli through the optic tracts to the lateral geniculate bodies, where optic radiations continue to the visual cortex. Each visual cortex receives raw sensory information from the outside half of the retina on the same side of the head and from the inside half of the retina on the other side of the head. The cuneus (Brodmann's area 17) receives visual information from the contralateral superior retina representing the inferior visual field. The lingula receives information from the contralateral inferior retina representing the superior visual field. The retinal inputs pass through a "way station" in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus before projecting to the cortex. Cells on the posterior aspect of the occipital lobes' gray matter are arranged as a spatial map of the retinal field. Functional neuroimaging reveals similar patterns of response in cortical tissue of the lobes when the retinal fields are exposed to a strong pattern.

If one occipital lobe is damaged, the result can be homonomous vision loss from similarly positioned "field cuts" in each eye. Occipital lesions can cause visual hallucinations. Lesions in the parietal-temporal-occipital association area are associated with color agnosia, movement agnosia, and agraphia.

Functional anatomy

The occipital lobe is divided into several functional visual areas. Each visual area contains a full map of the visual world. Although there are no anatomical markers distinguishing these areas (except for the prominent striations in the striate cortex), physiologists have used electrode recordings to divide the cortex into different functional regions.

The first functional area is the primary visual cortex. It contains a low-level description of the local orientation, spatial-frequency and color properties within small receptive fields. Primary visual cortex projects to the occipital areas of the ventral stream (visual area V2 and visual area V4), and the occipital areas of the dorsal stream—visual area V3, visual area MT (V5), and the dorsomedial area (DM).

Epilepsy and the Occipital lobe

Occipital lobe seizures are triggered by a flash, or a visual image that contains mutilple colors. These are called flicker stimulation(usally through TV) these seizures are referred to as photosensitivity seizures. Patients who have experienced occipital seizures described their seizure as seeing bright colors, and having severe blurred vision(vomiting was also apparent in some patients). Occipital seizure are triggered mainly during the day, through television, video games or any flicker stimulatory system.[2]

Additional images

See also

References

  1. ^ "SparkNotes: Brain Anatomy: Parietal and Occipital Lobes". Archived from the original on 2007-12-31. http://web.archive.org/web/20071231064003/http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/neuro/brainanatomy/section5.rhtml. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  2. ^ Destina Yalçin, A., Kaymaz, A., & Forta, H. (2000). Reflex occipital lobe epilepsy. Seizure, 9(6), 436-441.

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • occipital lobe — n the posterior lobe of each cerebral hemisphere that is separated medially from the parietal lobe by the parieto occipital sulcus, is indistinctly separated more laterally from the temporal and parietal lobes, bears the visual areas, and has the …   Medical dictionary

  • occipital lobe — noun that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying in the back of the head (Freq. 1) • Syn: ↑occipital cortex • Hypernyms: ↑lobe • Part Holonyms: ↑cerebral cortex, ↑cerebral mantle, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • occipital lobe — occip′ital lobe n. anat. the most posterior lobe of each cerebral hemisphere, behind the parietal and temporal lobes • Etymology: 1885–90 …   From formal English to slang

  • occipital lobe — noun Date: 1882 the posterior lobe of each cerebral hemisphere that bears the visual cortex and has the form of a 3 sided pyramid …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • occipital lobe — Anat. the most posterior lobe of each cerebral hemisphere, behind the parietal and temporal lobes. [1885 90] * * * …   Universalium

  • occipital lobe — noun Anatomy the rearmost lobe in each cerebral hemisphere of the brain …   English new terms dictionary

  • occipital lobe — noun /ˌɑkˈsɪpɪtəl ˌloʊb/ one of the four major divisions of the cerebrum of the brain, located at the back of the head …   Wiktionary

  • Occipital — The word occipital, in zoology, pertains to the occiput (rear of the skull).[1] Occipital is a descriptor for several areas of animal human anatomy. External occipital protuberance Internal occipital crest Greater occipital nerve Lesser occipital …   Wikipedia

  • occipital gyrus — noun any of the convolutions of the outer surface of the occipital lobe of the cerebrum • Hypernyms: ↑gyrus, ↑convolution • Part Holonyms: ↑occipital lobe, ↑occipital cortex …   Useful english dictionary

  • Lobe (anatomy) — In anatomy, a lobe is a clear anatomical division or extension [eMedicineDictionary|lobe] [Dorlands|l 13|12500046] that can be determined without the use of a microscope (at the gross anatomy level.) This is in contrast to a lobule, which is a… …   Wikipedia

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