Public participation is a political principle or practice, and may also recognised as a right (right to public participation). The terms public participation may be used interchangeably with the concept or practice of
stakeholder engagementand/or popular participation.
Generally public participation seeks and facilitates the involvement of those potentially affected by or interested in a decision. The principle of public participation holds that those who are affected by a decision have a right to be involved in the decision-making process. Public participation implies that the public's contribution will influence the decision. [http://www.co-intelligence.org/CIPol_publicparticipation.html Principles of Public Participation ] ]
In the context of
knowledge managementthe establishment of ongoing participatory processes is seen in the facilitator of collective intelligenceand inclusiveness, shaped by the decire for the participation of the whole community or society.
Public participation is part of “people centred” or "human centric" principles, which have emerged in
Westernculture over the last thirtyyears, and has had some bearings of education, business, public policyand international relief and development programs. Public participation is advanced by the humanistmovements and in the context of post-modernism. Public participation may be advanced as part of a “people first” paradigm shift. In this respect public participation may challenge the concept that "big is better" and the logic of centralizedhierarchies, advancing alternative concepts of “more heads are better than one” and arguing that public participation can sustain productive and durable change.http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/cross-cutting_programs/transition_initiatives/pubs/ptdv1000.pdf]
The role of public participation in economic and human development was enshrined in the 1990
African Charter for Popular Participation in Development and Transformation. [ [http://www.africaaction.org/african-initiatives/chartall.htm African Charter for Popular Participation in Development and Transformation ] ]
In some countries public participation has become a central principle of
public policymaking. In the UKit has been observed that all levels of governmenthave started to build citizenand stakeholder engagementinto their policy-making processes. This may involve large-scale consultations, focus groupresearch, online discussion forums, or deliberative citizens' juries.
Public participation is viewed as a tool, intended to inform planning, organising or funding of activities. Public participation may also be used to measure attainable objectives, evaluate impact, and identify lessons for future practice. [http://www.involve.org.uk/evaluation/]
USApublic participation in administrative rulemaking refers to the process by which proposed rules are subject to public comment for a specified period of time. Public participation is typically mandatory for rules promulgated by executive agencies of the US government. Statutes or agency policies may mandate public hearings during this period.
Participatory budgeting is a process of democratic deliberation and decision-making, in which ordinary city residents decide how to allocate part of a municipal or public budget. Participatory budgeting is usually characterized by several basic design features: identification of spending priorities by community members, election of budget delegates to represent different communities, facilitation and technical assistance by public employees, local and higher level assemblies to deliberate and vote on spending priorities, and the implementation of local direct-impact community projects.Participatory budgeting may be used by towns and cities around the world, and has been widely publicised in
Porto Alegre, Brazil, were the first full participatory budgeting process was developed starting in 1989.
In recent years loss of public trust in authorities and politicians has become a widespread concern in many democratic societies. Public participation is a regarded as one potential solution to the crisis in public trust and governance, particularly in the
UK, Europe, and other democracies. The idea is that public should be involved more fully in the policy process in that authorities seek public views and participation, instead of treating the public as simply passive recipients of policy decisions.
The underlying assumption by political theorists, social commentators, and even politicians is that public participation increase public trust in authorities, improving citizen political efficacy, enhancing democratic ideals and even improving the quality of policy decisions. However, the assumed benefits of public participation are yet to be confirmed. [ [http://www.ifr.ac.uk/Science/Partnership/RCS/public_perception.html Public participation (science in society) ] ]
Accountability and transparency
Public participation may also be viewed as accountability enhancing. The argument being that public participation can be a means for the participating communities to hold public authorities accountable for implementation.Nazrul Islam, Nazrul Isable Martinez and Wang Xi, "Environmental Law in Developing Countries: Selected Issues, IUCN, 2002, pg.7]
In economic development theory the school of
participatory development. The desire to increase public participation in humanitarian aid and development has led to the establishment of a numerous context-specific, formal methodologies, matrices,pedagogies and ad hoc approaches. These include conscientization and praxis; Participatory action research(PPA), rapid rural appraisal(RRA) and participatory rural appraisal (PRA); appreciation influence control analysis(AIC); “open space” approaches; objectives oriented project planning(ZOPP); vulnerability analysisand capacity analysis.
Environment and Sustainable Development
In recent years public participation has become to be seen as a vital part of addressing environmental problems and bringing about
sustainable development. In this context the limits of solely relying on technocratic bureaucratic monopoly of decision making, and it is argued that public participation allows governments to adopt policies and enact laws that are relevant to communities and take into account their needs.
Public Participation is recognised as a an environmental principle, see
Environmental Principles and Policies, and has been enshrined in the Rio Declaration.
Right to public participation
In some jurisdictions the right to public participation is enshrined by law. The right to public participation may also be conceived of as
human right, or as manifestation of the right to freedom of associationand freedom of assembly. As such the Netherlands, Germany, Denmarkand Sweden, have public participation and freedom of informationprovisions in their legal systems since before the Middle Ages. [http://www.encora.eu/coastalwiki/Public_participation_legislation Public participation legislation - Coastal Wiki ] ] Democracyand public participation are closely connected democratic societies have incorporated public participation rights into their laws for centuries. For example, in the US the right to petition has been part of the first Amendment of the US constitutionsince 1791.
It is assumed that public participation depends on the public's access to information. hence laws regarding public participation often deal with the issue of the
right to know, access of information and freedom of information.
The right to participation may also be advanced in the context of
equalityand group rights, meant to ensure equal and full participation of a designated group in society. For example in the context of disabled people.
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
Rio Declarationof 1992 enshrines public participation in its 27 principles. Principle 10 states that "environmental issues are best handled with participation of all concerned citizens, at the relevant level”. The Rio Declarationcontinues, drawing a close link between access to information and public participation:
"At the national level, each individual shall have appropriate access to information concerning the environment that is held by public authorities, including information on hazardous materials and activities in their communities, and the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes. States shall facilitate and encourage public awareness and participation by making information widely available. Effective access to judicial and administrative proceedings, including redress and remedy, shall be provided." [ [http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=78&ArticleID=1163 Rio Declaration - Rio Declaration on Environment and Development - United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) ] ]
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilitiesrecognised that "that disability results from the interaction between persons with impairments and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinders their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others" and that "persons with disabilities continue to face barriers in their participation as equal members of society."
The Convention makes participation of disabled one of its principles, stating "The principles of the present Convention shall be:...Full and effective participation and inclusion in society;", subsequently enshrining the right of disabled to participate fully and equally in the community, education, all aspect of life (in the context of habilitation and
rehabilitation), political and public life, cultural life, leisure and sports. [ [http://www.un.org/disabilities/convention/conventionfull.shtml Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities ] ]
Involve (think tank)
Public participation in patent examination
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