- Urban-type settlement
Urban-type settlement ( _ru. посёлок городско́го ти́па, "posyolok gorodskogo tipa"; _ua. селище міського типу, "selyshche mis'koho typu"; abbreviated as _ru. п.г.т. in Russian and as _ua. с.м.т. in Ukrainian) is an official
designationfor a certain type of urban localities used in some of the countries of the former Soviet Union.
An urban-type settlement was one of the results of Soviet
urban design, a locality intermediate in character and status between cities/towns and rurallocalities.
Some urban-type settlements are similar in size to some rural localities; however, their infrastructure is urban. Other urban-type settlements are similar in size and infrastructure to some small towns. Usually they are centered around a single
industry. One of the defining features of an urban-type settlement in the former USSR was economic independence from agriculture.
In the Soviet Union the criteria of urban-type settlements were set independently by the Soviet Republics. Those criteria, however, only differed very slightly from one republic to another.
Russian SFSR, urban-type settlements were subdivided into three types:
* Work settlements ( _ru. рабочие посёлки): localities with factories, mining industry, power stations, construction industry, with population of at least 3,000 and with at least 85% of the population being workers, professionals, and the members of their families;
* Resort settlements ( _ru. курортные посёлки): localities focusing on resort and health facilities (around
beaches, mineral waterspas, etc.), with population of at least 2,000, with at least 50% of the average annual population being non-permanent residents;
* Suburban (
dacha) settlements ( _ru. дачные посёлки): settlements with a focus on private summer-time and weekend recreation, with no more than 25% of the permanent population being employed in the agricultural sector.
In 1981, the
Supreme Sovietof the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republicdefined an urban-type settlement as follows:
* a locality of not less than 2,000 inhabitants [Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia ("Українська радянська енциклопедія"), vol. 10, p. 94 , 1983] , consisting of at least ⅔ workers or government employees or their families;
* with industrial enterprises, buildings, and a railroad connection;
* localities with educational or research institutions;
* with sanatoria or recreational institutions.
In exceptional cases, even localities of 500 to 2,000 inhabitants could attain urban-type settlement status, if they had economic development potential.
In modern Russia, the task of setting the criteria of urban-type settlements is delegated to the federal subjects. In most cases, the federal subject's legislative body is responsible for all administrative and territorial changes, including granting and revoking of the urban-type settlement and town status.
Subdivisions of Russia
Subdivisions of Ukraine
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