Mizoram — State — Aizawl
India Coordinates (Aizawl): Coordinates: Country India Established 20 February 1987 Capital Aizawl Largest city Aizawl Districts 8 Government – Governor Vakkom Purushothaman – Chief Minister Pu Lalthanhawla (INC) – Legislature Unicameral (40 seats) – Parliamentary constituency 1 – High Court Gauhati High Court Area – Total 21,081 km2 (8,139.4 sq mi) Area rank 24th Population (2011) – Total 1,091,014 – Rank 27th – Density 51.8/km2 (134/sq mi) Time zone IST (UTC+05:30) ISO 3166 code IN-MZ HDI 0.790 (medium) HDI rank 2nd (2005) Literacy 89.9% (2nd) Official languages Mizo, English Website mizoram.gov.in
Mizoram ("land of the Mizo people") is one of the Seven Sister States in North Eastern India, sharing borders with the states of Tripura, Assam, Manipur and with the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Burma. Mizoram became the 23rd state of India on 20 February 1987. Its capital is Aizawl. Mizoram is located in the northeast of India. They are found in northwestern Myanmar, northeastern India and Bangladesh. Anthropologists classify them as Tibeto-Burman speaking member of the Mongoloid race.
Mizoram has a mild climate, comfortable in summer 20 °C to 29 °C (68 °F to 84 °F) and never freezing during winter, with temperatures from 11 °C to 21 °C (52 °F to 70 °F). The region is influenced by monsoons, raining heavily from May to September with little rain in the dry (cold) season. The average state rainfall is 254 cm (100 in.), per annum. In the capital, Aizawl rainfall is about 208 centimetres (82 in.) and in Lunglei another major center about 350 centimetres (138 in.)
Mizoram is a land of rolling hills, valleys, rivers and lakes. As many as 21 major hills ranges or peaks of different heights run through the length and breadth of the state, with plains scattered here and there. The average height of the hills to the west of the state are about 1,000 metres (3,281 feet). These gradually rise up to 1,300 metres (4,265 feet) to the east. Some areas, however, have higher ranges which go up to a height of over 2,000 metres (6,562 feet). Phawngpui Tlang also known as the Blue Mountain, situated in the south-eastern part of the state, is the highest peak in Mizoram at 2,210 metres (7,251 feet).
The biggest river in Mizoram is Chhimtuipui, also known as Kaladan. It originates in Chin State in Burma and passes through Saiha and Lawngtlai districts in the Southern tip of Mizoram, goes back to Burma's Rakhine state, and finally enters the Bay of Bengal at Akyab, which is a very popular port in Sittwe, Burma. The Indian government has invested millions of rupees to set up inland water ways along this river to trade with Burma. The project is known as the Kaladan Multipurpose project. Although many more rivers and streams drain the hill ranges, the most important and useful rivers are the Tlawng, Tut, Tuirial and Tuivawl which flow through the northern territory and eventually join the Barak River in Cachar District. The Chhimtuipui which originates in Burma, is an important river in the south of Mizoram. It has four tributaries and the river is in patches. The western part is drained by (Khawthlang tuipui) and its tributaries. A number of important towns, including Chittagong in Bangladesh, are situated at the mouth of the river. Before Independence, access to other parts of the country was only possible through the river routes via Cachar in the north, and via Chittagong in the south. Entry through the latter was cut off when the subcontinent was partitioned and ceded to East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) in 1947.
The Palak lake, the biggest in Mizoram is situated in Saiha District which is part of southern Mizoram covering 30 hectares (74 acres). It is believed that the lake was created as a result of an earthquake or a flood. The local people believe that a village which was submerged still remains intact deep under the waters. The Tamdil lake is a natural lake situated 85 km (53 mi) from Aizawl. Legend has it that a huge mustard plant once stood in this place. When the plant was cut down, jets of water sprayed from the plant and created a pool of water, thus the lake was named Ţamdil which means of 'Lake of Mustard Plant'. Today the lake is an important tourist attraction and a holiday resort. The most significant lake in Mizo history Rih Dil is ironically located in Burma, a few kilometres from the India-Burma border. It was believed that the departed souls pass through this lake before making their way to Pialral or heaven.
Geology and minerals
The folded structure of the Mizoram ranges are at the junction of two moving tectonic plates(Indian and Burmese Desi Kachar 1974). On 19 April 2011 there was a 4.3 earthquake about 10 km North of Kolasib and a 6.4 was recorded on 4 February 2011. Mizoram is in the highest zone 5 for earthquakes.
The folded hilly or mountainous North South belts, with perpendicular faults, comprise sediments of the Surma (Middle Bhuban Formation), Barail and Tipam groups. There is Aluvium in river beds consisting of deposits of argillaceous and arenaceous sandstones, shale, siltstones and mudstones and greywacke. A 560m thick rock succession of the Middle Bhuban type exposed between Bawngkawn and Durtlang shows 7 normal and 7 reverse magneto strata (North and South pole reversals) showing its age to be around 20 Million years old. The rock system is generally weak, unstable, weathered and prone to seismic and weather influence producing landslides. The soft, black to grey rock is used locally for building materials and for low trafficked road construction work. There are no useful minerals of economic significance apart from clays in the River Tlawng beds. Typical soils are sandy loam, clay loam that have been heavily leached due to the high slopes leaving it porous and lacking in minerals or humus.
A number of oil and gas exploration activities have taken place due the geological condition with which Mizoram has been formed, leading to the possibilities and high expectation that reserves would be confirmed. France, Russia and Cyprus as well as several Indian companies have already signed a 12% oil and 10% gas royalty arrangement with proceeds going direct to Mizoram state on any production (April 2009)
The origin of the Mizo people, like those of many other tribes in the northeastern India, is shrouded in mystery. Mizo history in the 18th and 19th century is marked by many instances of tribal raids and head hunting led by the village chieftains. The Lushai Hills Autonomous District Council was formed in 1952 and it led to the abolition of chieftainship.The autonomy however only partially met the aspirations of the Mizo people so representatives of the District Council and the Mizo Union pleaded with the States Reorganization Commission (SRC) in 1954 for integrating the Mizo-dominated areas of Tripura and Manipur with the District Council in Assam. The tribal leaders in the northeast were unhappy with the final SRC recommendations and met in Aizawl in 1955 to form a new political party, Eastern India Tribal Union (EITU). This group raised their demand for a separate state comprising all the hill districts of Assam. The demand for a separate Hill state by EITU was kept in abeyance.
There was little development in the state and many people were in hardship including food shortages. The Mizo National Famine Front dropped the word 'famine' and a new political organisation, the Mizo National Front (MNF) was born on 22 October 1961 under the leadership of Laldenga with the specified goal of achieving sovereign independence of Mizoram. Large scale insurgency broke out on 28 February 1966 at the government installations at Aizawl, Lunglei, Chawngte, Chhimluang and other places and the Government of India responded militarily. This was the first time that India had used its air force to quell a movement of any kind among its citizens.“In the afternoon of 4 March 1966, jet fighters attacked Aizawl. The next day, a more excessive bombing took place for several hours which left most houses in Dawrpui and Chhinga veng area in ashes,” recollected 62-year-old Rothangpuia in Aizawl. The Mizo National Front was outlawed in 1967 and the demand for statehood increased. The Mizo District Council delegation met prime minister Indira Gandhi in May 1971 and demanded full fledged statehood for Mizoram. The Indian government offered to convert the Mizo Hills into a Union Territory (U.T.) in July 1971. The Mizo leaders accepted on the condition that Statehood occurred sooner rather than later.
Founding of Mizoram state
Rajiv Gandhi's election to power following his mother's death signalled the beginning of a new era in Indian politics. Laldenga met the prime minister on 15 February 1985. Some contentious issues which could not be resolved during previous talks were referred to him for his advice. With Pakistan having lost control of Bangladesh and no support from Pakistan, the Mizo National Front which had evolved from the Mizo National Famine Front after the great famine of 1958 used the opportunity that had now presented itself. New Delhi felt that the Mizo issue had been dragging on for a long time, while the Mizo National Front was convinced that disarming, to live as respectable Indian citizens, was the only way of achieving peace and development. Statehood was a prerequisite to the implementation of the accord signed between the Mizo National Front and the Union Government on 30 June 1986. The document was signed by Pu Laldenga on behalf of the Mizo National Front, and the Union Home Secretary R.D. Pradhan on behalf of the government. Lalkhama, Chief Secretary of Mizoram, also signed the agreement. The formalisation of the state of Mizoram took place on 20 February 1987. Chief Secretary Lalkhama read out the proclamation of statehood at a public meeting organised at Aizawl's parade ground. Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi flew in to Aizawl to inaugurate the new state. Hiteshwar Saikia was appointed as Governor of Mizoram.
Details are shown in the figures.
Population Growth Census Pop. %± 1951 196,000 — 1961 266,000 35.7% 1971 332,000 24.8% 1981 494,000 48.8% 1991 690,000 39.7% 2001 889,000 28.8% Source:Census of India
The great majority of Mizoram's population is several ethnic tribes who are either culturally or linguistically linked. These ethnic groups are collectively known as Mizos (Mi= People, Zo= Hill). One should note that 'Mizo' is a generic term which denotes a particular group of hillmen who are closely linked culturally and linguistically. Moreover these group of people of hillmen share close physical similarities. There is an increasing unity among Mizo tribes who are spread throughout the northeastern states of India, Burma and Bangladesh. The Mizos are divided into numerous tribes, however, to name a particular tribe as the largest would be an unreliable task as no concrete census has ever been undertaken till date. In order to better understand the Mizos, a substantial knowledge and understanding of the various Mizo Tribes (Tribes who fall under the term Mizo) is a requirement. The Mizos include Hmar, Lushei, Paite, Lai, Mara etc. and a few among others. These tribes are divided into numerous clans within themselves, and these clans are further sub-divided into sub-clans, for example the Hmars are divided into Thiek, Lungtau, Darngawn, Khawbung, Zote etc. These clans sometimes have slight liguistics differences. The Bru(Riang), a sub-tribe of Tripuri and the Chakma of Arakanese origin, are a non-Mizo tribe living in Mizoram. The Mizo people usually suffix their descriptive given names with their tribe.
Mizo traditional tunes are very soft and gentle, with locals claiming that they can be sung the whole night without the slightest fatigue. The guitar is a popular instrument and Mizos enjoy country style music. Within the church services are drums, commonly used and known locally as "khuang". The "Khuang" is made from wood and animal hide and are often beaten enough to instigate a trance like state with worshipers as they dance in a circular fashion. Mizos enjoy singing and even without musical instruments, they enthusiastically sing together, clapping hands or by using other rhythmic methods. Informal instruments are called chhepchher. The early Mizos were close to nature and music is still an essential part of the cultural life. Whilst gospel music remains an integral part of Mizo culture, Western influence is evident from the contemporary music scene as young people experiment with rock, metal, rap, pop and hip-hop. A new style of music was founded by Vanlalhminglema called the Zozic as dubbed by the locals of Mizoram it combines most of the western modern music with a blend of major Mizo traditional styles. The Zozic is traditionally played using modern day electrical instruments like the guitar, etc.
Young Mizos are leaving traditional customs and adopting new ways of life which are greatly influenced by Western culture. Christmas is probably the biggest festival and local communities contribute towards large feasts, typically organised by nearby churches, where many hundreds in a local community would eat together. Traditional Mizo social gatherings revolve around the agricultural calendar.
The Mim Kut festival is usually celebrated during the months of August and September, after the harvest of maize. Mim Kut is celebrated with great fanfare by (illegally) drinking rice-beer, singing, dancing, and feasting. Samples of the year's harvests are consecrated to the departed souls of the community.
Chapchar Kut is another festival celebrated during March after completion of their most arduous task of Jhum operation i.e., jungle-clearing (clearing of the remnants of burning). This is a spring festival celebrated with great fervour and gaiety.
Pawl means “Straw” hence pawl kut means a straw harvest festival. It is typically celebrated in December and is another important festival.
The most colourful and distinctive dance of the Mizo is called Cheraw. Long bamboo staves are a feature of this dance and it is known to many as the Bamboo Dance. Originally, the dance was performed to wish a safe passage and victorious entry into the abode of the dead (Pialral) for the soul of a mother who had died in childbirth. To dance Cheraw takes great skill and alertness. On 12 March 2010 Mizoram also sets Guinness World Records with a 10-minute performance of its famous Cheraw "Bamboo Dance", featuring 10,736 participants in 671 groups.
Khuallam was originally a dance performed by honoured guests while entering into the village arena where a community feast was held. To attain a position of distinction, a Mizo traditionally underwent a series of ceremonies and performed the dance before the guests. Khuallam is a group dance performed in colourful dress to the tune of gongs and drums.
Chheih Lam is the dance done over a round of rice-beer in the cool of the evening. The lyrics in triplets are usually spontaneous compositions, recounting their heroic deeds and escapades and also praising the honoured guests present in their midst.
The fabric of social life in the Mizo society has undergone tremendous change over the last few years. Previously the village and the clan formed units of Mizo society. The Mizo code of ethics or dharma focused on "Tlawmngaihna", an untranslatable term meaning that it was the obligation of all members of society to be hospitable, kind, unselfish, and helpful to others. Tlawmngaihna to a Mizo stands for that compelling moral force which finds expression in self-sacrifice for the service of others. The old belief, Pathian, is still used to mean God. Mizos often gather together to help in disaster management like landslides or famine.
Mizos are a close-knit society with no class distinction and no sexual discrimination. 90% of them are cultivators and the village functions as a large family. Birth, marriage, and death in the village are important occasions and the whole village would typically become involved. In time of death, the whole local community, as well as all family members of the deceased, mourn together, in the residence of the deceased. This particular process of mourning together lasts anywhere from a few weeks to over 3 months.
There are a few community establishments in urban centres that frequently arrange various social events, musical concerts, comedy shows, reality TV shows, discussion groups, and scientific or technological conferences. However, generally speaking the region is lacking in Western-style social meeting establishments. Much of the social life often revolves around church. An active church life is perhaps one of the reasons why Mizos are such a tight-knit community.
Media and communication
Mizoram’s media is growing quickly. Internet access is average, and private television cable channels are popular. Doordarshan, the national television service of India provides terrestrial broadcasting services and All India Radio broadcasts programs related to the indigenous culture and local news. Broadband access is available.
Mizo is the official language but English, being important for education, administration, formalities and governance is widely used. The Mizo community is an amalgam of several indigenous tribes who have unique identities and distinctive dialects. The Duhlian dialect, also known as the Lusei was the first language of Mizoram and has come to be known as the Mizo language. The language is mixed with other dialects like the Mara, Lai and Hmar. Christian missionaries developed the Mizo script. Writing is a combination of the Roman script and Hunterian transliteration methodology with prominent traces of a phonetics based spelling system. There are 25 alphabets: A, AW, B, CH, D, E, F, G, NG, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, Ţ, U, V, Z. Mizo is an official language of the Republic of India. 8th schedule of the Indian constitution. Nepali is also spoken in almost all parts of the state.
The majority (87%) of Mizos are Christian. in various denominations, predominantly Presbyterian and the church forms an important part of Mizo culture. Hindus form a small minority (3.6%) and there are also around 8.3% Buddhists according to the 2001 census, mostly made up from Chakma settlers of Arakan origin. Muslims make up about 1.1%.
The major Christian denomination is the Presbyterian Church. The church Mizoram Presbyterian Church was established by a Welsh Missionary named Rev. D.E. Jones and is one of the constituted bodies of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of India, which has its headquarters at Shillong in Meghalaya (India). The administration of the Presbyterian Church is highly centralised. The Synod, with its headquarters at Aizawl, is the highest decision making body of the church with considerable influence. The financial operation, personnel (including selection of missionaries), administration, management and operation of the church are directly or indirectly controlled by the Synod Headquarters. Other Christian churches include the Baptist Church of Mizoram, United Pentecostal Church, the Salvation Army, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, Kohhran Thianghlim, Roman Catholic, Lairam Jesus Christ Baptist Church(LIKBK), and the Evangelical Church of Maraland, Independent Church of India (ICI) and Evangelical Free Church of India (EFCI).There also exist a church in the capital, located in mission veng,named ENGLISH CONGREGATION CHURCH which is conducted in ENGLISH and where people belonging to different parts of India as well as the world come to praise the lord. It was established in 1978 and is still considered as one of the reputed churches of mizoram. There are also a few number of Mizos who practice Judaism.
All indigenous Mizos are scheduled as tribal. Chakma'Tongchangy or Tanchangya and Tuikuk (Riang/Brus) form a minority.
Until 1894, when the missionaries introduced elementary education, Mizos were illiterate without any written language. The first primary school was set up in 1898 at Aizawl. In 1901 it was thought that literacy was only 0.9% but by 2005 census had reached 89%. Today Mizoram is second only to Kerala for literacy in India at 95%. There are several educational establishments under the umbrella of the Ministry of Education, including universities, colleges and other institutions. Within Mizoram University, there are 29 undergraduate colleges including 2 professional institutions affiliated with the university. The total enrolment in these institutions is approximately 5200 students. The National Institute of Technology for Mizoram is currently operating under NIT Nagpur and is expected to function in Mizoram soon. Indian Institute of Mass Communication has also plans to start a campus. ICFAI Mizoram University also offers Business studies in Aizawl. Plans are underway to start a Medical College by the Mizoram Government.
Originally land tenure was invested with the head of the tribe or chief assisted by a council that ruled locally. After annexation by the British in the 1890s, Mizoram was administered as the Lushai Hills district of Assam. The colonial power introduced inner line regulation, restricting access to any outsiders. It was renamed as the district of Mizo Hills within Assam State in 1954 and in the same year the Young Mizo association was formed which is still an important institution in Mizoram. In order to protect ethno cultural identity, and with various political differences, friction developed with mainland India and insurgency started with an armed revolt in 1966. The region was subsequently declared Mizoram after the insurgency, receiving status as a Union territory in 1972. It became a State of India in 1986, formalised the following year.
After the 1986 signing of the Historic Memorandum of Settlement between the Government of India and the Mizo National Front, Mizoram was granted Statehood on 20 February 1987 (as per the Statehood Act of 1986). Mizoram became the 23rd State of the Indian Union.
As in other Indian states, the ceremonial head of the state government is a governor appointed by the Union Government. The appointment is largely ceremonial. The Chief Minister, who holds executive power in the state, is the elected head. The governor appoints the cabinet ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister. Mizoram has a unicameral legislature like most other Indian states. The Lais, Maras and Chakmas have separate autonomous District Councils. The present Chief Minister of Mizoram is Pu Lalthanhawla
The Mizoram State Legislative Assembly has 40 seats and the Village Councils are the grassroots of democracy and leadership in Mizoram.
There are three Autonomous District Councils (ADC) for ethnic tribes in Mizoram, namely Chakma Autonomous District Council (CADC) for ethnic Chakmas in South-western Mizoram bordering Bangladesh, Mara Autonomous District Council (MADC) for Mara people in the Southern-most corner and Lai Autonomous District Council (LADC) for Lai people in South-eastern part of the state.
Mizoram lags behind economically within India with little development due to the geographical lack of markets and raw materials. Cottage industry and other small-scale industries play an important role in the economy. Forest products are being encouraged (see bamboo below) and the 9th Five Year Plan (1997–2002) gives priority to "agro-based industries." Around 70% of the population is engaged in agriculture.
The Industry Department actively promotes the following:
- Zoram Industrial Development Corporation. (ZIDCO)
- Mizoram Khadi and Village Industry Board. (MKVIB)
- Zoram Handloom and Handicraft Corporation Limited. (ZOHANCO)
- Mizoram Food and Allied Industries Corporation Limited. (MIFCO)
- Zoram Electronics Development Corporation. (ZENICS)
Year Gross State Domestic Product 1980 680 1985 1,810 1990 3,410 1995 9,370 2000 17,690
Mizoram's gross domestic state product for 2004 is estimated at $685 million in current prices.
There are at least 20 identifiable species of bamboo indigenous to mizoram. Some 30% of the state is covered with wild bamboo forests, many of which are largely unexploited. Mizoram harvests 40% of India's 80 million-ton annual bamboo crop. The current state administration wishes to increase revenue streams from bamboo and aside from uses as a substitute for timber, there is research underway to utilise bamboo more widely such as using bamboo chippings for paper mills, bamboo charcoal for fuel, fertiliser and the manufacture of pressed wall panels.
Bamboo flowering, rats and famine
Mizoram has always suffered from famine known locally as 'mautam' or 'thingtam' every few decades. The problem is caused by the synchronous flowering of bamboo species which naturally flower and then die at regular intervals. When bamboo has flowered it produces many seeds and fruit causing rodent feeding frenzies. The mautam always leads to dramatic increases in local rat populations as well as producing swarms of insects, which then spread to the human food storage areas after the natural harvest is expired – destroying stocks and food crops. Historically it led to death by starvation (102 in 1859) and even today presents much hardship to many rural communities whose very survival depends on a successful harvest.
The famines are called after the name of the bamboo that flowers. Meloccana baccifera is called "Mautak" in mizo and the famine that is caused by its flowering is named "Mautam". When Bambusa Tulda flowers, called "Rawthing" in mizo, the consequent famine is known as "Thingtam". The first Thingtam famine in 1739 was followed by a Mautam in 1769. A Mautam famine occurs 30 years after a Thingtam famine and the latter occurs 18 years after a Mautam. This gives a cycle of around 48 years. There was a Mautam famine in 2006– 2007 and so a Thingtam is expected in 2025. The next more severe Mautam famine is expected in 2055.
It was in October 2005 that the initial heavy flowering of the bamboo was first noticed at Chawngtlai bamboo forest in the southern district of Champhai. It then spread rapidly in 2006 – 2007 throughout the state. After the Mautam, desperate to control the rising rat population, the state government announced a reward of one rupee for every rat-tail taken. During 2006 alone more than 221,636 rats were killed.
The famines have played their part in Mizoram's history. The famine in 1958 led to the formation of the Mizo National Famine Front which lobbied for and set up relief to villagers by mobilising the youth to distribute rice and provisions. The MNFF later changed its name to the MNF and operated as a political unit to fight for the rights of Mizo people. Under the then Chief Minister Laldenga together with his supporters including the ex Chief Minister Zoramthanga, the group fought a bitter separatist struggle for twenty years against the Indian Army for self rule.
The agro-climatic conditions of Mizoram having both temperate and semi tropical climates with tropic and temperate zones,is conducive to a wide variety of crops. Mizoram has well-distributed rainfall of 1900 mm to 3000 mm (75 to 118 inches) spread over eight to ten months in the year and agriculture is the mainstay of the Mizos. More than 70% of the total population is engaged in some form of agriculture. The age-old practice of Jhum cultivation is conducted by most people living in rural areas. Recently, Godrej Agrovet Limited has entered into a new venture wherein Oil Palm and Jatropha cultivation, for biofuels is being promoted. A low calorie sugar substitute, Stevia rebaudiana, known as 'sweetleaf', has also recently been grown to improve economical agricultural diversity.
Attempts to add value in food processing are ongoing and MIFCO have canned local bamboo shoots and also the tasty edible spadix of Alocasia fornicata, known as Baibing . The total production of fruits, vegetables, and spices increase yearly but attempts to wean local farmers away from shifting cultivation known locally as Jhum cultivation have been met with mixed success.
Mizo women use hand loom to make clothing and cloth handicrafts.The local products are even fused with other materials to give them a fashionable and stylish designs. Mizos are fond of colourful hand woven wrap-around skirt called puan chei, and a matching beautiful top called Kawr chei. A multi colour Mizo traditional bag called Khiang kawi, which is creatively knitted out of bright coloured wools, is a welcome possession. A typical Mizo blanket known as Pawnpui is also used.
Basket weaving is also common. Baskets known as Em, are used and Thlangra – a plate for cleaning rice etc. are made from bamboos. In fact,a typical Mizo house is crafted out of bamboos, dry grasses, mud and wood. A traditional Mizo village has been reconstructed at Reiek – a few kilometres away from Aizawl. Though modern houses made with bricks, concrete and tin sheets are now the norm.
Mizoram is considered by many as a beautiful place due to its dramatic landscape and pleasant climate. There have been many attempts to increase revenue through tourism but many potential tourists find the lack of amenities to be a hurdle. However the State continues to promote itself and many projects have been initiated. The tourism ministry continues to maintain or upgrade its tourist lodges throughout the state. Foreign tourists are required to obtain an 'inner line permit' under the special permit before visiting. The permit can be obtained from Indian missions abroad for a limited number of days or direct from Mizoram Government authorities within India. The state is rich in bird diversity, which has the potentiality to make it a major birding destination. For Mrs Hume's Pheasant Syrmaticus humiae, Mizoram is a stronghold. There is also a rare record of the Wild Water Buffalo from the state. There are several past records of the Sumatran rhinoceros from Mizoram, then Lushai Hills.The small population of Wild elaphants can be seen in Ngengpui and Dampa Sanctuaries.
Mizoram Hospitals are well equipped and most medicines are available off the shelf without prescription. The rural communities use local herbal medicines gathered from the wild and obtain from Mini Hospital, like Sub-Centre, Public Health Centre, etc. In line with the growing use of all herbal medicines gathered internationally, many local species are now becoming rare. Attempts to sustainably promote and harvest local medicines have met with limited success.
Mizoram is not self sufficient in power. Despite having a rich potential in hydropower, it is yet to be developed. Some communities use solar power – at least for light. There are 22 diesel power stations for power backup (26.14 MW)and 9 mini/micro hydel (hydroelectric) plants producing 8.25 MW. As per the 16th Electric Power Survey of India under CEA, Government of India, the restricted peak load demand of the state during the 2002–2003 year is 102 MW.
Mizoram has a road network of around 4,000 km (2,500 mi) or minor or village roads and a small number of national highways. The village roads are primarily single lane or unmetalled tracks that are typically lightly trafficked. The State is connected to the Indian network through National Highway 54. Another highway, NH-150 connects the state with Seling Mizoram to Imphal Manipur and NH-40A links the State with Tripura.A road between Champhai and Tiddim in Burma has been proposed but the Burmese authorities are unwilling to complete the link.
Mizoram has an airport, Lengpui Airport, near Aizawl and this is linked from Kolkata – a 40 minute flight. Inclement weather conditions mean that at certain times the flights are unreliable. Mizoram can also be reached from Kolkata via Silchar Airport, which is about 200 km. (124 miles, around 6 hours) from Aizawl. Plans of making a railroad connecting Delhi and Mizoram has been made and preparations has taken place for constructing rail stations in Sairang as of 2011.
There is a rail link at Bairabi rail station but it is primarily for goods traffic. The nearest practical station to Mizoram is at Silchar in Assam – some 6 hours drive from Aizawl. Bairabi is about 110 km (68 mi), and Silchar is about 180 km. (112 miles) from the state capital. Plans are underway to link Bairabi with Aizawl.
Mizoram is in the process of developing water ways with the port of Akyab Sittwe in Burma along Chhimtuipui River. India is investing $103 million to develop the Sittwe port on Burma's northern coast, about 160 km (99 mi) from Mizoram. Military government of Burma has committed $10 million for the venture, which is part of the Kaladan Multipurpose project, though the connection is arguably of limited use.
In 1996 the Synod totally banned liquor under the Mizoram Liquor Total Prohibition (MLTP) Act. The church leaders or Mizoram Kohhran Hruaitute Committee continue to insists that state government keeps the state free of alcohol. Critics are of the opinion that the Liquor Ban Act, imposed in the Christian-dominated state from 1996, has totally failed and has only proliferated bootlegging of poor quality liquor, resulting in fatalities and increased prices of smuggled liquor. "If a law fails, it is either to be lifted or amended. We have experimented with the Liquor Ban Act for more than ten years, and witnessed that it has failed to stop what it is meant to stop. It only made Mizoram the wettest dry state. One can find plenty of liquor, only the prices are extraordinarily high," said former Mizoram chief secretary M. Lalmanzuala.
The retired IAS officer further blamed the wrong teaching of the European missionaries for the Church's negative attitude towards liquor which he claimed had never been a problem, but part of religious rituals before the Missionary era. The missionaries instruction, he said in his research paper, was compounded by the war-like confrontation between the well-to-dos and the poor in the pre-Christian Mizo society.
"Only the well-to-dos afforded Zu or rice beer which was brewed from surplus rice. The poor people who did not afford the Zu were the first to adopt Christianity and these people started hating the Zu which was a status symbol of the well-to-do people," he said in his research paper Mizo Culture and Liquor.
Some have argued that the complete ban on alcohol has led young people to search for other stimulants resulting in a growing drug abuse problem in the state. Although locally made alcohol is available and often in poor quality and taste, prohibition has checked the movement of liquor.
Early missionaries had directly attacked liquor and converts felt that liquor consumption ravaged the community, occupying an unwelcome position in Mizo society. Many Mizos, especially the church elders, support the idea of prohibition though there is increasing discontent.
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- ^ シャークスチームポータブル みんなの口コミ
- ^ National Accounts Division : Press Release and statements, M/O Statistics & PI
- ^ Godrej Agrovet Limited (GAVL) – Top Diversified Agribusiness Company
- ^ Choudhury, A.U. (2008) A pocket guide to the birds of Mizoram. Gibbon Books & The Rhino Foundation for Nature in North East India, Guwahati, India. 122pp. [Supported by Oriental Bird Club, UK]
- ^ Choudhury, A.U. (2002). Survey of Mrs Hume's pheasant in North East India. Technical Report No. 5. The Rhino Foundation for Nature in NE India, Guwahati, India. 30pp. [Final report to the Oriental Bird Club, UK]
- ^ Choudhury, A.U. (2010). The vanishing herds : wild water buffalo. Gibbon Books & The Rhino Foundation for Nature in NE India, Guwahati, India. 184pp. [Supported by CEPF & Taiwan Forestry Bureau]
- ^ Choudhury, A.U. (1997) The status of the Sumatran rhinoceros in north-eastern India. Oryx 31(2):151–152
- ^ Choudhury, A.U. (2001) The wild elephant Elephas maximus in Mizoram. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 98(3): 439–441
- ^ Govt to spend $100 million on linking Mizoram to Burma
- ^ Mizoram Church no to liquor ban Act amendment
- "The Lost Tribes of Israel", Tudor Parfitt, Phoenix, 2002. ISBN 1-84212-665-2
- Official website
- Mizoram Government Portal
- Directorate of Information & Public Relations, Govt. of Mizoram
- Tourism of Mizoram
- Mizoram travel guide from Wikitravel
Assam Manipur Tripura Chin State, Myanmar Mizoram Chittagong Division, Bangladesh States and territories of India States Union Territories
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Look at other dictionaries:
Mizoram — Status: Bundesstaat Hauptstadt: Aizawl Fläche: 21.087 km² Einwohner: 1.091.014 (2011) Bevölkerungsdichte … Deutsch Wikipedia
Mizoram — es un estado situado en el nordeste de la India. Ocupa un área de 21.081 Km² y su población según el censo del año 2000 era de 891.058 habitantes. El nivel de alfabetización en este estado alcanza el 89%, el segundo más alto después del de Kerala … Enciclopedia Universal
Mizoram — [mɪ zɔːræm], Bundesstaat in Nordostindien, an der Grenze zu Birma und zu Bangladesh, 21 081 km2, (2001)) 890 000 Einwohner (1971: 332 400 Einwohner); Hauptstadt ist Aizawl (155 200 Einwohner). Die Bevölkerung besteht aus Stämmen der Mizo.… … Universal-Lexikon
Mizoram — état du N. E. de l Inde, à la frontière du Bangladesh et de la Birmanie; 21 087 km²; 686 200 hab. (94 % de chrétiens); cap. Aizawl. Ce vingt troisième état de l Union indienne fut créé en 1987 … Encyclopédie Universelle
Mizoram — State (pop., 2001 prelim.: 891,058), northeastern India. Occupying an area of 8,139 sq mi (21,081 sq km), it is bounded by Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh and the states of Tripura, Assam, and Manipur. It is largely mountainous; its capital is… … Universalium
Mizoram — 23° 22′ N 92° 00′ E / 23.36, 92 … Wikipédia en Français
Mizoram — Admin ASC 1 Code Orig. name Mizoram Country and Admin Code IN.31 IN … World countries Adminstrative division ASC I-II
Mizoram — geographical name state NE India area 8142 square miles (21,169 square kilometers), population 689,756 … New Collegiate Dictionary
Mizoram — noun State in north eastern India which has Aizawl as its capital … Wiktionary
Mizoram — n. state located in northeastern India between Bangladesh and Burma … English contemporary dictionary