Ludhiana


Ludhiana
Ludhiana
—  city  —
Ludhiana, Punjab
Ludhiana
Location of Ludhiana
in Punjab and India
Coordinates 30°55′N 75°51′E / 30.91°N 75.85°E / 30.91; 75.85Coordinates: 30°55′N 75°51′E / 30.91°N 75.85°E / 30.91; 75.85
Country India
State Punjab
District(s) Ludhiana
Population

Density

1,740,249 (2010)

5,614 /km2 (14,540 /sq mi)

Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area

Elevation

310 square kilometres (120 sq mi)

262 metres (860 ft)

Ludhiana (also Ludhyana) (Punjabi: ਲੁਧਿਆਣਾ) is a city and a municipal corporation in Ludhiana district in the Indian state of Punjab. It is the largest city in the state, with an estimated population of 1,740,247 in 2010. The population increases substantially during the crop harvesting season due to immigration of laborers from states like Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and Delhi. It has an area of about 310 km². The city stands on the Sutlej River's old bank, 13 km south of its present course. It is a major industrial center of northern India. In September 2011, The World Health Organization declared Ludhiana the fourth most air-polluted city in the world.[1]

Ludhiana is located 100 km west from state capital Chandigarh on NH 95 and is centrally located on National Highway 1 from Indian capital New Delhi to Amritsar, and is well connected to New Delhi by road, frequent train service and by air.

Ludhiana is a well known NRI district of Punjab with a large population living abroad in Canada, and the U.S.

Contents

History

This translation from Urdu of a passage of Gulām Sarvar Lāhaurī's (alias Bute Shah) Tarīḵẖ-i maḵẖzan-i Panjāb (History of the Punjab), written in the mid-19th century, is given in the Gazetteer for the Ludhiana District 1888-89: It was originally known as Lodi-Ana (The Lodi's Place) during the Lodi Dynasty under which the city was created. "In the reign of Sikandar, son of Bahlol Lodi, the people about Ludhiana were oppressed by the plundering Baluchis, and applied to the Emperor for assistance. Sikandar, in answer to their prayer, sent two of his Lodi chiefs, by name Yusaf Khan and Nihang Khan, with an army. These chiefs fixed on the present site of the Ludhiana city, which was then a village called Mir Hota. Nihang Khan remained at Mir Hota as the Emperor's Lieutenant; and called the place Ludhiana. He was succeeded by his son a grandson. The latter, Jalal Khan, built the fort of Ludhiana out of the bricks found at Sunet. He saved the town from invaders and treated all its citizen equally. His two sons partitioned the country round about Ludhiana, which was then lying in waste, amongst the people of the town, and distributed them in villages. In the time of Jalal Khan's grandsons, Alu Khan and Khizr Khan, the Lodi dynasty was overthrown by Babar; and the Lodis of Ludhiana sunk to the position of ordinary subjects of the Mughal empire. They are said to have lived close to the fort for many generations, but all traces of them have now disappeared, and even the tombs of Nihang and his immediate descendants have been lost sight of, although they are said to have been standing some years ago."

The Lodi dynasty lost control of the throne of Delhi in 1526. The Mughals established a strong government at Sirhind, which itself was a sarkar (division) of the Delhi subah (province), and attached Ludhiana as a mahal or parganah.

The century and a half following the death of Akbar (a Mughal emperor) in 1705 was dominated by the rise of Sikhism as a power, and the decline of the Mughal empire. By this time the Mughal empire was tottering to its fall, and various local powers began to assert their independence. The Rais of Raikot who until then had held a considerable tract of land around Ludhiana in lease from the emperors were some of the first to assert their independence. Raja Ala Singh of Patiala, the representative of the crumbling Delhi Sultanate and Rai Kalha II were the principal actors contenders for power in the region. "Rai Kalha III,who appears to have been a ruler of very great ability, extended his power up to Ludhiana. He established independent power over the whole of the Jagraon(the place of the Rais)and the greater part of Ludhiana Tahsils, and a large portion of the Ferozepur District."Khan Bahadur Rai Inayat Khan of Raikot(the custodian of Guru Gobind Singh ji's Ganga Sagar) was the Chief of Rai family at the time of partition of India 1947. Hatur, Chakar, Talwandi Rai in 1478 AD,Halwara and Raikot in 1648 AD and Jagraon in 1680 AD were founded by the Manj Rai family of Raikot and their ancestors-Ref:Ludhiana Dist Gazetteer 1888-89,1904,1935. Chiefs of Punjab 1890,1909,1940., Mahan Kosh p. 311 by Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha, Encyclopaedia of Sikhism by Prof Harbans Singh-Vol 2, p 416, The Sikh Ref Book by Dr Harjinder Singh Dilgeer p 464, 196

In 1741, Ala Singh defeated Rai Kalha III and chased him out of the country, but he soon recovered the territory.

Thinking to take advantage of this power struggle, Nadir Shah invaded, and crossed the Sutlej at Ludhiana, which was then on its banks, and marched through the district along what is now the Grand Trunk Road. Nadir Shah is said to have ordered a general massacre of the inhabitants of Ludhiana on the account of some petty fault, but it seems doubtful that he did.

His successor, Ahmed Shah Durrani, invaded in 1747. On reaching the Sutlej at Ludhiana, he found his passage opposed by the son of the emperor, Kamardin, with a huge army that had advanced from Sirhind. Durrani avoided the conflict but ended up in direct confrontation with him very near Khanna. While Ahmad Shah Bahadur was defeated, the losses were very heavy on both sides. The subsequent invasions of Ahmad Shah were not resisted by the Mughal troops from Sirhind, but they were constantly harassed by the Phulkian chiefs and the Rais. It was some time about 1760 that the Rais were permitted by Ahmed Shah to take possession of the town of Ludhiana and to extend their power over the country about.

Although Zain Khan was appointed by Ahmad Shah as Governor of Sirhind in 1761, he was defeated and slain in 1763 by huger armies of Sikhs. They took possession of Sirhind, which they leveled with the ground.

The fall of Sirhind marked the last vestige of Mughal control over the area, and Ludhiana was left in possession of the Rais. The Malaudh Sirdars belonging to the Phulkian stock had already established themselves in the south of Ludhiana in the Jangal villages and the country about Malaudh;[2] and Sudha Singh Gill, an adventurer from Loharu in the Ferozepur district, secured a few villages around Sahnewal. In 1767 Ahmed Shah reached Ludhiana on his last expedition but got no further.

Around 1785, the Sutlej changed in course so that Ludhiana was no longer situated on its banks.

The condition of the country during the latter part of the 18th century was one of considerable prosperity. The rule of the Rais is still spoken of as being very mild; and it is said that they fixed only one-fourth of the produce as their due.

In 1798, Ludhiana was attacked by the Sikhs under Bedi Sahib Singh of Una. At the time, the ruler of the Rais, Rai Alias was a child. His agents Roshan and Gujar made a good stand against the Sikhs at Jodh, ten miles (16 km) southwest of Ludhiana. Roshan was the killed in the fight, and Rai's army was dispersed. However, the Phulkian chiefs, who were on good terms with the Rais, had no intention of allowing the Bedi to establish himself in their midst and came to their aid, driving the invaders out of the villages. Upon the Bedi's siege of Ludhiana, the Rais called in British mercenary George Thomas to help with the defense of the city. On Thomas's approach, Bedi retreated to the other side of the river.

Having recently consolidated the new Sikh Empire, Maharaja Ranjit Singh crossed the Sutlej in 1806 in his first expedition against the Cis-Sutlej states and stripped the Rais of all their possessions, including Ludhiana. The city was occupied but not immediately annexed to the Lahore state.

By 1809 Ranjit Singh was completing his third expedition and was again on the west bank of the Sutlej ready to attack Ludhiana. Fearing further expansion that was coming closer to their sphere of interest, the East India Company occupied the Cis-Sutlej states east of the Sutlej. The Company sent Colonel David Ochterlony with a force to occupy Ludhiana.

By the end of 1809, The Treaty with the Rajah of Lahore was signed in which the Rajah agreed to remain north and west of the Sutlej. British troops were permanently stationed in Ludhiana, and they established a cantonment to further consolidate their occupation. Compensation was paid by the British to the Raja of Jind.

In 1835, the Jind family, who technically still ruled Ludhiana, were left without any heirs. By the British doctrine of lapse, Ludhiana came under official control of the East India Company.

Following the First Afghan War, Ludhiana became the residence of the exiled family of Shah Shuja.

The British cantonment was abandoned in 1854. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857 Deputy-Commissioner Ricketts crushed a rebellion in Ludhiana with the assistance of the chiefs of Nabha and Maler Kotla.

Sukhdev Thapar, who was hanged alongwith Bhagat Singh and Rajguru, was born in Ludhiana.

Geography

Ludhiana is located at 30°54′N 75°51′E / 30.9°N 75.85°E / 30.9; 75.85.[3] It has an average elevation of 244 metres (798 ft). Ludhiana City, to its residents, consists of the Old City and the New City (or the residential and official quarters of the Colonial British encampment, traditionally known as Civil Lines; this is as opposed to the Army Lines, which are no longer extant as the British Cantonment was abandoned in 1845).

The land dips steeply to the North and the West, where prior to 1785 the river Sutlej used to run: this whole area is now mostly unplanned residential communities, with many polluting industries set up in houses due to lack of enforcement of zoning laws.

The Old Fort was situated at the banks of the Sutlej (and now houses The College of Textile Engineering) and legend has it that an underground tunnel connects it to the Fort in Phillaur - although why this should be is debatable, as the Sutlej was the traditional dividing line between the two principalities, often occupied by enemy forces (see History section)

The ground is of yellow sandstone and granite, forming small hillocks, plateaus and dips.

The tree of largest natural extraction was the kikar, or Acacia indica but has been supplanted by the Eucalyptus, transplanted from rural Australia in the late 1960s by the government of Chief Minister Pratap Singh Kairon.

Gulmohars and Jacarandas were planted by the British along the avenues of Civil Lines, as were other flowering trees, while the Old City contains almost no vegetation or parks, except for a few isolated pipal trees, holy to the Hindus, as it is supposed to be the abode of Lord Shiva.

Climate

Ludhiana features a semiarid climate under the Koppen climate classification, with three defined seasons; summer, monsoon and winter. Summers, which range from April through June in the city, tends to be very hot and very dry with average highs in May and June hovering around 40 degrees Celsius. The monsoon season which runs from July through September, sees a slight decrease in average temperatures but an increase in humidity. The bulk of the city’s annual precipitation is received during the monsoon season. October and November interestingly enough is dry; more similar to a summer month than a monsoon month, though November is noticeably cooler than a summer month. Average temperatures though tend to decrease during the course of each of these months. December through February, which forms the winter months, is relatively mild with warm days and chilly nights. March is more of a sharp transitional month from winter to summer. Ludhiana on average sees roughly 730 mm of precipitation annually.

Climate data for Ludhiana
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19
(66)
21
(69)
26
(78)
34
(94)
38
(101)
39
(103)
34
(94)
33
(91)
33
(92)
32
(89)
26
(79)
21
(69)
29.7
(85.4)
Average low °C (°F) 7
(44)
8
(47)
13
(55)
18
(65)
23
(73)
26
(79)
26
(79)
24
(76)
23
(74)
17
(63)
11
(52)
7
(45)
17.0
(62.7)
Precipitation mm (inches) 20.3
(0.80)
38.1
(1.50)
30.5
(1.20)
20.3
(0.80)
20.3
(0.80)
61
(2.40)
228.6
(9.00)
188
(7.40)
86.4
(3.40)
5.1
(0.20)
12.7
(0.50)
20.3
(0.80)
731.5
(28.8)
Source: [4]

Demographics

As of 2001 India census,[5] Ludhiana City had a population of 1,395,053. Males constitute 57% of the population and females 43%. Ludhiana has an average literacy rate of 70%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 72%, and female literacy is 68%. In Ludhiana, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. Punjabi is the official language of the city of Ludhiana. Due to warm and enterprising nature of Punjabis, people from different cultures are settling here, enriching the city with new languages such as Hindi, English, Rajasthani, Himachali etc.

Culture

Ludhiana is the hub of Punjab's culture, or at least for the commercialized patina of one. There are a lot of Punjabi Songs where Ludhiana is mentioned, which is a dubious distinction in itself. A large number of singers come from Ludhiana with its large Punjabi Music recording base - although this has happened in only the last 10 years or so. It is Punjab's main center, after Chandigarh, Amritsar & Jalandhar, for performance arts and fine arts including Painting and Photography. [Nehru Shidhant Kendra] is a major center for cultural events in North India. Ludhiana is a major centre of literary activities, specially those centered around Punjabi Language. It has many Punjabi Language Publishing houses - although the quality of both the books and their contents is sub-par at best. Across India also, Ludhiana is seen as a hub of Punjab's celebrated culture. People in India associate Ludhiana with a gluttonous & materialistic culture, where money & political power count the most.

Ludhiana is also a major hub for pan-state religious activities for Sikhs, Hindus, Muslims, Christians and Jains. Ludhiana is comparatively religiously diverse city. It is also very cosmopolitan with a lot of people from different parts of the country including Kerala, Bihar, UP, Uttranchal, West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Haryana, Rajasthan settled here.

Major social activists like Yoga Gurus, Spiritual Gurus, Missionaries, Reformers, God Men & other charlatans also use Ludhaina as their base for launching new programs aimed at North India.

Commerce

Feroze Gandhi Market,Ludhiana

The World Bank ranked Ludhiana as the city in India with the best business environment in 2009.[6]

Until 2008 Ludhiana was ranked No.1 in India in terms of Per capita income. Ludhiana is considered a very rich city in India. And most people in Ludhiana take pride in this fact.

The riches are brought mostly by small scale industrial units,[7] which produce Industrial goods, Machine parts, Auto Parts, house hold appliances, hosiery and garments. Ludhiana is Asia's largest hub for Bicycle manufacturing and produces more than 50% of India's bicycle consumption of more than 10 million per annum. Ludhiana also produces 60% of India's Tractor parts. A large portion of Auto and two-wheeler parts. Many parts used in German cars like BMW and Mercedes are exclusively produced in Ludhiana to satisfy the whole world requirement. It is one of the largest manufacturer of Sewing Machines. Hand tools and precision industrial equipment is another speciality. In the Hosiery industry Ludhiana is famous all over India for its Woollen sweaters and cotton t-shirts. In fact most of the top Indian woollen brands like Monte Carlo are based in Ludhiana.

Besides Industry, Ludhiana is a major Agri-Products producer. It is a big centre for Dairy product packaging. Ludhiana is also a major Trading hub for a lot of commodities for the entire North India. It is also a major consumer shopping centre with a lot of consumers coming from various parts of Punjab to do their big ticket shopping.

The first major setback to the industry and business here has been the insurgency in Punjab that lasted from 1984 to 1992. A lot of industries moved out of Ludhiana and set up base in the township of Faridabad, Harayana, in close contiguity with the greater New Delhi area. Another major impact has been the preferential taxation policies in neighbouring hill states which has provided the businesses in those states a huge competitive advantage. A lot of Ludhiana based industries are moving into those areas to take advantage of the zero tax policies. Another major challenges in recent years has been the chronic labour shortages.

At the time of India's independence, Ludhiana was a sleepy town and not among the main cities of Punjab. Ludhiana is also home to the Ludhiana Stock Exchange Association.

Education

Ludhiana is home to the largest agricultural university in Asia, Punjab Agricultural University.[8] The College of Veterinary Sciences at PAU had been recently upgraded to the Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University (GADVASU).

Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Bhutta College of Engineering And Technology and Ludhiana College of Engineering & Technology are three main colleges offering quality education in engineering. Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College is a very old and renowned institution offering best available facilities and education for engineering students. There are other institutes catering to local and surrounding areas such as Institute of Banking Services (IBS).

http://pcte.edu.in PCTE Group of Institutes Baddowal, SDP College for Women, Khalsa College,http://www.ggnimtldh.org/ Gujranwala Guru Nanak Institute Of Management & Technologies] (Co Educational), B.C.M College Of Education, Arya College for Boys, Kamla Lohtia College, Sri Aurobindo College of Commerce and Management and SCD Government Colleges for Boys and Girls are some of the other reputed colleges for higher education in this region. S.C.D Government College for Boys is named after Satish Chander Dhawan - a renowned Space Scientist, who like many of his disillusioned compatriots migrated to the USA, and had a long & illustrious career at MIT, Massachusetts. Other famous people from Ludhiana include the well-loved poet Sahir Ludhianvi, the renowned Punjabi literaturer Dr Vidya Bhaskar Arun, economists M S Gill and SS Johl, union HRD minister Kapil Sibbal, the retired police chief KPS Gill, and film-director David Dhawan. Late Sardar Sahib Sardar Amar Singh Thandi Amar Villa civil lines Ludhiana ( Minister Mandi Skait 1920s).

Ludhiana also has one law school, The University Institute of Laws. Ludhiana is also home to some of the region's best medical institutions like the Christian Medical College Ludhiana, Dayanand Medical College & Hospital. DMCH with a dedicated ancillary for cardiology is counted among the best hospitals in the region along with the more famous Apollo Hospital.

Ludhiana two Homoeopathic Medical Colleges, Lord Mahavira HMC and H and the other one Sri Guru Nanak Dev HMC and H. Both colleges produce Bachelors in Homoeopathic medicine. It has one physiotherapy college, All Saints Medical College.

Ludhiana also has a very sound primary education system with a couple of notable primary and government schools imparting quality education. Ludhiana also takes pride of having the Panjab University Extension Library which has a huge collection of Books, Periodicals, Journals and Newspapers for the enthusiasts.

Ludhiana is also becoming a IT Hub, there are several IT institute that provide professional computer education. Students from nearby districts came to Ludhiana. One can get education in each & every subject on computer stream here. Mainly Programming in all major languages, Graphic Designing, Web Designing, Hardware & Networking, Animation, Audio Video Editing. Ludhiana has also many examination center for all major IT certifications like Microsoft, CISCO, Linux etc.

Transport

Ludhiana is well connected by air and rail as it is on main Delhi-Amritsar route and is an important railway junction with lines going to Jalandhar, Ferozepur, Dhuri and Delhi . The city is very well connected with daily or weekly trains to most places in India including the major cities of Jammu, Amritsar, Jalandhar, Mukerian, Pathankot, Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. For administrative reasons the station is under Ferozepur Railway Division.There is also a proposal to construct a railway line between Ludhiana and Chandigarh. The government has even passed a dedicated freight track between Ludhiana and Kolkata.

Airport

Ludhiana is connected by air with Delhi. Air India and Kingfisher flies daily between New Delhi and Ludhiana Airport.[9] The government is looking at purchasing another 500 acres (2.0 km2) of land to construct the new international airport.[citation needed]. Ludhiana's status as a large industrial hub is cited as a reason for another international airport in Punjab after Amritsar.

Moving inside the city is done mostly by mini-buses, auto-rickshaws, and pedal rickshaws, loosely licensed by the Municipal Corporation.

Ludhiana Metro

The government has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Delhi for construction of a Ludhiana Metro.This light transit system will serve about 25 years to Ludhiana. There will be two corridors in Ludhiana Metro.

Ludhiana is also known as "Merc City"

Shopping

west end mall,Ludhiana
Majestic Park plaza,Ludhiana

Ludhiana is regarded as the best city in Punjab for shopping. There are about 20 malls in Ludhiana. During weekends, thousands of footfalls are seen in these malls. Here is the list of some shopping malls in Ludhiana:

  • Ansal Plaza, ferozepur road.
  • West End Mall, Moga Road.
  • Flamez mall, Sarabha Nagar.
  • MBD Neopolis Mall, Raj guru nagar.
  • Gold Soak Grande, Jallandhar bye pass.
  • JMD Mall, Jagraon Bridge.
  • Omaxe Plaza, Feroje Gandhi Market.
  • Elite Arcade, Mall Road.
  • Ansal Bouleward , Mall Road.
  • Kunal Towers, Mall Road.
  • Silver arc,Ferozepur Road.

Beside these malls, there are many markets in Ludhiana. The best of them are Sarabha Nagar Market, Caliber Plaza, Model Town Main Market, Ghumar Mandi & Chaura Bazar.

Restaurants

McDonald,Grand Trunk Road,Ludhiana

With fastest growing population of Ludhiana, the number of Restaurants in Ludhiana is also Increasing. There are Restaurants like McDonald, Pizza Hut, Dominos, KFC, Gigabyte, Subway, Cafe Coffee Day etc . The famous sweet Shops in Ludhiana are Lovely Sweets(dandi swami Road), Bikanerwala,Sartaj bikaneri, Khushi Ram etc. There are various Bars and Pubs in Ludhiana. Ludhiana now is the first city in Punjab to have a restaurant with its own micro-brewery. The Main Market in Sarabha Nagar has many Restrauants.It also has some famous snacks and namkeens shops such as Sartaj bikaneri, Sita rams etc.

Media

Notable people from Ludhiana

References

  • Mahan Kosh, Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha,pp 311.
  • Encyclopaedia Of Sikhism, Prof Harbans Singh vol 2 pp 416
  • The Sikh Ref Book-Dr Harjinder Singh Dilgeer p464 & p196.
  • The Times of India

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ludhiana — Ludhiana …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Ludhiana — Ludhiana, Hauptstadt des gleichnamigen Distrikts der britisch ind. Provinz Pandschab, auf dem hohen Südufer des Satledsch, 13 km vom heutigen Flußbett, an der Bahn Dehli Lahore, Aufenthaltsort des verbannten, von der britischen Regierung… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Ludhiana — Ludhiāna, Distriktsstadt in der brit. ostind. Lieutenantgouverneursch. Pandschab, nahe dem Satladsch, (1901) 48.649 E.; Industrie in Kaschmirschals etc …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Ludhiana — (Ludhiāna) ► C. del NO de la India, en el estado de Punjab; 1 012 062 h. Mercado de granos. Algodón. Ganadería ovina. Ind. textil, metalúrgica, de construcciones mecánicas, química y alimentarias …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Ludhiana —   [lʊdɪ aːnə], Stadt im Bundesstaat Punjab, Nordindien, nahe dem linken Ufer des Sutlej, 1,043 Mio. Einwohner; landwirtschaftliche Universität (gegründet 1962); Textilindustrie (»Manchester Indiens«), ferner Herstellung von Pressen, Nähmaschinen …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Ludhiana — Same as Gabroon …   Dictionary of the English textile terms

  • Ludhiana — [lo͞o΄dē ä′nə] city in central Punjab, NW India: pop. 1,043,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Ludhiana — 30° 55′ N 75° 51′ E / 30.91, 75.85 …   Wikipédia en Français


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