Geography of New York Harbor

[
Upper New York Bay,2. Lower New York Bay,3. Newark Bay, 4. Hudson River, 5. East River, 6. Raritan Bay, 7. Jamaica Bay, 8. Long Island Sound.9. New York Bight (North Atlantic Ocean), 10. Ambrose Channel11. Mud Dump Site12. Hudson CanyonMajor land features, (in capitals)in New York:A. Manhattan,B. Brooklyn,C. Staten Island,D. Queens,E. The Bronx;in New Jersey:F. Bayonne,G. Newark,H. Monmouth County;and at the entrance (in lowercase):i. Rockaway Point, and opposingj. Sandy Hook. Long Island Sound.Ambrose Channel runs from between i and j to
the Narrows between B and C, and Ambrose Light is under the 9.The Anchorage Channel runs from the Narrows to the(This is "".)]

This article provides a brief introduction to both natural and manmade geographic features of New York Harbor from a maritime or aquatic perspective, followed by a catalogue by type of features.The system of waterways surrounding Upper New York Bay forms one of the most intricate natural harbors in the world, a fact that is reflected in the diversity of place names. Although the overall form of the Harbor remains unchanged from the time of Giovanni da Verrazzano, no part of it remains unaffected by human activity, and some parts, such as Hell Gate and Ellis Island have been almost completely altered. In the greatest hidden change, the navigational channels have been deepened from the natural 17 feet depth to 45 feet, in some places requiring blasting of schist, marble or gneiss bedrock.

New York Harbor lies at the confluence of three major bodies of water.The harbor opens onto the "New York Bight (Atlantic Ocean)" to the southeast and "Long Island Sound" to the northeast. Both of these are essentially marine bodies with both tides and saltwater, but the Sound compared to the Atlantic is about 20-30% less saline (as an estuary), and the tide is about 3 hours later with as much as 70% more variation.The "Hudson River" adds a fresher, non-tidal inflow from the north, although the tide and brackishness extend well up river. These three combine to generate an extremely complex system of tides and currents throughout the extended hydrologic system from Albany to Montauk Point to the Hudson Canyon region of the New York Bight. The New York Harbor Observing and Prediction System ( [http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/NYHOPS/ NYHOPS] ) utilizes informationfrom sensors, weather forecasts, and environment models to provide real-time forecasts of meteorological and oceanographic conditions in the area.

The list below includes features of New York City and neighboring New Jersey that are part of the Harbor with a waterborne emphasis starting with natural features. Where possible the list proceeds from Lower Bay entrance approximately clockwise around Harbor. The alternative sorting is by jurisdiction.Official references are the NOAA Coastal pilot [http://nauticalcharts.noaa.gov/nsd/CP2/CP2-35ed-Ch11_2.pdf Chapter 11] , New York Harbor and Approaches, [http://nauticalcharts.noaa.gov/nsd/coastpilot2.htm "Coast Pilot 2"] , 35th Edition, 2006, [http://nauticalcharts.noaa.gov/ Office of Coast Survey] , NOAA. ] , NOAA nautical chartsNOAA nautical charts [http://205.156.4.52/cgi-bin/EyeSpy.dll?launchpad&D:/EyeSpy/images/Online_Chart_Viewer/12327.axs&wsx=650&wsy=500&bgcolor=ffffff&aligX=1&aligY= 12327] "New York Harbor" (1:40,000 scale), [http://205.156.4.52/cgi-bin/EyeSpy.dll?launchpad&D:/EyeSpy/images/Online_Chart_Viewer/12324.axs&wsx=650&wsy=500&bgcolor=ffffff&aligX=1&aligY= 12324] "Sandy Hook to Little Egg", [http://205.156.4.52/cgi-bin/EyeSpy.dll?launchpad&D:/EyeSpy/images/Online_Chart_Viewer/12350.axs&wsx=650&wsy=500&bgcolor=ffffff&aligX=1&aligY= 12350] "Jamaica Bay and Rockaway Inlet", [http://205.156.4.52/cgi-bin/EyeSpy.dll?launchpad&D:/EyeSpy/images/Online_Chart_Viewer/12402.axs&wsx=650&wsy=500&bgcolor=ffffff&aligX=1&aligY= 12402] , [http://205.156.4.52/cgi-bin/EyeSpy.dll?launchpad&D:/EyeSpy/images/Online_Chart_Viewer/12401.axs&wsx=650&wsy=500&bgcolor=ffffff&aligX=1&aligY= 12401] "New York Lower Bay", [http://205.156.4.52/cgi-bin/EyeSpy.dll?launchpad&D:/EyeSpy/images/Online_Chart_Viewer/12331.axs&wsx=650&wsy=500&bgcolor=ffffff&aligX=1&aligY= 12331] "Raritan Bay and southern part of Arthur Kill", [http://205.156.4.52/cgi-bin/EyeSpy.dll?launchpad&D:/EyeSpy/images/Online_Chart_Viewer/12332.axs&wsx=650&wsy=500&bgcolor=ffffff&aligX=1&aligY= 12332] "Raritan River", [http://205.156.4.52/cgi-bin/EyeSpy.dll?launchpad&D:/EyeSpy/images/Online_Chart_Viewer/12333.axs&wsx=650&wsy=500&bgcolor=ffffff&aligX=1&aligY= 12333] "Kill van Kull and northern part of Arthur Kill", [http://205.156.4.52/cgi-bin/EyeSpy.dll?launchpad&D:/EyeSpy/images/Online_Chart_Viewer/12334.axs&wsx=650&wsy=500&bgcolor=ffffff&aligX=1&aligY= 12334] "New York Harbor (Upper Bay and Narrows", [http://205.156.4.52/cgi-bin/EyeSpy.dll?launchpad&D:/EyeSpy/images/Online_Chart_Viewer/12337.axs&wsx=650&wsy=500&bgcolor=ffffff&aligX=1&aligY= 12337] , [http://205.156.4.52/cgi-bin/EyeSpy.dll?launchpad&D:/EyeSpy/images/Online_Chart_Viewer/12335.axs&wsx=650&wsy=500&bgcolor=ffffff&aligX=1&aligY= 12335] , [http://205.156.4.52/cgi-bin/EyeSpy.dll?launchpad&D:/EyeSpy/images/Online_Chart_Viewer/12338.axs&wsx=650&wsy=500&bgcolor=ffffff&aligX=1&aligY= 12338] , [http://205.156.4.52/cgi-bin/EyeSpy.dll?launchpad&D:/EyeSpy/images/Online_Chart_Viewer/12341.axs&wsx=650&wsy=500&bgcolor=ffffff&aligX=1&aligY= 12341] , [http://205.156.4.52/cgi-bin/EyeSpy.dll?launchpad&D:/EyeSpy/images/Online_Chart_Viewer/12339.axs&wsx=650&wsy=500&bgcolor=ffffff&aligX=1&aligY= 12339] , [http://205.156.4.52/cgi-bin/EyeSpy.dll?launchpad&D:/EyeSpy/images/Online_Chart_Viewer/12366.axs&wsx=650&wsy=500&bgcolor=ffffff&aligX=1&aligY= 12366] "Long Island Sound and East River",found on page Nautical charts [http://www.nauticalcharts.gov/viewer/AtlanticCoastTable.htm Atlantic Coast charts online] , Office of Coast Survey,
NOAA.] , and USGS topographic maps.USGS topographic maps, 1:24,000 scale, listed from west to east (in a row), then north to south:
*Yonkers, Mount Vernon, Mamaroneck;
*Orange, Weehawken, Central Park Flushing, Seacliff;
*Elizabeth, Jersey City, Brooklyn, Jamaica, Lynbrook;
*Perth Amboy, Arthur Kill The Narrows, Coney Island, Far Rockaway;
*South Amboy, Keyport, Sandy Hook West, Sandy Hook East.] Many jurisdictional issues appear in U.S. law. [http://uscode.house.gov/pdf/2001/2001usc33.pdf Title 33.Navigation And Navigable Waters] USC. See Section 59.]

Rivers and streams

Islands

New Jersey

*Robbins Reef
*Plum Island, Sandy Hook Bay
*Ellis IslandAll of the landfill portion of Ellis Island beyond its 1834 waterfront is in Hudson, County, NJ. All water surrounding Liberty and Ellis Islands is in Hudson County.]

New York

Port facilities

One of the many duties of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey is to develop trade interests in the New York-New Jersey area. The PA operates most of the containerized port facilities listed here, and also collaborates with the Army Corps of Engineers to maintain shipping channels in the harbor.

New Jersey numerous privately operated bulk facilities, especially petroleum, not listed
* [http://www.panynj.gov/DoingBusinessWith/seaport/html/global_marine_terminal.html Global Marine Terminal] , Jersey City— privately operated
* [http://www.panynj.gov/DoingBusinessWith/seaport/html/auto_marine.html Auto Marine Terminal] , Bayonne and Jersey City— Port Authority
*Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal,Newark and Elizabeth— Port Authority

New York
*Brooklyn
** [http://www.panynj.gov/DoingBusinessWith/seaport/html/red_hook_container.html Red Hook Container Terminal] — Port Authority
**South Brooklyn Marine Terminal— City of New York

*Staten Island
**Howland Hook Marine Terminal— Port Authority

Lights and lighthouses

For lists see [http://www.cr.nps.gov/MARITIME/light/nj.htm of Historic Light Stations New Jersey Lighthouses] and [http://www.cr.nps.gov/MARITIME/light/ny.htm Inventory of Historic Light Stations New York Lighthouses] NPS lists.] and [http://www.lighthousefriends.com/pull-state.asp?state=NJ New York Lighthouses] and [http://www.lighthousefriends.com/pull-state.asp?state=NY New York Lighthouses] Lighthouse Friends 2001-2005.] .Active unless noted.New Jersey
*Sandy Hook Lighthouse
*Conover Beacon (Chapel Hill Front Range)
*Romer Shoal Light
*Great Beds Light
*West Bank Light (Range Front)
* Old Orchard Shoal Light
*Robbins Reef LightNew York
*Ambrose Light
*Coney Island Light (Nortons Point)
*Statue of Liberty (discontinued 1902)
*Ambrose Lightship(to Scotland Station, NJ, 1933; decommissioned 1968)
*Prince's Bay Light (decommissioned 1922)
*New Dorp Light (Swash Channel Range Rear, decommissioned 1964)
*Staten Island Range Lighthouse
*Fort Wadsworth Light(decommissioned 1965)
*Jeffreys Hook Light
*Blackwell Island Lighthouse (decommissioned 1934)
*Throgs Neck Light
*Kings Point Light
*Execution Rocks Lighthouse
*Stepping Stones Light

Waterfront jurisdictions

*New Jersey
**Monmouth County
***Waterwitch Highlands
***Atlantic Highlands
***Leonardo
***Belford
***Port Monmouth
***Keansburg
***Port Comfort
***Union Beach
***Keyport
**Middlesex County
***Laurence Harbor
***Morgan
***South Amboy
***Perth Amboy
***Sewaren
***Port Reading
***Chrome
***Carteret
**Union County
***Tremley Point
***Grasselli
***Linden
***Elizabeth
****Elizabethport
**Essex County
***Newark
**Hudson County
***Bayonne
****Port Johnson
***Liberty State Park
***Jersey City
***Hoboken
***Weehawken
***Union City
***West New York
***North Bergen
*New York
**New York City
***Manhattan, New York CountyBoundaries extend to mid-Hudson on the west, into the Upper Harbor south of Governors Island, to the far pierhead line of the East River, Harlem River and Spuyten Duyvil. The exceptions are the additional areas of Marble Hill section included north of the Harlem River (bounded approximately by Johnson Avenue, West 230 Street) and Liberty and Ellis Islands to their original 1834 waterfront.River ]
***Brooklyn, Kings County
****Floyd Bennett Field
****Manhattan Beach
****Brighton Beach
****Coney Island
****Gravesend
****Bensonhurst
****Fort Hamilton
****Bath Beach
****Bay Ridge
****Red Hook
****South Brooklyn
****Brooklyn Heights
***Queens, Queens County
***:Lower Bay
****Far Rockaway
****Rockaway Point
****Breezy Point
***:East River
****Flushing
****Willets Point
****La Guardia Airport
***The Bronx, Bronx County
****City Island
***Staten Island, Richmond County
****Port Richmond
****Elm Park
****Mariners Harbor
****West New Brighton
****Sailors Snug Harbor
****New Brighton
****Tottenville
****Charleston
****Port Socony
****Travis
****Chelsea
****St. George
****Tompkinsville

Notes

ee also

New York Harbor.


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