ADHM construction

The ADHM construction or monad construction is the construction of all instantons using method of linear algebra by Michael Atiyah, Vladimir G. Drinfel'd, Nigel. J. Hitchin, Yuri I. Manin in their paper Construction of Instantons.
Contents
ADHM data
The ADHM construction uses the following data:
 complex vector spaces V and W of dimension k and N,
 k × k complex matrices B_{1}, B_{2}, a k × N complex matrix I and a N × k complex matrix J,
 a real moment map ,
 a complex moment map .
Then ADHM construction claims that, given certain regularity conditions,
 Given B_{1}, B_{2}, I, J such that μ_{r} = μ_{c} = 0, an AntiSelfDual instanton in a SU(N) gauge theory with instanton number k can be constructed,
 All AntiSelfDual instantons can be obtained in this way and are in onetoone correspondence with solutions up to a U(k) rotation which acts on each B in the adjoint representation and on I and J via the fundamental and antifundamental representations
 The metric on the moduli space of instantons is that inherited from the flat metric on B, I and J.
Generalizations
Noncommutative instantons
In a noncommutative gauge theory, the ADHM construction is identical but the moment map is set equal to the selfdual projection of the noncommutativity matrix of the spacetime times the identity matrix. In this case instantons exist even when the gauge group is U(1). The noncommutative instantons were discovered by Nikita Nekrasov and Albert Schwarz in 1998.
Vortices
Setting B_{2} and J to zero, one obtains the classical moduli space of nonabelian vortices in a supersymmetric gauge theory with an equal number of colors and flavors, as was demonstrated in Vortices, instantons and branes. The generalization to greater numbers of flavors appeared in Solitons in the Higgs phase: The Moduli matrix approach. In both cases the FayetIliopoulos term, which determines a squark condensate, plays the role of the noncommutativity parameter in the real moment map.
The construction formula
Let x be the 4dimensional Euclidean spacetime coordinates written in quaternionic notation .
Consider the 2k × (N+2k) matrix
 .
Then the conditions are equivalent to the factorization condition
 where f(x) is a k × k hermitian matrix.
Then a hermitian projection operator P can be constructed as
 .
The nullspace of Δ(x) is of N dimension for generic x. The basis vector for this nullspace can be assembled into an (N+2k) × N matrix U(x) with orthonormalization condition U^{†}U=1.
A regularity condition on the rank of Δ guaranteed the completeness condition
The antiselfdual connection is then constructed from U by the formula
 .
References
 Construction of Instantons, Michael Atiyah, Vladimir G. Drinfel'd, Nigel. J. Hitchin, Yuri I. Manin, Phys. Lett. A65 (1978) 185187
 Instantons in Gauge Theory by M. Shifman.
 On the Construction of Monopoles
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